Therapists in New York, NY

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Photo of Sara Aharon, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sara Aharon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10016
Creating a safe, warm, and collaborative environment is important to me in building meaningful and supportive relationships with my clients. Everyone, I believe, deserves a fulfilling life, and sometimes life can be overwhelming. My therapeutic approach is to help you identify your patterns, new insights, coping skills, and your strengths. Working together, you can look forward to a better understanding of yourself and your relationships. I am committed to helping people access a deeper and re-energized connection with themselves, with others, and with the world around them. I'm dually licensed in NY & NJ.
Creating a safe, warm, and collaborative environment is important to me in building meaningful and supportive relationships with my clients. Everyone, I believe, deserves a fulfilling life, and sometimes life can be overwhelming. My therapeutic approach is to help you identify your patterns, new insights, coping skills, and your strengths. Working together, you can look forward to a better understanding of yourself and your relationships. I am committed to helping people access a deeper and re-energized connection with themselves, with others, and with the world around them. I'm dually licensed in NY & NJ.
(845) 442-6932 View (845) 442-6932
Photo of Tianyu Zhang
Tianyu Zhang
Licensed Master Social Worker
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10010  (Online Only)
It’s natural to sometimes feel helpless when encountering tough situations; it can happen to anyone. There’s no shame in feeling afraid, hopeless, or desperate. While others may try to downplay your feelings, I, as your therapist, will not. Such feelings deserve to be addressed in a respectful and healthy way. My job is to guide you towards authenticity as you learn to feel empowered as a your true self.
It’s natural to sometimes feel helpless when encountering tough situations; it can happen to anyone. There’s no shame in feeling afraid, hopeless, or desperate. While others may try to downplay your feelings, I, as your therapist, will not. Such feelings deserve to be addressed in a respectful and healthy way. My job is to guide you towards authenticity as you learn to feel empowered as a your true self.
(332) 239-2404 View (332) 239-2404
Photo of Barbara Willinger, LCSW, BCD, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Barbara Willinger
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10024
Highly experienced and knowledgeable therapist working with an interactive approach to clearly identify the obstacles holding you back and support the breakthroughs to your goals. Using a collaborative, psycho-dynamic framework that is focused on your specific needs, discovery of greater emotional stability and well-being is within reach. I provide empathy and deep understanding around circumstances relating to a broad spectrum of personal challenges including relationship issues, work-related challenges, loss of a loved one or dealing with the natural process of aging.
Highly experienced and knowledgeable therapist working with an interactive approach to clearly identify the obstacles holding you back and support the breakthroughs to your goals. Using a collaborative, psycho-dynamic framework that is focused on your specific needs, discovery of greater emotional stability and well-being is within reach. I provide empathy and deep understanding around circumstances relating to a broad spectrum of personal challenges including relationship issues, work-related challenges, loss of a loved one or dealing with the natural process of aging.
(646) 259-3623 View (646) 259-3623
Photo of Miriam Kassow, LMSW
Miriam Kassow
Licensed Master Social Worker, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10001  (Online Only)
Miriam Kassow strives to be empathetic, warm and compassionate in her therapeutic relationships, and aims to foster safe spaces for clients to explore themselves with compassion and curiosity. Her therapeutic approach is eclectic in style, drawing on various modalities including psychodynamic therapy, attachment-based therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and Motivational Interviewing techniques. Miriam works with those experiencing anxiety and mood disorders, body-focused repetitive behaviors (including hair pulling and skin picking), and lasting effects of traumatic experiences.
Miriam Kassow strives to be empathetic, warm and compassionate in her therapeutic relationships, and aims to foster safe spaces for clients to explore themselves with compassion and curiosity. Her therapeutic approach is eclectic in style, drawing on various modalities including psychodynamic therapy, attachment-based therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and Motivational Interviewing techniques. Miriam works with those experiencing anxiety and mood disorders, body-focused repetitive behaviors (including hair pulling and skin picking), and lasting effects of traumatic experiences.
(332) 241-5141 View (332) 241-5141
Photo of Alexis Fernandez Lmft, LMFT, CSAT, CST, Marriage & Family Therapist
Alexis Fernandez Lmft
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, CSAT, CST
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10016  (Online Only)
I am a licensed marriage and family therapist and certified sex therapist working with individuals and couples. My primary focus is sex therapy and sexual/relational problems in men and women in all stages of life. Areas of expertise include sexual dysfunction; arousal, desire, and orgasmic issues; intimacy issues with self and partners; compulsive/hypersexual behavior/sex addiction; love addiction; paraphilias; and treating partners of sex addicts. Please note that I am licensed in both CA & NY.
I am a licensed marriage and family therapist and certified sex therapist working with individuals and couples. My primary focus is sex therapy and sexual/relational problems in men and women in all stages of life. Areas of expertise include sexual dysfunction; arousal, desire, and orgasmic issues; intimacy issues with self and partners; compulsive/hypersexual behavior/sex addiction; love addiction; paraphilias; and treating partners of sex addicts. Please note that I am licensed in both CA & NY.
(646) 681-2394 View (646) 681-2394
Photo of Helen Veronica Quinones, PhD, Psychologist
Helen Veronica Quinones
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10023
I am a bilingual (Spanish), licensed, psychologist, psychoanalyst, in practice on the upper west side of Manhattan and the Riverdale section of the Bronx. I teach, supervise and write. After many years of professional experience I have learnt the simple truth that psychological distress is like being tied up in knots. These knots can make us feel " stuck" in patterns that repeat themselves in intimate relationships. In treatment we identify, understand and work out strategies to loosen their hold on you.
I am a bilingual (Spanish), licensed, psychologist, psychoanalyst, in practice on the upper west side of Manhattan and the Riverdale section of the Bronx. I teach, supervise and write. After many years of professional experience I have learnt the simple truth that psychological distress is like being tied up in knots. These knots can make us feel " stuck" in patterns that repeat themselves in intimate relationships. In treatment we identify, understand and work out strategies to loosen their hold on you.
(718) 305-4449 View (718) 305-4449
Photo of Rebecca Heller, LMHC, NCC
Rebecca Heller
Mental Health Counselor, LMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10017  (Online Only)
Life can be overwhelming, lonely, stressful, and terrifying. There are moments where you may feel trapped and/or paralyzed by all the issues you are going through. These issues may include: life transitions/changes, feeling like everything is out of your control, grief, unhealthy coping skills, burnout, drug/alcohol use, lack of motivation, anger outbursts, depression, anxiety, hopelessness, shame, difficulty at work/school, low self-esteem, difficulty with emotion regulation, and relationship issues, among others. Whatever you are struggling with, you are not alone.
Life can be overwhelming, lonely, stressful, and terrifying. There are moments where you may feel trapped and/or paralyzed by all the issues you are going through. These issues may include: life transitions/changes, feeling like everything is out of your control, grief, unhealthy coping skills, burnout, drug/alcohol use, lack of motivation, anger outbursts, depression, anxiety, hopelessness, shame, difficulty at work/school, low self-esteem, difficulty with emotion regulation, and relationship issues, among others. Whatever you are struggling with, you are not alone.
(646) 916-4642 View (646) 916-4642
Photo of Adam Banks - Interventionist, CIP, CARC, Drug & Alcohol Counselor
Adam Banks - Interventionist
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, CIP, CARC
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10001
Family members often call me to help intervene on a family member and help them start a path to recovery. I have been sober for more than 12 years. I am certified as an interventionist, trained in the ARISE method, and also a certified addiction recovery coach. We can intervene on a family member in a matter of days, and we can start them on successful recovery this week.
Family members often call me to help intervene on a family member and help them start a path to recovery. I have been sober for more than 12 years. I am certified as an interventionist, trained in the ARISE method, and also a certified addiction recovery coach. We can intervene on a family member in a matter of days, and we can start them on successful recovery this week.
(929) 419-4093 View (929) 419-4093
Photo of Shira Etzion, MA LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Shira Etzion
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
New York, NY 10003  (Online Only)
I am passionate about personal growth & connecting deeply with my clients. I have a virtual practice and see clients face to face via ZOOM a HIPAA compliant platform. I love that virtual therapy gives both myself & my clients the opportunity to stay connected even while living active & busy lives. Support is a necessity in life & I have found that working virtually has been the best option for my clients & myself.
I am passionate about personal growth & connecting deeply with my clients. I have a virtual practice and see clients face to face via ZOOM a HIPAA compliant platform. I love that virtual therapy gives both myself & my clients the opportunity to stay connected even while living active & busy lives. Support is a necessity in life & I have found that working virtually has been the best option for my clients & myself.
(917) 994-9273 View (917) 994-9273
Photo of Victoria Levina, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Victoria Levina
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10010  (Online Only)
My top therapeutic strengths lie in helping those in early, middle, and late adulthood. I have extensive experience working with individuals 21+ and feel am able to relate & help guide them towards the direction they desire to move in. I also enjoy working with veterans, individuals in marginalized communities, and those struggling with substance disorders.
My top therapeutic strengths lie in helping those in early, middle, and late adulthood. I have extensive experience working with individuals 21+ and feel am able to relate & help guide them towards the direction they desire to move in. I also enjoy working with veterans, individuals in marginalized communities, and those struggling with substance disorders.
(332) 334-8281 View (332) 334-8281
Photo of Dr. Ashley Campbell, PsyD, HSP, Psychologist
Dr. Ashley Campbell
Psychologist, PsyD, HSP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10024  (Online Only)
Dr. Campbell is a licensed clinical psychologist who specializes in psychological and forensic assessment, crisis intervention, psychotherapy and supervision. She has worked and trained in various inpatient, outpatient, community and correctional settings, and with many different populations, including adolescents and adults over the last 15 years. She has experience working with and assessing for multiple disorders including depression, anxiety, disabilities, addictions, trauma, grief, family issues, and severe and persistent mental illness.
Dr. Campbell is a licensed clinical psychologist who specializes in psychological and forensic assessment, crisis intervention, psychotherapy and supervision. She has worked and trained in various inpatient, outpatient, community and correctional settings, and with many different populations, including adolescents and adults over the last 15 years. She has experience working with and assessing for multiple disorders including depression, anxiety, disabilities, addictions, trauma, grief, family issues, and severe and persistent mental illness.
(914) 281-2181 View (914) 281-2181
Photo of Amrantha Kalra, MA, LMHC, Counselor
Amrantha Kalra
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10012
Everyone is capable of healing; sometimes you just need some external help getting there. I strive to create a warm, non-judgmental and authentic space for my clients. I believe in building a supportive environment while also challenging my client’s negative beliefs to develop new ways of thinking, build different perspectives and concrete solutions to their challenges. Therapy is a collaborative process and we will work together to bring you to a place where you feel safe, secure and empowered. I treat everyone as a unique individual and tailor treatment specifically to the needs of the person in front of me.
Everyone is capable of healing; sometimes you just need some external help getting there. I strive to create a warm, non-judgmental and authentic space for my clients. I believe in building a supportive environment while also challenging my client’s negative beliefs to develop new ways of thinking, build different perspectives and concrete solutions to their challenges. Therapy is a collaborative process and we will work together to bring you to a place where you feel safe, secure and empowered. I treat everyone as a unique individual and tailor treatment specifically to the needs of the person in front of me.
(347) 991-9396 x714 View (347) 991-9396 x714
Photo of Dr. Adolfo Profumo Phd, PhD, LCSW-R, CGP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Dr. Adolfo Profumo Phd
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW-R, CGP
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10025
Suffering is an integral part of life, the same way manure is an integral part of the farmer's life. As a wise farmer learns to use manure as a fertilizer, I can assist you in understanding and using your suffering wisely, and learning to profit from it. I am silent when need be, yet I am also very willing to respond to your questions and to dialogue with you in a very direct way when necessary.
Suffering is an integral part of life, the same way manure is an integral part of the farmer's life. As a wise farmer learns to use manure as a fertilizer, I can assist you in understanding and using your suffering wisely, and learning to profit from it. I am silent when need be, yet I am also very willing to respond to your questions and to dialogue with you in a very direct way when necessary.
(646) 351-1901 View (646) 351-1901
Photo of Megan Wakeley, LCSW, MA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Megan Wakeley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
New York, NY 10001
For some, therapy provides a space to address an acute crisis, chronic symptoms or to expand awareness of oneself and sometimes a mix of all three. I believe therapy is most impactful when it is tailored to each person’s unique needs and concerns. This looks different for everyone and might even look different throughout your journey. Good therapy can help you to make the changes you have been struggling with, identify the patterns that might be holding you back and ultimately help you to create a more fulfilling life.
For some, therapy provides a space to address an acute crisis, chronic symptoms or to expand awareness of oneself and sometimes a mix of all three. I believe therapy is most impactful when it is tailored to each person’s unique needs and concerns. This looks different for everyone and might even look different throughout your journey. Good therapy can help you to make the changes you have been struggling with, identify the patterns that might be holding you back and ultimately help you to create a more fulfilling life.
(646) 971-9130 View (646) 971-9130
Photo of Julia Fassler, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Julia Fassler
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10019
Knowing where to begin or what the journey will look like can make reaching out for support feel quite daunting. Asking for help can be especially challenging when formative environments have been both diminishing and invalidating of our needs. My goal is to meet you in that moment of outreach and welcome you into a safe and compassionate space where we will deepen insight and develop strategies to help you gain a sense of choice and control in your life.
Knowing where to begin or what the journey will look like can make reaching out for support feel quite daunting. Asking for help can be especially challenging when formative environments have been both diminishing and invalidating of our needs. My goal is to meet you in that moment of outreach and welcome you into a safe and compassionate space where we will deepen insight and develop strategies to help you gain a sense of choice and control in your life.
(347) 983-0591 View (347) 983-0591
Photo of Joanne Spina - Joanne Spina LCSW,BCD, LCSW, BCD, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Joanne Spina LCSW,BCD
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10014  (Online Only)
I believe people come to therapy because something isn't working for them. They need someone to listen to their story, hear the deeper meanings and make meaningful connections for them. They may be depressed over a relationship, experiencing a loss of self esteem, mourning a loved, seeking a deeper meaning in life, or becoming aware of a past trauma. Sharing ones concerns with an experienced therapist can help connect past history to the present allowing one to gain meaningful insights into ones life. Therapy is a place to share, unburden and grow toward the fulfillment one longs for.
I believe people come to therapy because something isn't working for them. They need someone to listen to their story, hear the deeper meanings and make meaningful connections for them. They may be depressed over a relationship, experiencing a loss of self esteem, mourning a loved, seeking a deeper meaning in life, or becoming aware of a past trauma. Sharing ones concerns with an experienced therapist can help connect past history to the present allowing one to gain meaningful insights into ones life. Therapy is a place to share, unburden and grow toward the fulfillment one longs for.
(646) 663-4499 View (646) 663-4499
Photo of Flora Hogman, PhD, Psychologist
Flora Hogman
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10011
I have a lot of experience and enjoy working with young adults with self esteem problems, relationship issues, difficulty finding direction in their lives. Growing up in France and moving to the US as a young adult I am keenly aware of issues of adaptation. My personal experience as a child survivor of the Holocaust during WWII in France has also sensitized me to issues of trauma, to struggles to adaptation, to courage and perseverance. I especially liked an aspect of US outlook on life which provided possibility and flexibility in life choices
I have a lot of experience and enjoy working with young adults with self esteem problems, relationship issues, difficulty finding direction in their lives. Growing up in France and moving to the US as a young adult I am keenly aware of issues of adaptation. My personal experience as a child survivor of the Holocaust during WWII in France has also sensitized me to issues of trauma, to struggles to adaptation, to courage and perseverance. I especially liked an aspect of US outlook on life which provided possibility and flexibility in life choices
(646) 699-3042 View (646) 699-3042
Photo of Raas Romano, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Raas Romano
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10007  (Online Only)
I am a queer non-binary transmasc therapist whose goal is that, with me, you can feel safe and honored. Feeling comfortable sharing may not feel easy or immediate, so I aim to stay present, mindful and non-judgmental, so that you can be at ease to bring your full self to our sessions. My therapeutic style is relational, allowing freedom of expression to occur in our dynamic. I value the way the mind and body are intricately connected and inform our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. I am guided by therapeutic modalities such as DBT, somatic experiencing, internal family systems and polyvagal theories.
I am a queer non-binary transmasc therapist whose goal is that, with me, you can feel safe and honored. Feeling comfortable sharing may not feel easy or immediate, so I aim to stay present, mindful and non-judgmental, so that you can be at ease to bring your full self to our sessions. My therapeutic style is relational, allowing freedom of expression to occur in our dynamic. I value the way the mind and body are intricately connected and inform our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. I am guided by therapeutic modalities such as DBT, somatic experiencing, internal family systems and polyvagal theories.
(646) 813-3929 View (646) 813-3929
Photo of Catia Harrington, PsyD, Psychologist
Catia Harrington
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
New York, NY 10003
I am a licensed clinical psychologist who helps adults & adolescents understand and cope with difficult feelings and behaviors that are getting in their way. Sometimes we feel inexplicably sad, lonely, withdrawn, defeated, alienated, anxious, or self-defeating. These feelings can impact our lives and relationships in a negative way. By exploring and understanding these feelings and behaviors together, we can begin to work on changing the negative patterns and to restore a sense of connection and engagement.
I am a licensed clinical psychologist who helps adults & adolescents understand and cope with difficult feelings and behaviors that are getting in their way. Sometimes we feel inexplicably sad, lonely, withdrawn, defeated, alienated, anxious, or self-defeating. These feelings can impact our lives and relationships in a negative way. By exploring and understanding these feelings and behaviors together, we can begin to work on changing the negative patterns and to restore a sense of connection and engagement.
(347) 441-4190 View (347) 441-4190
Photo of David Thurn, PhD, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
David Thurn
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10024  (Online Only)
Acknowledging a problem in your life is an important first step toward greater freedom and happiness. If you are reading this, I assume you may be ready to make the courageous decision to address it. Studies have shown that talk therapy can be a highly effective means of dealing with life problems, and of achieving meaningful and lasting change. While each treatment is unique depending on particular needs, psychotherapy may be understood generally as a collaborative process that works to clarify the deeper sources of your suffering, and to enable the constructive choices that can put your life on a new foundation.
Acknowledging a problem in your life is an important first step toward greater freedom and happiness. If you are reading this, I assume you may be ready to make the courageous decision to address it. Studies have shown that talk therapy can be a highly effective means of dealing with life problems, and of achieving meaningful and lasting change. While each treatment is unique depending on particular needs, psychotherapy may be understood generally as a collaborative process that works to clarify the deeper sources of your suffering, and to enable the constructive choices that can put your life on a new foundation.
(732) 823-4237 View (732) 823-4237
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in New York, NY

3,000+

Average cost per session

$200

Therapists in New York, NY who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
89% Depression
84% Relationship Issues
78% Self Esteem
67% Trauma and PTSD
66% Stress
64% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% Aetna
61% Cigna and Evernorth
61% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in New York, NY see their clients

58% In Person and Online
42% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
21% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in New York?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.