Therapists in New York, NY

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Photo of Christina Gille in New York, NY
Christina Gille
PsyD
Not Verified Not Verified
New York, NY 10001
Not accepting new clients
Sometimes seeking help in therapy is the best way to learn new coping skills, identify faulty thinking patterns, and develop new behaviors. I believe that therapy should be a safe and supportive environment that allows us to explore these issues together. I take an integrative approach with clients, understanding that people present with a variety of different needs. I believe that it is important to meet the client where they're at, utilizing a person-centered approach, listening without judgment and acknowledging the client's experience.
Sometimes seeking help in therapy is the best way to learn new coping skills, identify faulty thinking patterns, and develop new behaviors. I believe that therapy should be a safe and supportive environment that allows us to explore these issues together. I take an integrative approach with clients, understanding that people present with a variety of different needs. I believe that it is important to meet the client where they're at, utilizing a person-centered approach, listening without judgment and acknowledging the client's experience.
(646) 257-3806 View (646) 257-3806
Photo of Katharina Rothe, Psychologist in New York, NY
Katharina Rothe
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10019
Not accepting new clients
Psychotherapy can help you understand better who you are, what you need and desire, as well as discover unknown strengths to deal with life challenges, alleviate the impact of trauma and live a less painful and more fulfilled life. From my professional and personal experience, opening up even difficult aspects of your life to somebody who listens and helps understanding painful emotional states, relational and behavioral patterns, can free up resources before unknown. I offer psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, support, and guidance for adults struggling with a variety of life problems.
Psychotherapy can help you understand better who you are, what you need and desire, as well as discover unknown strengths to deal with life challenges, alleviate the impact of trauma and live a less painful and more fulfilled life. From my professional and personal experience, opening up even difficult aspects of your life to somebody who listens and helps understanding painful emotional states, relational and behavioral patterns, can free up resources before unknown. I offer psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, support, and guidance for adults struggling with a variety of life problems.
(347) 658-1809 View (347) 658-1809
Photo of Erin Iwanusa, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Erin Iwanusa
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PMH-C, CDWF
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10016
Erin is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker specializing in anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), grief and loss, fertility, and pregnancy loss. Erin specializes in working with clients from adolescence to adulthood. She is a certified Daring Way Facilitator, a highly experiential methodology based on the research of Dr. Brené Brown, focusing on self-compassion, shame resilience, and vulnerability. Erin is also a Gottman trained therapist providing couples' therapy.
Erin is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker specializing in anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), grief and loss, fertility, and pregnancy loss. Erin specializes in working with clients from adolescence to adulthood. She is a certified Daring Way Facilitator, a highly experiential methodology based on the research of Dr. Brené Brown, focusing on self-compassion, shame resilience, and vulnerability. Erin is also a Gottman trained therapist providing couples' therapy.
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Photo of Jean Halley - Expansive Therapy, Counselor in New York, NY
Jean Halley - Expansive Therapy
Counselor, MHC-LP
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10013
I believe that our mental health is grounded in the social contexts where we live. It is normal to struggle at times, and psychotherapy is a beautiful way to heal; to connect and reconnect with oneself and others; and to gain essential support. From my own experience I am certain of therapy’s deeply healing potential.
I believe that our mental health is grounded in the social contexts where we live. It is normal to struggle at times, and psychotherapy is a beautiful way to heal; to connect and reconnect with oneself and others; and to gain essential support. From my own experience I am certain of therapy’s deeply healing potential.
(929) 305-1337 View (929) 305-1337
Photo of Philip B. Spivey Ph.D., Psychologist in New York, NY
Philip B. Spivey Ph.D.
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10037  (Online Only)
I am a clinical psychologist who has been working with people from all walks of life for over three decades. People come to me because they feel stuck: Some are stuck because they've just been thrown a curve ball by life; others find themselves in relationships that no longer nourish them; still others are frightened to take the next step in their personal or vocational development. I have been in each of these places at one time or another in my life and I can offer you the benefit of my training, experience and hope in helping you move towards a more rewarding life.
I am a clinical psychologist who has been working with people from all walks of life for over three decades. People come to me because they feel stuck: Some are stuck because they've just been thrown a curve ball by life; others find themselves in relationships that no longer nourish them; still others are frightened to take the next step in their personal or vocational development. I have been in each of these places at one time or another in my life and I can offer you the benefit of my training, experience and hope in helping you move towards a more rewarding life.
(646) 859-2113 View (646) 859-2113
Photo of Thomas Franco, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Thomas Franco
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10022
Stop and think about it! Do you feel anxious, unfulfilled, or have difficulty reaching your goals? Are you feeling depressed, perhaps experiencing suicide ideation? Depression is very difficult to manage on your own, and you won't have to when I am your therapist. Whether you are an adolescent or adult, you will have coping tools I will share with you during our sessions together at your disposal to help you feel more empowered and in greater control of your life. Would you like to become more self-aware? Our focus on mindfulness will facilitate your journey of self-realization.
Stop and think about it! Do you feel anxious, unfulfilled, or have difficulty reaching your goals? Are you feeling depressed, perhaps experiencing suicide ideation? Depression is very difficult to manage on your own, and you won't have to when I am your therapist. Whether you are an adolescent or adult, you will have coping tools I will share with you during our sessions together at your disposal to help you feel more empowered and in greater control of your life. Would you like to become more self-aware? Our focus on mindfulness will facilitate your journey of self-realization.
(646) 257-5039 View (646) 257-5039
Photo of Intuitive Healing Psychotherapy Practice, Counselor in New York, NY
Intuitive Healing Psychotherapy Practice
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10001
Welcome! Therapy at Intuitive Healing is a space away from the chaos to explore your life with openness and curiosity, rather than self-judgment or an aim to analyze. Our therapy style is centered around trust, curiosity, and creativity - think warm and collaborative, rather than cold and analytical. We know that living in NYC isn't always easy, and at times it may be hard to connect. Effective therapy can make a lifelong impact, and we’d love to help guide you through the process. We specialize in therapy for trauma, family-of-origin, life transitions, LGBTQ, codependency, addiction/recovery, cultural identity, & gender identity.
Welcome! Therapy at Intuitive Healing is a space away from the chaos to explore your life with openness and curiosity, rather than self-judgment or an aim to analyze. Our therapy style is centered around trust, curiosity, and creativity - think warm and collaborative, rather than cold and analytical. We know that living in NYC isn't always easy, and at times it may be hard to connect. Effective therapy can make a lifelong impact, and we’d love to help guide you through the process. We specialize in therapy for trauma, family-of-origin, life transitions, LGBTQ, codependency, addiction/recovery, cultural identity, & gender identity.
(929) 203-4783 View (929) 203-4783
Photo of Deborah Lawrence, Psychologist in New York, NY
Deborah Lawrence
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10028
My aim as a clinical psychologist is to help my clients lead more fulfilling and meaningful lives. We work together to understand and work through obstacles that have been hampering them. I’ve seen many times how that work can not only relieve distress but make possible richer and more satisfying relationships, new ways of dealing with difficulties, and a new sense of self.
My aim as a clinical psychologist is to help my clients lead more fulfilling and meaningful lives. We work together to understand and work through obstacles that have been hampering them. I’ve seen many times how that work can not only relieve distress but make possible richer and more satisfying relationships, new ways of dealing with difficulties, and a new sense of self.
(347) 380-8885 View (347) 380-8885
Photo of Allison Russo, Psychologist in New York, NY
Allison Russo
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10003
A strong therapeutic relationship is essential for therapeutic success. As such, a primary goal of mine is to facilitate the development of a relationship in which you feel comfortable to be authentically yourself, to discuss difficult topics and experiences, and to access a wide range of emotions. I tend to be a very warm, active, and collaborative therapist. I hope that our collaboration will empower you to better understand yourself and to achieve your therapeutic goals, whether that be to improve your relationships, self-concept, or life satisfaction; to develop concrete strategies for symptom management; to change specific problematic behaviors; or any other goal.
A strong therapeutic relationship is essential for therapeutic success. As such, a primary goal of mine is to facilitate the development of a relationship in which you feel comfortable to be authentically yourself, to discuss difficult topics and experiences, and to access a wide range of emotions. I tend to be a very warm, active, and collaborative therapist. I hope that our collaboration will empower you to better understand yourself and to achieve your therapeutic goals, whether that be to improve your relationships, self-concept, or life satisfaction; to develop concrete strategies for symptom management; to change specific problematic behaviors; or any other goal.
(908) 324-5289 View (908) 324-5289
Photo of Claudine Marcia Richard, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Claudine Marcia Richard
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10282  (Online Only)
Are you feeling off these days? Are there things in your life that are causing dysfunction? Well, if you answered yes to any of these questions, maybe it's time to learn how to better manage the parts of your life that are causing dysfunction. The only way past any difficulty in life is to go through it which can be intimidating, but you do not need to do it alone. I am here for you! My name is Dr. Claudine Richard, and I am a licensed psychotherapist and board-certified sex therapist with over 20 years’ experience helping individuals/ couples/ families overcome difficulties, achieve desired outcomes, and make lasting life changes.
Are you feeling off these days? Are there things in your life that are causing dysfunction? Well, if you answered yes to any of these questions, maybe it's time to learn how to better manage the parts of your life that are causing dysfunction. The only way past any difficulty in life is to go through it which can be intimidating, but you do not need to do it alone. I am here for you! My name is Dr. Claudine Richard, and I am a licensed psychotherapist and board-certified sex therapist with over 20 years’ experience helping individuals/ couples/ families overcome difficulties, achieve desired outcomes, and make lasting life changes.
(347) 704-0612 View (347) 704-0612
Photo of Nancy Freeman-Carroll, Psychologist in New York, NY
Nancy Freeman-Carroll
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10025
I am available for psychoanalytic psychotherapy to address life struggles, manage anxiety, depression, dissatisfaction and indecision. It is a brave and optimistic step to begin therapy which has the power to heal old wounds, renew self confidence, and expand emotional experience. I have a special interest in helping individuals and families improve communication regarding adoption and donor assisted reproduction. It is never too late to talk with children. Adult resistance to these conversations can reflect difficult life experiences, especially regarding infertility, including experiences of shame and embarrasment.
I am available for psychoanalytic psychotherapy to address life struggles, manage anxiety, depression, dissatisfaction and indecision. It is a brave and optimistic step to begin therapy which has the power to heal old wounds, renew self confidence, and expand emotional experience. I have a special interest in helping individuals and families improve communication regarding adoption and donor assisted reproduction. It is never too late to talk with children. Adult resistance to these conversations can reflect difficult life experiences, especially regarding infertility, including experiences of shame and embarrasment.
(646) 351-1879 View (646) 351-1879
Photo of Nicole Coto, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Nicole Coto
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10016  (Online Only)
I am Licensed Clinical Social Worker with significant psychotherapy experience based in NY. For 10+ years I have committed my practice to treating individuals experiencing mental health and life challenges. I don’t believe that time heals all wounds but instead what you do with that time will determine the outcome.
I am Licensed Clinical Social Worker with significant psychotherapy experience based in NY. For 10+ years I have committed my practice to treating individuals experiencing mental health and life challenges. I don’t believe that time heals all wounds but instead what you do with that time will determine the outcome.
(929) 357-2480 View (929) 357-2480
Photo of Colette Cassidy, Counselor in New York, NY
Colette Cassidy
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10031  (Online Only)
Do you find yourself feeling stressed and overwhelmed? How are you managing everything in your life? It can be challenging trying to balance your problems on your own. Trying to pinpoint the source can be even harder. Often times there could be so many stressors contributing to it, it becomes difficult to cope. Having someone who will listen free from judgment, can provide a sense of relief and peace. Together we can create that safe space where you will feel more empowered and less overwhelmed. “Our minds will lead us towards the path we envisioned”
Do you find yourself feeling stressed and overwhelmed? How are you managing everything in your life? It can be challenging trying to balance your problems on your own. Trying to pinpoint the source can be even harder. Often times there could be so many stressors contributing to it, it becomes difficult to cope. Having someone who will listen free from judgment, can provide a sense of relief and peace. Together we can create that safe space where you will feel more empowered and less overwhelmed. “Our minds will lead us towards the path we envisioned”
(914) 292-7729 View (914) 292-7729
Photo of Chet Lesniak, Psychologist in New York, NY
Chet Lesniak
Psychologist, PhD, PSYPACT
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10014  (Online Only)
Congratulations! It takes courage to search for a therapist. Are you searching for a therapist because you feel stressed, worried, anxious, or overwhelmed? Are you looking for a therapist to support you while you struggle over problems with your career or your relationships? Or how to make changes in your career or relationships? Or, maybe you have decided it is time to explore and resolve those personal issues that keep popping up again and again - the ones you cannot ignore any longer? Perhaps I am that therapist. Contact me for a free consulaton or visit my website at www.contemplativepsychologist.com
Congratulations! It takes courage to search for a therapist. Are you searching for a therapist because you feel stressed, worried, anxious, or overwhelmed? Are you looking for a therapist to support you while you struggle over problems with your career or your relationships? Or how to make changes in your career or relationships? Or, maybe you have decided it is time to explore and resolve those personal issues that keep popping up again and again - the ones you cannot ignore any longer? Perhaps I am that therapist. Contact me for a free consulaton or visit my website at www.contemplativepsychologist.com
(929) 475-0804 View (929) 475-0804
Photo of Talking Works, Psychologist in New York, NY
Talking Works
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10007
We are a group of talented professionals, and we offer our clients a warm and deeply caring therapeutic relationship. Expert clinical supervision enriches the work of our therapists. The methods we use are active, and you will feel that you are making progress in each session. Our training and experience make it possible. Come and talk to us. Solutions and changes are within reach! At our Brooklyn locations, we also work with children, couples and families.
We are a group of talented professionals, and we offer our clients a warm and deeply caring therapeutic relationship. Expert clinical supervision enriches the work of our therapists. The methods we use are active, and you will feel that you are making progress in each session. Our training and experience make it possible. Come and talk to us. Solutions and changes are within reach! At our Brooklyn locations, we also work with children, couples and families.
(718) 305-4829 View (718) 305-4829
Photo of Alexandra Grundleger, Psychologist in New York, NY
Alexandra Grundleger
Psychologist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10001  (Online Only)
Life can be stressful and at times we need assistance finding balance and meaning in this often unkind world. My clients often express dissatisfaction with their image in the mirror—they feel stuck in unsatisfying careers and are struggling to determine the next step. They are either in relationships that are not mutually beneficial and are struggling to communicate effectively, or they are feeling overwhelmed with dating in this app-centric world. I love what I do and I think it shows. My main goal is to help clients address personal challenges, understand how early life events effect them, and how to take steps towards change.
Life can be stressful and at times we need assistance finding balance and meaning in this often unkind world. My clients often express dissatisfaction with their image in the mirror—they feel stuck in unsatisfying careers and are struggling to determine the next step. They are either in relationships that are not mutually beneficial and are struggling to communicate effectively, or they are feeling overwhelmed with dating in this app-centric world. I love what I do and I think it shows. My main goal is to help clients address personal challenges, understand how early life events effect them, and how to take steps towards change.
(347) 706-4003 View (347) 706-4003
Photo of Lyn Leeds, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Lyn Leeds
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, LCSW, -R
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10019
The therapeutic process has the ability to transform. This happens through partnering together within a caring and empathic environment. We will then fully explore your thoughts, feelings and behavioral patterns that may not be serving you well. This results in new ways of thinking, feeling and being. We will work towards illuminating your understanding of what you truly want to create for your life.
The therapeutic process has the ability to transform. This happens through partnering together within a caring and empathic environment. We will then fully explore your thoughts, feelings and behavioral patterns that may not be serving you well. This results in new ways of thinking, feeling and being. We will work towards illuminating your understanding of what you truly want to create for your life.
(646) 392-7924 View (646) 392-7924
Photo of Rachel Kinsella, Marriage & Family Therapist in New York, NY
Rachel Kinsella
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS-LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10010
Unraveling and finding meaning in the distinctive stories of people’s lives is what I enjoy doing. Stories hold a unique set of emotional dilemmas, such as grief, anxiety, depression, or relationship distress. I aim to deconstruct these conflicts through a non-judgmental, compassionate, and empowering approach. Together, we will explore obstacles that hinder your ability to reach your fullest potential and work to overcome your personal or professional difficulties.
Unraveling and finding meaning in the distinctive stories of people’s lives is what I enjoy doing. Stories hold a unique set of emotional dilemmas, such as grief, anxiety, depression, or relationship distress. I aim to deconstruct these conflicts through a non-judgmental, compassionate, and empowering approach. Together, we will explore obstacles that hinder your ability to reach your fullest potential and work to overcome your personal or professional difficulties.
(917) 920-5265 View (917) 920-5265
Photo of James Polsky, Licensed Psychoanalyst in New York, NY
James Polsky
Licensed Psychoanalyst, JD, LP
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10013
In life, there is no obvious roadmap to finding happiness and satisfaction. The mission of therapy is to explore your inner world so that you can find meaning in the world outside. Our work will be to get you on a path to living a life in which you can be fulfilled and about which you can feel proud. The hardest step to take is the first one into the consulting room, and people often feel tremendous relief when they do. Therapy can be the one place in the world where your issues are front and center, you need not compete with others to be heard, and the only agenda is your self-improvement. If done well, it is life-changing.
In life, there is no obvious roadmap to finding happiness and satisfaction. The mission of therapy is to explore your inner world so that you can find meaning in the world outside. Our work will be to get you on a path to living a life in which you can be fulfilled and about which you can feel proud. The hardest step to take is the first one into the consulting room, and people often feel tremendous relief when they do. Therapy can be the one place in the world where your issues are front and center, you need not compete with others to be heard, and the only agenda is your self-improvement. If done well, it is life-changing.
(646) 760-3570 View (646) 760-3570
Photo of Melissa (Maxi) Sherman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Melissa (Maxi) Sherman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10024  (Online Only)
Hi! My name Melissa Sherman, but I go by Maxi. I am a licensed clinical social worker with 14 years of experience working in various settings with adolescents, adults, and families. I specialize in treating individuals who are navigating anxiety, depression, relationship issues, life transitions, grief/loss, and chronic illness. I take a client-centered, strengths-based approach to treatment. I believe in the power of establishing a strong rapport with clients, and I provide a warm, supportive, and non-judgmental space where you can safely express your thoughts and feelings while working on self-identified goals.
Hi! My name Melissa Sherman, but I go by Maxi. I am a licensed clinical social worker with 14 years of experience working in various settings with adolescents, adults, and families. I specialize in treating individuals who are navigating anxiety, depression, relationship issues, life transitions, grief/loss, and chronic illness. I take a client-centered, strengths-based approach to treatment. I believe in the power of establishing a strong rapport with clients, and I provide a warm, supportive, and non-judgmental space where you can safely express your thoughts and feelings while working on self-identified goals.
(646) 759-0821 View (646) 759-0821

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in New York, NY

3,000+

Average cost per session

$200

Therapists in New York, NY who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
89% Depression
85% Relationship Issues
78% Self Esteem
67% Trauma and PTSD
66% Stress
63% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% Aetna
62% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
60% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in New York, NY see their clients

59% In Person and Online
41% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
21% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in New York?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.