Photo of Karina Stavitsky Gilbert, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Karina Stavitsky Gilbert
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
"We can't change the past, so we change how people are thinking, feeling and behaving today." - Albert Ellis This is the basis for how I practice therapy. Although the past matters, the way we perceive our current experiences influences how we act and feel today. In my practice I work with clients on understanding the connections between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and bringing awareness to help improve their everyday experience. This work can apply to treating a variety of difficulties including insomnia, anxiety, and depression as well as developing coping strategies for more general life complexities.
"We can't change the past, so we change how people are thinking, feeling and behaving today." - Albert Ellis This is the basis for how I practice therapy. Although the past matters, the way we perceive our current experiences influences how we act and feel today. In my practice I work with clients on understanding the connections between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and bringing awareness to help improve their everyday experience. This work can apply to treating a variety of difficulties including insomnia, anxiety, and depression as well as developing coping strategies for more general life complexities.
(617) 500-1854 View (617) 500-1854
Photo of Charles Hogan, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Charles Hogan
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
I have been providing outpatient psychotherapy services for 30 years. My office is located in Needham. I concentrate treatment in two areas:
I have been providing outpatient psychotherapy services for 30 years. My office is located in Needham. I concentrate treatment in two areas:
(781) 218-7149 View (781) 218-7149
Photo of Dr. Jennifer Hermes, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Dr. Jennifer Hermes
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
Hello! I am a licensed pediatric neuropsychologist specializing in assessment, consultation, and treatment of children and adolescents. A primary emphasis of my clinical work is supporting young children (as young as 12 months of age) and their families, as well as consulting with providers and educators. Therapeutically, I aim to act as an advocate to ensure children receive necessary supports and services, as well as provide parenting support and individual therapy. I treat children and adolescents, as well as provide direct support to parents regarding their children's emotional, behavioral, and social needs.
Hello! I am a licensed pediatric neuropsychologist specializing in assessment, consultation, and treatment of children and adolescents. A primary emphasis of my clinical work is supporting young children (as young as 12 months of age) and their families, as well as consulting with providers and educators. Therapeutically, I aim to act as an advocate to ensure children receive necessary supports and services, as well as provide parenting support and individual therapy. I treat children and adolescents, as well as provide direct support to parents regarding their children's emotional, behavioral, and social needs.
(617) 533-0212 View (617) 533-0212
Photo of Elizabeth Wilson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 02492, MA
Elizabeth Wilson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
Waitlist for new clients
For children, teens, and young adults, there are times when navigating life’s challenges can be a struggle. For caregivers, finding a therapist who is also experienced in supporting Autistic and other neurodivergent individuals can feel overwhelming. Addressing anxiety, depression, and self esteem issues, handling intense emotions, building self advocacy skills, and creating positive relationships can be difficult to make progress on without a provider who understands neurodiversity. You want a therapist who has experience with learning differences, communication styles, sensory needs, and more.
For children, teens, and young adults, there are times when navigating life’s challenges can be a struggle. For caregivers, finding a therapist who is also experienced in supporting Autistic and other neurodivergent individuals can feel overwhelming. Addressing anxiety, depression, and self esteem issues, handling intense emotions, building self advocacy skills, and creating positive relationships can be difficult to make progress on without a provider who understands neurodiversity. You want a therapist who has experience with learning differences, communication styles, sensory needs, and more.
(617) 944-5053 x2 View (617) 944-5053 x2
Photo of Susan Hronsky Davidson, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Susan Hronsky Davidson
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02492  (Online Only)
Are you feeling anxious? While you want to feel confident and have peace of mind, you feel constantly stressed. Despite the desire for contentment, anxiety can be overwhelming. It can affect your social well being, your productivity and even your health. That’s where I come in. With over 30 years of clinical experience, my extensive training as a child and adult psychologist, and my approachable warm style, I’ve guided thousands of clients to an improved quality of life. My passion lies in helping individuals of all ages conquer anxiety and create a healthier lifestyle using evidence-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).
Are you feeling anxious? While you want to feel confident and have peace of mind, you feel constantly stressed. Despite the desire for contentment, anxiety can be overwhelming. It can affect your social well being, your productivity and even your health. That’s where I come in. With over 30 years of clinical experience, my extensive training as a child and adult psychologist, and my approachable warm style, I’ve guided thousands of clients to an improved quality of life. My passion lies in helping individuals of all ages conquer anxiety and create a healthier lifestyle using evidence-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).
(774) 806-8323 View (774) 806-8323
Photo of Alison Ratner Mayer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 02492, MA
Alison Ratner Mayer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02492
At Child Therapy Boston, we have a passion for working with children, teens, siblings, families and groups. We are confident that we can help individuals and families struggling with diagnoses including ADHD, Anxiety, Mood Disorders, Depression, Developmental Disabilities, Oppositional Defiance Disorder, and Attachment. We enjoy working with clients who are struggling with self-esteem, family relationships, grief and loss, bullying, life transitions, and stress management. We also offer specialized counseling for LGBTQIA+ youth.
At Child Therapy Boston, we have a passion for working with children, teens, siblings, families and groups. We are confident that we can help individuals and families struggling with diagnoses including ADHD, Anxiety, Mood Disorders, Depression, Developmental Disabilities, Oppositional Defiance Disorder, and Attachment. We enjoy working with clients who are struggling with self-esteem, family relationships, grief and loss, bullying, life transitions, and stress management. We also offer specialized counseling for LGBTQIA+ youth.
(781) 471-4302 View (781) 471-4302
Photo of June Atkind, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 02492, MA
June Atkind
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02492
Learn strategies for living with less stress, and a greater sense of well-being. Excessive worry, managing work/life balance, dealing with difficult relationships, getting "unstuck" from unhealthy habits, and other challenges can be managed using effective and easy to learn principles and practices. I offer the MINDFUL LIVING WORKSHOP to bring the benefits of Mindfulness Meditation to the rest of the day.
Learn strategies for living with less stress, and a greater sense of well-being. Excessive worry, managing work/life balance, dealing with difficult relationships, getting "unstuck" from unhealthy habits, and other challenges can be managed using effective and easy to learn principles and practices. I offer the MINDFUL LIVING WORKSHOP to bring the benefits of Mindfulness Meditation to the rest of the day.
(781) 332-5494 View (781) 332-5494
Photo of Natalie Waggaman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 02492, MA
Natalie Waggaman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
A good relationship is essential to helping the client connect with, remain in, and get the most from therapy. My approach to therapy is collaborative, goal-oriented, and relationship driven. I have been described as warm, easy to talk to, funny, and compassionate. I offer services to adolescents and adults experiencing emotion distress, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, "gray area" alcohol use/marijuana use, and transitional issues.
A good relationship is essential to helping the client connect with, remain in, and get the most from therapy. My approach to therapy is collaborative, goal-oriented, and relationship driven. I have been described as warm, easy to talk to, funny, and compassionate. I offer services to adolescents and adults experiencing emotion distress, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, "gray area" alcohol use/marijuana use, and transitional issues.
(617) 712-2329 View (617) 712-2329
Photo of Dania B Gaffin, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Dania B Gaffin
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02492
I specialize in conducting neuropsychological evaluations for children and adolescents, ages 6 to 22. I am currently only taking clients for evaluations. The evaluations I conduct are invaluable to parents who are trying to understand their child's learning style and their learning strengths and weaknesses. Often, parents seek my help when they are concerned about their child's ability to achieve his/her potential in school and/or regulate his/her behaviors or emotions. My reports have been crucial tools for many parents in securing academic accommodations for their children both in the state of Massachusetts and elsewhere.
I specialize in conducting neuropsychological evaluations for children and adolescents, ages 6 to 22. I am currently only taking clients for evaluations. The evaluations I conduct are invaluable to parents who are trying to understand their child's learning style and their learning strengths and weaknesses. Often, parents seek my help when they are concerned about their child's ability to achieve his/her potential in school and/or regulate his/her behaviors or emotions. My reports have been crucial tools for many parents in securing academic accommodations for their children both in the state of Massachusetts and elsewhere.
(781) 476-5386 View (781) 476-5386
Photo of Angeline Maughan, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Angeline Maughan
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
I specialize in the treatment of maternal depression (both prenatal and postpartum), with a specific focus on reducing depressive symptoms, improving relationships, and creating lasting change. Many women come to therapy feeling stuck or trapped in the confines of their depression, and often hopeless about freeing themselves from their feelings of sadness and despair. I believe that everyone, despite current challenges, has the capacity to improve their lives and enjoy a rich and meaningful life. Therapy provides the help and support to formulate a way out of whatever is holding you back from having the life you want.
I specialize in the treatment of maternal depression (both prenatal and postpartum), with a specific focus on reducing depressive symptoms, improving relationships, and creating lasting change. Many women come to therapy feeling stuck or trapped in the confines of their depression, and often hopeless about freeing themselves from their feelings of sadness and despair. I believe that everyone, despite current challenges, has the capacity to improve their lives and enjoy a rich and meaningful life. Therapy provides the help and support to formulate a way out of whatever is holding you back from having the life you want.
View
Photo of Noreen Kavanaugh, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 02492, MA
Noreen Kavanaugh
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
I am a partner at Needham Psychotherapy Associates where I work primarily with couples. I work with couples who are stuck and feel that their relationship is slipping away. Loneliness is the most common - and most heartbreaking - complaint that I hear, and I frequently hear it from both partners even when there is a lot of anger. I work on repairing connection - not on who is right or wrong. I am trained in EFT (Emotionally Focused Therapy) which is a focused, validated, time limited treatment strategy which helps couples heal the wounds that have hurt their connection
I am a partner at Needham Psychotherapy Associates where I work primarily with couples. I work with couples who are stuck and feel that their relationship is slipping away. Loneliness is the most common - and most heartbreaking - complaint that I hear, and I frequently hear it from both partners even when there is a lot of anger. I work on repairing connection - not on who is right or wrong. I am trained in EFT (Emotionally Focused Therapy) which is a focused, validated, time limited treatment strategy which helps couples heal the wounds that have hurt their connection
(781) 206-2097 View (781) 206-2097
Photo of Lucy Noyes, Counselor in 02492, MA
Lucy Noyes
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02492  (Online Only)
I believe that a collaborative partnership between client and therapist is the foundation for healing and growth. I work with adults of all ages and backgrounds who struggle with anxiety and depression, life transitions, grief, and the effects of stress on their lives. While much of my experience has focused on supporting women in various stages of their lives, I seek to provide an inclusive, nonjudgmental, safe space for all clients to explore their inner lives and external stressors. I bring focus to client strengths, practicing self-compassion, and cultivating joy.
I believe that a collaborative partnership between client and therapist is the foundation for healing and growth. I work with adults of all ages and backgrounds who struggle with anxiety and depression, life transitions, grief, and the effects of stress on their lives. While much of my experience has focused on supporting women in various stages of their lives, I seek to provide an inclusive, nonjudgmental, safe space for all clients to explore their inner lives and external stressors. I bring focus to client strengths, practicing self-compassion, and cultivating joy.
(351) 999-8097 View (351) 999-8097
Photo of Edye Caine Psy D Candidate in 02492, MA
Edye Caine Psy D Candidate
MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02492  (Online Only)
Perhaps you have been doing your best to work through personal problems or issues and are still feeling blocked. Traditional counseling may be able to help you recognize your patterns, not necessarily resolve them. Sometimes it is helpful to work with someone who can provide insight, helping to move energy so that you can make a positive shift in your life. I can help you on your journey simply because I've been there. I would be grateful to have the opportunity to help you to understand how you too can learn to embrace your own journey moving forward with confidence and purpose.
Perhaps you have been doing your best to work through personal problems or issues and are still feeling blocked. Traditional counseling may be able to help you recognize your patterns, not necessarily resolve them. Sometimes it is helpful to work with someone who can provide insight, helping to move energy so that you can make a positive shift in your life. I can help you on your journey simply because I've been there. I would be grateful to have the opportunity to help you to understand how you too can learn to embrace your own journey moving forward with confidence and purpose.
(914) 350-4429 View (914) 350-4429
Photo of Rachel Sletzinger, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 02492, MA
Rachel Sletzinger
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
Is your child, teen, or young adult currently struggling with anxiety and is this impacting their overall well-being at home, school, or in the community? My goal is to create a safe space for clients to feel valued, heard, learn new skills, and come together to build on each other's strengths. I provide clinical services to children, teens, & young adults who have all different types of learning styles. I also specialize in supporting Autistic and other neurodivergent children, adolescents, & young adults (this includes support around the guardianship process). If this resonates with you, I would love to help!
Is your child, teen, or young adult currently struggling with anxiety and is this impacting their overall well-being at home, school, or in the community? My goal is to create a safe space for clients to feel valued, heard, learn new skills, and come together to build on each other's strengths. I provide clinical services to children, teens, & young adults who have all different types of learning styles. I also specialize in supporting Autistic and other neurodivergent children, adolescents, & young adults (this includes support around the guardianship process). If this resonates with you, I would love to help!
(617) 829-9293 x3 View (617) 829-9293 x3
Photo of Barbara E Livingston, Counselor in 02492, MA
Barbara E Livingston
Counselor, DMin, LMHC, DipACLM
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
If you find yourself asking deeper questions about what really matters to you, what gives your life meaning and purpose despite having done all you "should," psychotherapy can be extremely helpful and supportive as you how determine how to go forward, better. We'll talk about creating and living a life more aligned to what you imagine it could be. For clients who want to make change in how to eat well, sleep 7 hours, do regular physical activity, and effectively manage stress, my certification as a Lifestyle Medicine specialist enables me to knowledgeably help you in becoming your healthiest self.
If you find yourself asking deeper questions about what really matters to you, what gives your life meaning and purpose despite having done all you "should," psychotherapy can be extremely helpful and supportive as you how determine how to go forward, better. We'll talk about creating and living a life more aligned to what you imagine it could be. For clients who want to make change in how to eat well, sleep 7 hours, do regular physical activity, and effectively manage stress, my certification as a Lifestyle Medicine specialist enables me to knowledgeably help you in becoming your healthiest self.
(617) 683-1541 View (617) 683-1541
Photo of Noah Kaufman, Counselor in 02492, MA
Noah Kaufman
Counselor, MA, MEd, LMHC
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
As your therapist I want to build a safe and connected relationship where we can work as a team to determine how to handle challenging thoughts, feelings, or situations more effectively. What changes to you want to make in your life and what's getting in the way? We will identify key values and behavior to grow into. My goal is to foster a sense of compassion, curiosity, kindness, and openness to the therapeutic process and teach the skills to transfer these qualities of being to your life wherever you go. We will learn skills and techniques to accept the challenges of being human while still living in line with your ideal values.
As your therapist I want to build a safe and connected relationship where we can work as a team to determine how to handle challenging thoughts, feelings, or situations more effectively. What changes to you want to make in your life and what's getting in the way? We will identify key values and behavior to grow into. My goal is to foster a sense of compassion, curiosity, kindness, and openness to the therapeutic process and teach the skills to transfer these qualities of being to your life wherever you go. We will learn skills and techniques to accept the challenges of being human while still living in line with your ideal values.
(339) 210-1460 View (339) 210-1460
Photo of Christer Larsson, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Christer Larsson
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492  (Online Only)
I specialize in working with boys and men in individual, as well as in family therapy, with a particular focus on depression, anxiety, and PTSD. I am deeply committed to human growth and development, and will in an engaging and interactive psychotherapy work with you to clearly define your goals with the expectation of reducing the depression, anxiety, or other difficulties that you want to be free from. This therapeutic approach can best be described as collaborative, cognitive-behavioral, experiential, strength-based, mindfulness-based, practice- based, and goal-oriented. Feel free to contact me.
I specialize in working with boys and men in individual, as well as in family therapy, with a particular focus on depression, anxiety, and PTSD. I am deeply committed to human growth and development, and will in an engaging and interactive psychotherapy work with you to clearly define your goals with the expectation of reducing the depression, anxiety, or other difficulties that you want to be free from. This therapeutic approach can best be described as collaborative, cognitive-behavioral, experiential, strength-based, mindfulness-based, practice- based, and goal-oriented. Feel free to contact me.
(857) 230-0421 View (857) 230-0421
Photo of Stephanie Steinmetz, Counselor in 02492, MA
Stephanie Steinmetz
Counselor, PsyaD, LMHC
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Have you felt utterly alone despite being surrounded by others? Have you felt misunderstood by those close to you? Have you felt despair; trapped as a prisoner of your own mind? Psychotherapy focuses on symptom reduction and management and psychoanalysis targets the root of the symptom. Being able to integrate both of my credentials enables me to provide you with a comprehensive treatment that, along with providing a warm, encouraging and unbiased environment to promote self esteem and feelings of self worth, will lead you on the path to living a more serene, enriched and fulfilled life.
Have you felt utterly alone despite being surrounded by others? Have you felt misunderstood by those close to you? Have you felt despair; trapped as a prisoner of your own mind? Psychotherapy focuses on symptom reduction and management and psychoanalysis targets the root of the symptom. Being able to integrate both of my credentials enables me to provide you with a comprehensive treatment that, along with providing a warm, encouraging and unbiased environment to promote self esteem and feelings of self worth, will lead you on the path to living a more serene, enriched and fulfilled life.
View
Photo of Graham Garwood, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Graham Garwood
Psychologist, PsyD, HSP
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02492
I am a therapist who pays careful attention to you, who you are, who you want to be, and how you will get there. In therapy, I place primary importance on helping you have the sense that whatever you are going through is more manageable because we are both working on it together. I have been successful in working with many types of individuals, with a large variety of issues. Please explore further down the webpage for some of the most frequent issues and diagnoses I help people with. My office is a place where it is okay to feel any way you feel, think anything you think, and talk through it with another trusted person.
I am a therapist who pays careful attention to you, who you are, who you want to be, and how you will get there. In therapy, I place primary importance on helping you have the sense that whatever you are going through is more manageable because we are both working on it together. I have been successful in working with many types of individuals, with a large variety of issues. Please explore further down the webpage for some of the most frequent issues and diagnoses I help people with. My office is a place where it is okay to feel any way you feel, think anything you think, and talk through it with another trusted person.
(617) 564-3404 View (617) 564-3404
Photo of Risa Weinrit, Psychologist in 02492, MA
Risa Weinrit
Psychologist
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02492
I am a psychologist and psychoanalyst, and I have been in practice in the Boston area for over 30 years. Whether in individual or couple's therapy, I strive to create a relationship that provides an atmosphere of safety and trust to help people to understand and work through the issues that challenge them in their relationships and day to day lives. I listen actively and carefully, hoping to engage people in a process that allows for mutual exploration of areas of strength and difficulty
I am a psychologist and psychoanalyst, and I have been in practice in the Boston area for over 30 years. Whether in individual or couple's therapy, I strive to create a relationship that provides an atmosphere of safety and trust to help people to understand and work through the issues that challenge them in their relationships and day to day lives. I listen actively and carefully, hoping to engage people in a process that allows for mutual exploration of areas of strength and difficulty
(617) 440-7587 View (617) 440-7587

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 02492

100+

Average cost per session

$195

Therapists in 02492 who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
83% Depression
76% Relationship Issues
65% Self Esteem
60% Coping Skills
56% Grief
56% Parenting

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

85% BlueCross and BlueShield
38% Optum
37% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 02492 see their clients

69% In Person and Online
31% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 02492?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.