Therapists in New York, NY

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Photo of Jerrold Surasky, PhD, Psychologist
Jerrold Surasky
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10011
Dr. Jerry Surasky is an experienced, well-trained and gifted psychotherapist. He has been practicing for over 35 years, has a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology and a certificate in Psychoanalysis. His specialty, as he likes to say, is human beings. His style is direct, open and honest. He offers a therapeutic relationship, a safe environment and a flexible approach to facilitate personal growth, symptom reduction and personality change. He is also a talented and nurturing teacher and supervisor.
Dr. Jerry Surasky is an experienced, well-trained and gifted psychotherapist. He has been practicing for over 35 years, has a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology and a certificate in Psychoanalysis. His specialty, as he likes to say, is human beings. His style is direct, open and honest. He offers a therapeutic relationship, a safe environment and a flexible approach to facilitate personal growth, symptom reduction and personality change. He is also a talented and nurturing teacher and supervisor.
(646) 386-2313 View (646) 386-2313
Photo of Kelly Fletcher, LMHC
Kelly Fletcher
LMHC
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10123
Coming to therapy for the first time can be difficult. You have already taken a huge leap by reaching out for help. As a therapist, my job is to provide and facilitate a space where they can listen and learn from themselves. A space that is non-judgemental and authentic, where healing can take place. I am always inspired by my client’s ability to make connections about how their adult self is influenced by their past. Making these connections is what breaks patterns and creates change.
Coming to therapy for the first time can be difficult. You have already taken a huge leap by reaching out for help. As a therapist, my job is to provide and facilitate a space where they can listen and learn from themselves. A space that is non-judgemental and authentic, where healing can take place. I am always inspired by my client’s ability to make connections about how their adult self is influenced by their past. Making these connections is what breaks patterns and creates change.
(646) 576-7147 View (646) 576-7147
Photo of Dr. Gillian O'Shea Brown, MA, LCSW, DSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Dr. Gillian O'Shea Brown
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW, DSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10010
*Email only to join waitlist* You are more than your symptoms, you are a person who is seeking fulfilment. I am a psychotherapist, complex trauma specialist and Certified EMDR practitioner. I strive to provide clients with the best possible therapeutic care through understanding each person in the context of their own unique culture, values and life experiences. I use multiple integrative healing techniques based on the client's individual needs. My doctoral research at NYU has enriched my understanding of attachment injury acquired through adverse childhood events and the treatment of complex layered trauma in adulthood.
*Email only to join waitlist* You are more than your symptoms, you are a person who is seeking fulfilment. I am a psychotherapist, complex trauma specialist and Certified EMDR practitioner. I strive to provide clients with the best possible therapeutic care through understanding each person in the context of their own unique culture, values and life experiences. I use multiple integrative healing techniques based on the client's individual needs. My doctoral research at NYU has enriched my understanding of attachment injury acquired through adverse childhood events and the treatment of complex layered trauma in adulthood.
(332) 264-1608 View (332) 264-1608
Photo of Dana Dorfman, PhD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Dana Dorfman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10155
I'm a New York City-based psychotherapist with more than twenty-five years of experience treating children, adolescents, adults and their families, and the author of When Worry Works: How to Harness Your Parenting Stress And Guide Your Teen to Success. I'm trained in psychodynamic psychotherapy, play therapy, and cognitive behavioral treatment modalities, and I use a flexible, eclectic and highly individualized approach to my work. With a relatable and "real" style, I assist patients in identifying areas of concern, deepening self awareness, developing and achieving realistic goals for their treatment.
I'm a New York City-based psychotherapist with more than twenty-five years of experience treating children, adolescents, adults and their families, and the author of When Worry Works: How to Harness Your Parenting Stress And Guide Your Teen to Success. I'm trained in psychodynamic psychotherapy, play therapy, and cognitive behavioral treatment modalities, and I use a flexible, eclectic and highly individualized approach to my work. With a relatable and "real" style, I assist patients in identifying areas of concern, deepening self awareness, developing and achieving realistic goals for their treatment.
(646) 791-3867 View (646) 791-3867
Photo of Copley Kemp, LCMHC, Counselor
Copley Kemp
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10033
Hi, I'm Copley I specialize in individual, family and couples counseling. I especially enjoy helping women who seek assistance coping with depression, anxiety and/or struggles with self-worth and relationships. I especially enjoy helping women and others in need of therapeutic support. I am comfortable treating depression, anxiety, anger, self-esteem issues, adjustment and career concerns.
Hi, I'm Copley I specialize in individual, family and couples counseling. I especially enjoy helping women who seek assistance coping with depression, anxiety and/or struggles with self-worth and relationships. I especially enjoy helping women and others in need of therapeutic support. I am comfortable treating depression, anxiety, anger, self-esteem issues, adjustment and career concerns.
(929) 298-7910 View (929) 298-7910
Photo of Ellen Eskenazi, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ellen Eskenazi
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10021
Teens, young adults and their families have been through an incredible amount of stress the past few years - and continue to do so. I specialize in working with high school and college-age students as well as adults struggling with issues that affect them on a daily basis and which might prevent them from moving forward in their lives. This can include anxiety, depression, sadness and poor self-esteem. My work extends to parents seeking guidance in supporting their children with issues such as school refusal, friends, peer pressure and anger. This may include transitions to high school, college or post-college life.
Teens, young adults and their families have been through an incredible amount of stress the past few years - and continue to do so. I specialize in working with high school and college-age students as well as adults struggling with issues that affect them on a daily basis and which might prevent them from moving forward in their lives. This can include anxiety, depression, sadness and poor self-esteem. My work extends to parents seeking guidance in supporting their children with issues such as school refusal, friends, peer pressure and anger. This may include transitions to high school, college or post-college life.
(646) 933-8920 View (646) 933-8920
Photo of Lauren DeMille, PhD, Psychologist
Lauren DeMille
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10024
Therapy can be life-changing, but starting can be difficult and anxiety-provoking. I commend anyone who begins this process. I have worked as a therapist for over 20 years, first as a clinical social worker and now as a psychologist, and feel honored by the chance to help people make greater sense of their lives; manage painful or problematic feelings, thoughts, and behaviors; improve their relationships and ability to do good work; and find sources of vitality.
Therapy can be life-changing, but starting can be difficult and anxiety-provoking. I commend anyone who begins this process. I have worked as a therapist for over 20 years, first as a clinical social worker and now as a psychologist, and feel honored by the chance to help people make greater sense of their lives; manage painful or problematic feelings, thoughts, and behaviors; improve their relationships and ability to do good work; and find sources of vitality.
(646) 846-9724 View (646) 846-9724
Photo of James Polsky, JD, LP, Licensed Psychoanalyst
James Polsky
Licensed Psychoanalyst, JD, LP
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10013
In life, there is no obvious roadmap to finding happiness and satisfaction. The mission of therapy is to explore your inner world so that you can find meaning in the world outside. Our work will be to get you on a path to living a life in which you can be fulfilled and about which you can feel proud. The hardest step to take is the first one into the consulting room, and people often feel tremendous relief when they do. Therapy can be the one place in the world where your issues are front and center, you need not compete with others to be heard, and the only agenda is your self-improvement. If done well, it is life-changing.
In life, there is no obvious roadmap to finding happiness and satisfaction. The mission of therapy is to explore your inner world so that you can find meaning in the world outside. Our work will be to get you on a path to living a life in which you can be fulfilled and about which you can feel proud. The hardest step to take is the first one into the consulting room, and people often feel tremendous relief when they do. Therapy can be the one place in the world where your issues are front and center, you need not compete with others to be heard, and the only agenda is your self-improvement. If done well, it is life-changing.
(646) 760-3570 View (646) 760-3570
Photo of Brooke Bayer, PsyD, MS, Psychologist
Brooke Bayer
Psychologist, PsyD, MS
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10019
I am a clinical neuropsychologist specializing in the completion of psychological, psycho-educational, and neuropsychological evaluations to better understand an individual's strengths/challenges and provide recommendations to allow for future success. I have extensive experience completing assessments with children through young adults struggling with learning and language delays, attention and organizational difficulties, processing weaknesses, developmental disorders, and emotional/psychiatric concerns.
I am a clinical neuropsychologist specializing in the completion of psychological, psycho-educational, and neuropsychological evaluations to better understand an individual's strengths/challenges and provide recommendations to allow for future success. I have extensive experience completing assessments with children through young adults struggling with learning and language delays, attention and organizational difficulties, processing weaknesses, developmental disorders, and emotional/psychiatric concerns.
(646) 681-6197 View (646) 681-6197
Photo of Julia Ayriyan, MHC-LP, Pre-Licensed Professional
Julia Ayriyan
Pre-Licensed Professional, MHC-LP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10028  (Online Only)
In a world inundated with superficial ideals and societal pressures, life often presents us with challenges that can obscure our path to self-discovery and fulfillment. My clients often find themselves toiling with conflicts around relationships, as well as a lack of personal identity that leaves them feeling anxious, depressive, or purposeless; they find themselves stuck, stagnant, and unsure of how to pluck themselves out of despair. By delving into the messiness of the human condition and cultivating the desire to understand yourself, you can begin to create space between the things that rule you.
In a world inundated with superficial ideals and societal pressures, life often presents us with challenges that can obscure our path to self-discovery and fulfillment. My clients often find themselves toiling with conflicts around relationships, as well as a lack of personal identity that leaves them feeling anxious, depressive, or purposeless; they find themselves stuck, stagnant, and unsure of how to pluck themselves out of despair. By delving into the messiness of the human condition and cultivating the desire to understand yourself, you can begin to create space between the things that rule you.
(347) 252-8154 View (347) 252-8154
Photo of Kathryn O'Connell, LCSW, CASAC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kathryn O'Connell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CASAC
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10025
In my practice, I believe that you are the expert of your own life and view therapy as a collaborative process. I provide a supportive and non-judgmental atmosphere where you can discover your authentic self and together we can uncover blocks and discover solutions. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Credentialed Alcohol and Substance Abuse Counselor trained to help people struggling with eating disorders, anxiety, and addiction among other struggles. I have extensive experience working in outpatient as well as inpatient settings with these individuals.
In my practice, I believe that you are the expert of your own life and view therapy as a collaborative process. I provide a supportive and non-judgmental atmosphere where you can discover your authentic self and together we can uncover blocks and discover solutions. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Credentialed Alcohol and Substance Abuse Counselor trained to help people struggling with eating disorders, anxiety, and addiction among other struggles. I have extensive experience working in outpatient as well as inpatient settings with these individuals.
(914) 350-4303 View (914) 350-4303
Photo of David Markowitz, PhD, Psychologist
David Markowitz
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10001
I am a Clinical Psychologist with over 25 years experience in the mental health field. I've been on the faculty of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine for over 15 years, and served as the Director of Training of the medical school's Clinical Psychology Internship program, where I taught and supervised psychotherapy. Over the years, I have practiced a wide range of therapy approaches, and have integrated the methods that have been most effective. I strive to provide guidance, empathy and clear understanding, and bring focus to help clients understand and work through problematic patterns of thinking and feeling.
I am a Clinical Psychologist with over 25 years experience in the mental health field. I've been on the faculty of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine for over 15 years, and served as the Director of Training of the medical school's Clinical Psychology Internship program, where I taught and supervised psychotherapy. Over the years, I have practiced a wide range of therapy approaches, and have integrated the methods that have been most effective. I strive to provide guidance, empathy and clear understanding, and bring focus to help clients understand and work through problematic patterns of thinking and feeling.
(917) 740-1944 View (917) 740-1944
Photo of Xioel Terrero, LMHC, Counselor
Xioel Terrero
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10018  (Online Only)
Xioel Terrero is a bilingual (English/Spanish) licensed mental health counselor. She earned an undergraduate degree from Fordham University and a master’s degree in counseling from Manhattan College. As an immigrant from the Dominican Republic, Xioel has experienced firsthand the challenges that come with life transitions. Her experience acclimating to a new culture instilled the importance of interacting with people in an empathetic, nonjudgmental, and compassionate manner. Xioel’s experience of navigating life in the United States while being labeled “other” led to her becoming a strong advocate for social justice and equity.
Xioel Terrero is a bilingual (English/Spanish) licensed mental health counselor. She earned an undergraduate degree from Fordham University and a master’s degree in counseling from Manhattan College. As an immigrant from the Dominican Republic, Xioel has experienced firsthand the challenges that come with life transitions. Her experience acclimating to a new culture instilled the importance of interacting with people in an empathetic, nonjudgmental, and compassionate manner. Xioel’s experience of navigating life in the United States while being labeled “other” led to her becoming a strong advocate for social justice and equity.
(646) 212-4236 View (646) 212-4236
Photo of Victoria Nanga, MFT, CLC, Pre-Licensed Professional
Victoria Nanga
Pre-Licensed Professional, MFT, CLC
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10019  (Online Only)
I help adults struggling with self-love. Using strategic interventions, our work together will help you develop practical skills, health and wellness routines and address your mental and emotional needs on a fundamental level. Through our work, you will become intentional about your life, set specific goals, and feel empowered. I also help couples who have challenges in areas of communication, lack of trust, and a loss of respect. I offer a unique premarital assessment which reduces divorce by 30%. I also offer Christian and Spiritual Faith Based therapy for those interested.
I help adults struggling with self-love. Using strategic interventions, our work together will help you develop practical skills, health and wellness routines and address your mental and emotional needs on a fundamental level. Through our work, you will become intentional about your life, set specific goals, and feel empowered. I also help couples who have challenges in areas of communication, lack of trust, and a loss of respect. I offer a unique premarital assessment which reduces divorce by 30%. I also offer Christian and Spiritual Faith Based therapy for those interested.
(347) 297-5997 View (347) 297-5997
Photo of Kim Behrman, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kim Behrman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10003
I believe that therapy and self-exploration can be a useful tool for everyone. It can be hard to open up and talk about how you’re feeling. As your therapist, I invite you to a warm and collaborative therapeutic relationship where we work together to help you better understand yourself and your life choices. I believe that a trusting and honest relationship with your therapist is crucial. My goal is to help and support you in identifying your strengths, building new skills and healthy coping strategies related to your specific life challenges, and finding clarity along the way.
I believe that therapy and self-exploration can be a useful tool for everyone. It can be hard to open up and talk about how you’re feeling. As your therapist, I invite you to a warm and collaborative therapeutic relationship where we work together to help you better understand yourself and your life choices. I believe that a trusting and honest relationship with your therapist is crucial. My goal is to help and support you in identifying your strengths, building new skills and healthy coping strategies related to your specific life challenges, and finding clarity along the way.
(646) 394-9709 View (646) 394-9709
Photo of Summer Johnke, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Summer Johnke
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10011  (Online Only)
Summer Johnke, LMSW, graduated with a Masters of Social Work from Columbia University. Summer takes an integrated approach to therapy that draws from evidence-based, cognitive-behavorial modalities. Summer's past clinical experience includes providing counseling in English, Spanish, and French to individuals coming from diverse cultural backgrounds with a focus on treating trauma and PTSD. Summer's approach to therapy is culturally-sensitive, trauma-informed, and strengths-based. This flexible approach places each individual and their unique needs, preferences, identities, and culture at the center of every session.
Summer Johnke, LMSW, graduated with a Masters of Social Work from Columbia University. Summer takes an integrated approach to therapy that draws from evidence-based, cognitive-behavorial modalities. Summer's past clinical experience includes providing counseling in English, Spanish, and French to individuals coming from diverse cultural backgrounds with a focus on treating trauma and PTSD. Summer's approach to therapy is culturally-sensitive, trauma-informed, and strengths-based. This flexible approach places each individual and their unique needs, preferences, identities, and culture at the center of every session.
(347) 970-6950 View (347) 970-6950
Photo of Liat Wruble, LMHC, LPC, Counselor
Liat Wruble
Counselor, LMHC, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10001  (Online Only)
If you feel lost or have found yourself on a new journey, therapy can help you navigate your life's roadmap. Throughout the therapy process, you can expect to gain insight into yourself and the issues you face, develop healthier coping strategies, and access your innate ability to heal. There is no time like the present to invest in yourself and establish a better foothold on the person you want to be. By reaching out to begin therapy, you are one step closer to a life that is more balanced, fulfilling, and meaningful.
If you feel lost or have found yourself on a new journey, therapy can help you navigate your life's roadmap. Throughout the therapy process, you can expect to gain insight into yourself and the issues you face, develop healthier coping strategies, and access your innate ability to heal. There is no time like the present to invest in yourself and establish a better foothold on the person you want to be. By reaching out to begin therapy, you are one step closer to a life that is more balanced, fulfilling, and meaningful.
(347) 657-3766 View (347) 657-3766
Photo of Anja Behm-Soholt, LCSW, MA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Anja Behm-Soholt
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MA
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10010
Waitlist for new clients
If you recently ended a relationship, changed or lost a job, moved or went through any other significant life changes, you may find yourself having a hard time adjusting to the new situation. You may feel disoriented, anxious, or hopeless. I specialize in helping people with life transitions.
If you recently ended a relationship, changed or lost a job, moved or went through any other significant life changes, you may find yourself having a hard time adjusting to the new situation. You may feel disoriented, anxious, or hopeless. I specialize in helping people with life transitions.
(646) 600-9104 View (646) 600-9104
Photo of Gladys Lai, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gladys Lai
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10003  (Online Only)
Feeling stuck, overwhelmed or unmotivated in relationships, career, or life in general are reasons many seek psychotherapy. I honor the courage it takes to reach out for support. I work collaboratively and compassionately to create a safe environment in which we can learn to understand how you came to be who and where you are now. Talking about and exploring your unique individual history, mental processes, feelings, interpersonal patterns and possible trauma can lead to clearer understanding and insights which can be transformative. You will learn to develop ways of coping which will lead to long-lasting positive change.
Feeling stuck, overwhelmed or unmotivated in relationships, career, or life in general are reasons many seek psychotherapy. I honor the courage it takes to reach out for support. I work collaboratively and compassionately to create a safe environment in which we can learn to understand how you came to be who and where you are now. Talking about and exploring your unique individual history, mental processes, feelings, interpersonal patterns and possible trauma can lead to clearer understanding and insights which can be transformative. You will learn to develop ways of coping which will lead to long-lasting positive change.
(646) 736-4324 View (646) 736-4324
Photo of Corinne Schlam, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Corinne Schlam
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10024  (Online Only)
If you are reading this, you may be interested in improving your relationships, self understanding, career enhancement, ability to cope with feelings, and identifying patterns that are preventing you from succeeding. I'm a compassionate therapist, an excellent listener, with a non-judgmental manner. I have extensive experience with individuals. I offer a safe environment to explore and resolve your issues. My approach is individualized, flexible, and creative, according to your needs. This provides support and understanding that facilitate the process of discussing thoughts and feelings.
If you are reading this, you may be interested in improving your relationships, self understanding, career enhancement, ability to cope with feelings, and identifying patterns that are preventing you from succeeding. I'm a compassionate therapist, an excellent listener, with a non-judgmental manner. I have extensive experience with individuals. I offer a safe environment to explore and resolve your issues. My approach is individualized, flexible, and creative, according to your needs. This provides support and understanding that facilitate the process of discussing thoughts and feelings.
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in New York, NY

3,000+

Average cost per session

$200

Therapists in New York, NY who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
89% Depression
84% Relationship Issues
78% Self Esteem
67% Trauma and PTSD
66% Stress
64% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% Aetna
61% Cigna and Evernorth
61% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in New York, NY see their clients

58% In Person and Online
42% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
21% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in New York?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.