Therapists in Seattle, WA

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Photo of Jamie Welch, PhD, Psychologist
Jamie Welch
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98125  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Updated 2/19/24: My clients have come to me experiencing stress, anxiety, depression, and many other presenting concerns. In therapy I strive to understand and clarify my clients' goals and help them work toward building insight around their concerns. You don't have to know exactly what your goals might be, and during our work you can always add or change goals. This is your treatment and my hope is that you take an active role in determining the direction and depth of the work that we do together. My hope is that we can end every session feeling that we have made progress.
Updated 2/19/24: My clients have come to me experiencing stress, anxiety, depression, and many other presenting concerns. In therapy I strive to understand and clarify my clients' goals and help them work toward building insight around their concerns. You don't have to know exactly what your goals might be, and during our work you can always add or change goals. This is your treatment and my hope is that you take an active role in determining the direction and depth of the work that we do together. My hope is that we can end every session feeling that we have made progress.
(206) 589-1101 View (206) 589-1101
Photo of Julie Hendrickson, MA, LMHC, FIPA, Counselor
Julie Hendrickson
Counselor, MA, LMHC, FIPA
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98112
Not accepting new clients
It you're reading this then you're taking the first step to getting help with how you're living your life. I find that most people who seek therapy are struggling with some pain or conflict they cannot overcome with the skills and support currently present in their lives. Talking to a trained professional about your troubles can bring relief and help you to make changes. I work with individuals and couples to help them overcome obstacles in their lives such as unrealized potential, feelings of being overwhelmed or hopeless, relationship troubles, constant stress, and self-destructive behaviors.
It you're reading this then you're taking the first step to getting help with how you're living your life. I find that most people who seek therapy are struggling with some pain or conflict they cannot overcome with the skills and support currently present in their lives. Talking to a trained professional about your troubles can bring relief and help you to make changes. I work with individuals and couples to help them overcome obstacles in their lives such as unrealized potential, feelings of being overwhelmed or hopeless, relationship troubles, constant stress, and self-destructive behaviors.
(206) 922-8269 View (206) 922-8269
Photo of Oleg Solovey, MA, LMHCA, Counselor
Oleg Solovey
Counselor, MA, LMHCA
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98188
We aim to create an environment which allows clients to become aware of their inner strengths. We focus on listening and aim to provide psychological tools to deal with challenges individuals face. Additionally, we emphasize the therapeutic relationship and use the therapeutic relationship to help clients reach their goals.
We aim to create an environment which allows clients to become aware of their inner strengths. We focus on listening and aim to provide psychological tools to deal with challenges individuals face. Additionally, we emphasize the therapeutic relationship and use the therapeutic relationship to help clients reach their goals.
(206) 800-8677 View (206) 800-8677
Photo of Kelly Thoma, LSWAIC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kelly Thoma
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSWAIC
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98105
I work with people in an authentic and collaborative way, where we first build a safe environment so that you can feel open to exploring what you want to talk about at your own pace. I believe in relationally focused therapy, using the relationship between us to look into patterns, difficulties, wants, and goals in life. I believe therapy can help us find meaning, connection, and alignment with our own values. Whether it be your upbringing, life transitions, relationships, or understanding your feelings better, therapy can help you navigate these topics and live in a way that feels more integrated.
I work with people in an authentic and collaborative way, where we first build a safe environment so that you can feel open to exploring what you want to talk about at your own pace. I believe in relationally focused therapy, using the relationship between us to look into patterns, difficulties, wants, and goals in life. I believe therapy can help us find meaning, connection, and alignment with our own values. Whether it be your upbringing, life transitions, relationships, or understanding your feelings better, therapy can help you navigate these topics and live in a way that feels more integrated.
(206) 210-3602 View (206) 210-3602
Photo of Audrey Lipps, LMHC, NCC, Counselor
Audrey Lipps
Counselor, LMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98166  (Online Only)
You’re here for a reason. It might be struggles with anxiety or depression. Or maybe you are having a hard time in a relationship or a life transition. Perhaps it’s grief or low self-esteem. Whatever your challenges, my goal is to help you to heal and find a way forward.
You’re here for a reason. It might be struggles with anxiety or depression. Or maybe you are having a hard time in a relationship or a life transition. Perhaps it’s grief or low self-esteem. Whatever your challenges, my goal is to help you to heal and find a way forward.
(206) 210-3594 View (206) 210-3594
Photo of Kelsey Laulainen, MA, LMHC, Counselor
Kelsey Laulainen
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98121  (Online Only)
Did you grow up in a high-control religion or strict church community that made you feel ashamed, powerless, or small? Maybe you have anxiety or depression, struggle with "mom guilt", or had a traumatic childhood that impacts your relationship with your partner or spouse. I know how you feel and I can help. Finding a therapist is hard! If you want to explore healing in a safe and gentle therapeutic space, I would love to help. I work with women and non-binary individuals to help them find peace, confidence, and calm.
Did you grow up in a high-control religion or strict church community that made you feel ashamed, powerless, or small? Maybe you have anxiety or depression, struggle with "mom guilt", or had a traumatic childhood that impacts your relationship with your partner or spouse. I know how you feel and I can help. Finding a therapist is hard! If you want to explore healing in a safe and gentle therapeutic space, I would love to help. I work with women and non-binary individuals to help them find peace, confidence, and calm.
(206) 208-8272 View (206) 208-8272
Photo of Carla L. Buck, MA, LMHC, Counselor
Carla L. Buck
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
9 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98168  (Online Only)
Limited sessions available - Specializing in working alongside high achievers in fast-paced industries including tech, law and the medical field. You likely feel burned out and overwhelmed by the relentless demands you're up against at work and in your personal life. If you find yourself constantly placing high expectations on yourself and feeling the weight of heavy self and external pressures; I get you. I specialize in working with high achievers just like you who have no space to recover mentally or physically, and who feel exhausted and inefficient in many areas of life.
Limited sessions available - Specializing in working alongside high achievers in fast-paced industries including tech, law and the medical field. You likely feel burned out and overwhelmed by the relentless demands you're up against at work and in your personal life. If you find yourself constantly placing high expectations on yourself and feeling the weight of heavy self and external pressures; I get you. I specialize in working with high achievers just like you who have no space to recover mentally or physically, and who feel exhausted and inefficient in many areas of life.
(206) 203-4851 View (206) 203-4851
Photo of Chance Boley, MA, LMHC, Counselor
Chance Boley
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98104
I work with people dealing with emotional problems that manifest as depression, anxiety, relationship issues, and trauma. The encounters with emotions seem powerful, overwhelming, and mysterious. They may feel so powerful, that you push away, stuff down, use substances, or even allow the emotions to direct your actions and thoughts. It can feel confusing of how you can build strength to overcome emotional wounds. How do you make sense of what doesn’t always make sense? Exploring your emotions with a therapist can be healing and encouraging.
I work with people dealing with emotional problems that manifest as depression, anxiety, relationship issues, and trauma. The encounters with emotions seem powerful, overwhelming, and mysterious. They may feel so powerful, that you push away, stuff down, use substances, or even allow the emotions to direct your actions and thoughts. It can feel confusing of how you can build strength to overcome emotional wounds. How do you make sense of what doesn’t always make sense? Exploring your emotions with a therapist can be healing and encouraging.
(206) 800-0387 View (206) 800-0387
Photo of Zack Barnett-Kern, LICSWA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Zack Barnett-Kern
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSWA
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98116  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
We all deserve a space where we can feel heard and understood. I am a transman and queer-identifying therapist who is passionate about providing support to adults and adolescents (aged 13+) as they work to achieve their mental health goals. I believe that cooperation and collaboration between a therapist and their clients can result in positive progress. I also believe in cultivating an environment free of judgment and one built on the foundation of mutual respect that we all deserve. Whether it's developing coping skills for the present and future, or unpacking stressors from the past, I am here to support you.
We all deserve a space where we can feel heard and understood. I am a transman and queer-identifying therapist who is passionate about providing support to adults and adolescents (aged 13+) as they work to achieve their mental health goals. I believe that cooperation and collaboration between a therapist and their clients can result in positive progress. I also believe in cultivating an environment free of judgment and one built on the foundation of mutual respect that we all deserve. Whether it's developing coping skills for the present and future, or unpacking stressors from the past, I am here to support you.
(206) 203-3487 View (206) 203-3487
Photo of Mike Krepick, MSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mike Krepick
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98121
I counsel people who strive to excel and do good in the world. They often start therapy during transitions, needing to recalibrate old ways of thinking and acting to feel and function better. Some work in stressful careers and struggle with mood, motivation, attention, and work-life balance. Some experience social anxiety, avoidance, isolation, conflict, or depression. Some suffer with intrusive thoughts, avoidance, “stuck” thoughts, and distress associated with trauma. Some express systemic, existential, and spiritual concerns for the world. Some are young-adult or middle-aged men striving to adapt and grow through life’s stages.
I counsel people who strive to excel and do good in the world. They often start therapy during transitions, needing to recalibrate old ways of thinking and acting to feel and function better. Some work in stressful careers and struggle with mood, motivation, attention, and work-life balance. Some experience social anxiety, avoidance, isolation, conflict, or depression. Some suffer with intrusive thoughts, avoidance, “stuck” thoughts, and distress associated with trauma. Some express systemic, existential, and spiritual concerns for the world. Some are young-adult or middle-aged men striving to adapt and grow through life’s stages.
(206) 339-7830 View (206) 339-7830
Photo of Jamie Haffner, LMFT, LMHC, Counselor
Jamie Haffner
Counselor, LMFT, LMHC
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98136
I welcome both individuals and couples seeking support for anxiety, depression, grief, life transitions, relationship struggles, and stress related to parenting or caregiving. I also work with health care providers and anyone in a caregiving profession to process burnout, fatigue, and secondary trauma.
I welcome both individuals and couples seeking support for anxiety, depression, grief, life transitions, relationship struggles, and stress related to parenting or caregiving. I also work with health care providers and anyone in a caregiving profession to process burnout, fatigue, and secondary trauma.
(206) 984-2912 View (206) 984-2912
Photo of Haley Boscolo, Marriage & Family Therapist Intern
Haley Boscolo
Marriage & Family Therapist Intern
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98119
Currently only accepting new couples. Conflict in interpersonal relationships is one of the most difficult challenges we may face. If you are looking to overcome a communication rut and get back on the same team with your partner, I am here to help! I can help you rekindle your connection and see a future again. I want you to feel safe to openly explore your challenges as we collaborate on a plan toward change.
Currently only accepting new couples. Conflict in interpersonal relationships is one of the most difficult challenges we may face. If you are looking to overcome a communication rut and get back on the same team with your partner, I am here to help! I can help you rekindle your connection and see a future again. I want you to feel safe to openly explore your challenges as we collaborate on a plan toward change.
(206) 312-4936 View (206) 312-4936
Photo of Carla Ann Kleefeld, PhD, LPCC, LMHC
Carla Ann Kleefeld
Licensed Mental Health Counselor, PhD, LPCC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98119  (Online Only)
I am a warm and engaged therapist and bring a deep curiosity and playfulness as well as deep listening and feeling to our process. I have over 30 years of training and experience in the field of clinical and depth psychology. Whether you are an individual or couple, struggling with communication issues or reevaluating your relationship needs and history, I bring an engaged and informed perspective to our work together. I am extensively trained in early attachment, relational trauma, sexuality and intimacy and bring a compassionate collaborative presence to the therapeutic process.
I am a warm and engaged therapist and bring a deep curiosity and playfulness as well as deep listening and feeling to our process. I have over 30 years of training and experience in the field of clinical and depth psychology. Whether you are an individual or couple, struggling with communication issues or reevaluating your relationship needs and history, I bring an engaged and informed perspective to our work together. I am extensively trained in early attachment, relational trauma, sexuality and intimacy and bring a compassionate collaborative presence to the therapeutic process.
(505) 257-6309 View (505) 257-6309
Photo of Alisha Le Beau, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Alisha Le Beau
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
10 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98105  (Online Only)
Currently Accepting New Clients. Email is the best way to contact me regarding scheduling or questions. My priority as a therapist is to create a warm, non-judgmental environment for clients to process their emotions, relationships, and experiences. My hope is to create a safe space for you to explore and identify your needs for the therapeutic relationship so that we can create the most effective experience for you. I recognize that each client is unique and therefore approach my work using a client-centered, strengths-based model to personalize treatment based on each individual’s needs and goals.
Currently Accepting New Clients. Email is the best way to contact me regarding scheduling or questions. My priority as a therapist is to create a warm, non-judgmental environment for clients to process their emotions, relationships, and experiences. My hope is to create a safe space for you to explore and identify your needs for the therapeutic relationship so that we can create the most effective experience for you. I recognize that each client is unique and therefore approach my work using a client-centered, strengths-based model to personalize treatment based on each individual’s needs and goals.
(206) 208-6918 View (206) 208-6918
Photo of Jade Sierra Callaghan, Counselor
Jade Sierra Callaghan
Counselor
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98115  (Online Only)
Acceptance might be the first step to change, but change is hard. I aim to create a supportive, holistic, empowering, and safe setting to process and understand what is specifically challenging for you. Often, my clients feel like they “don’t belong,” stuck in unwanted behaviors or looking to understand themselves better. I believe by attuning compassionately to our bodies and minds, as well as each other, we can sense what needs to change and heal. Also, I consider myself a very real person in the therapy space, which often includes understanding, laughter, radical acceptance, forgiveness, and open and honest communication.
Acceptance might be the first step to change, but change is hard. I aim to create a supportive, holistic, empowering, and safe setting to process and understand what is specifically challenging for you. Often, my clients feel like they “don’t belong,” stuck in unwanted behaviors or looking to understand themselves better. I believe by attuning compassionately to our bodies and minds, as well as each other, we can sense what needs to change and heal. Also, I consider myself a very real person in the therapy space, which often includes understanding, laughter, radical acceptance, forgiveness, and open and honest communication.
(425) 842-3884 View (425) 842-3884
Photo of Genelle Benker (Owner Of: Embodied Psychology), PsyD, RYT, Psychologist
Genelle Benker (Owner Of: Embodied Psychology)
Psychologist, PsyD, RYT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98115
I am a doctor of clinical psychology who specializes in the treatment of PTSD, Mood Disorders, and in particular Bipolar Disorder. I also treat moral pain, or the distress felt when one's actions or circumstances are not aligned with one's values. While I provide a warm and safe therapeutic environment, I am also confrontational when needed. Driven by an appreciation for seeing people step into their full potential, I am unique in my integrative embodied approach. Augmenting gold standard methods like EMDR and IPT, I draw upon my extensive education in Yoga and Alternative Medicine. Expect to do more than talk therapy!
I am a doctor of clinical psychology who specializes in the treatment of PTSD, Mood Disorders, and in particular Bipolar Disorder. I also treat moral pain, or the distress felt when one's actions or circumstances are not aligned with one's values. While I provide a warm and safe therapeutic environment, I am also confrontational when needed. Driven by an appreciation for seeing people step into their full potential, I am unique in my integrative embodied approach. Augmenting gold standard methods like EMDR and IPT, I draw upon my extensive education in Yoga and Alternative Medicine. Expect to do more than talk therapy!
(206) 207-7736 View (206) 207-7736
Photo of Jennifer Petty, LMHC, MA, Counselor
Jennifer Petty
Counselor, LMHC, MA
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98109  (Online Only)
I specialize in helping people facing uncertain futures. "What is it you plan to do with your one wild and precious life," asks my favorite poet Mary Oliver. This is the heart of my work. I offer therapy for adults seeking support for anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, relationship issues, stress reduction, and emotional regulation. My clients are high-achieving but feel as if something is missing. Together we build purpose, confidence, and intention through skill-building and meaning-making.
I specialize in helping people facing uncertain futures. "What is it you plan to do with your one wild and precious life," asks my favorite poet Mary Oliver. This is the heart of my work. I offer therapy for adults seeking support for anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, relationship issues, stress reduction, and emotional regulation. My clients are high-achieving but feel as if something is missing. Together we build purpose, confidence, and intention through skill-building and meaning-making.
(206) 278-2304 View (206) 278-2304
Photo of Tracy G Bell, MA, LMHC, Counselor
Tracy G Bell
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Seattle, WA 98103
Waitlist for new clients
I work with young, midlife, and elderly adults in all phases of life transition, whose lives have brought them to a place where they want support to work through difficult, stuck, or critical times. What often appears problematic is evidence of a solution trying to happen. I see this as an organic process which can come with disturbance, frustration, over-stimulation and/or depression. What you sometimes can't see by yourself, you can see, navigate, and resolve with the help of another. My approach is to join my clients in their quest for resolution, meaning, and happiness.
I work with young, midlife, and elderly adults in all phases of life transition, whose lives have brought them to a place where they want support to work through difficult, stuck, or critical times. What often appears problematic is evidence of a solution trying to happen. I see this as an organic process which can come with disturbance, frustration, over-stimulation and/or depression. What you sometimes can't see by yourself, you can see, navigate, and resolve with the help of another. My approach is to join my clients in their quest for resolution, meaning, and happiness.
(206) 316-8792 View (206) 316-8792
Photo of Edward O Greeley, LSWAIC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Edward O Greeley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSWAIC
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98122  (Online Only)
I have a telehealth opening, Wed at 6 pm... I am a community-based Social Worker with a passion for providing holistic and person-centered mental health services to those seeking therapy. I meet one on one with clients to discuss personal mental health matters and collective social topics in educational, community, and clinical settings while providing a unique and individualized approach to each client. I seek to provide a safe, judgment-free space for clients to open up and share their concerns and troubles while also celebrating successes and achievements. My communication style is direct and realistic yet measured and tactful.
I have a telehealth opening, Wed at 6 pm... I am a community-based Social Worker with a passion for providing holistic and person-centered mental health services to those seeking therapy. I meet one on one with clients to discuss personal mental health matters and collective social topics in educational, community, and clinical settings while providing a unique and individualized approach to each client. I seek to provide a safe, judgment-free space for clients to open up and share their concerns and troubles while also celebrating successes and achievements. My communication style is direct and realistic yet measured and tactful.
View
Photo of Robert Hirsch - Hirsch Counseling & Consulting, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hirsch Counseling & Consulting
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Seattle, WA 98105
I've over 20 years experience helping couples and individuals with relationship issues, depression, sexual issues, including porn and sex addiction, and stress management. I have a holistic approach, helping clients examine what they do from when they awake to when they go to bed - what is helpful for their growth and well-being and what would be a better way to handle the challenges of their lives. Life is very challenging. It can be a hard school. Give yourself the gift of receiving compassionate, straightforward guidance.
I've over 20 years experience helping couples and individuals with relationship issues, depression, sexual issues, including porn and sex addiction, and stress management. I have a holistic approach, helping clients examine what they do from when they awake to when they go to bed - what is helpful for their growth and well-being and what would be a better way to handle the challenges of their lives. Life is very challenging. It can be a hard school. Give yourself the gift of receiving compassionate, straightforward guidance.
(844) 938-0994 View (844) 938-0994

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Seattle, WA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Seattle, WA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
86% Depression
79% Relationship Issues
76% Self Esteem
72% Trauma and PTSD
71% Stress
69% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Premera
54% Aetna
48% Regence

How Therapists in Seattle, WA see their clients

51% Online Only
49% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

75% Female
21% Male
4% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Seattle?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.