Photo of Daniel C Garrity, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Daniel C Garrity
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
I am a Clinical Social Worker and provide psychotherapy in Metrowest Massachusetts. I have been working in the mental health field since 1999. I offer a safe, inclusive and non-judgmental environment for adults. I take an active role in the therapeutic relationship to challenge clients to change and gain clarity. I have a special interest and experience with mens' health, young adults, college students, LGBTQ and adults with learning differences or neuro-atypical / neurodivergent (ADHD, NVLD, Asperger's, high functioning Autism (ASD). I also offer Clinical Supervision to Social Workers.
I am a Clinical Social Worker and provide psychotherapy in Metrowest Massachusetts. I have been working in the mental health field since 1999. I offer a safe, inclusive and non-judgmental environment for adults. I take an active role in the therapeutic relationship to challenge clients to change and gain clarity. I have a special interest and experience with mens' health, young adults, college students, LGBTQ and adults with learning differences or neuro-atypical / neurodivergent (ADHD, NVLD, Asperger's, high functioning Autism (ASD). I also offer Clinical Supervision to Social Workers.
(508) 762-1646 View (508) 762-1646
Photo of Guy Sapirstein, PhD, Psychologist
Guy Sapirstein
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
People come to see me when they feel stuck and have had enough. I help parents help their children; help couples and families get closer and happier; and in general help people successfully resolve issues such as: stress, anxiety, adjustment to new life circumstances (relocation, family changes), relationship issues (divorce, extra-marital affairs, conflict), and dealing with difficult family members. Typical 50 minute sessions don't work for everyone, so I offer longer sessions when appropriate (up to 4 hours), where we use experiential techniques (meditation, sound, movement, Ketamine) to go deeper and facilitate transformation.
People come to see me when they feel stuck and have had enough. I help parents help their children; help couples and families get closer and happier; and in general help people successfully resolve issues such as: stress, anxiety, adjustment to new life circumstances (relocation, family changes), relationship issues (divorce, extra-marital affairs, conflict), and dealing with difficult family members. Typical 50 minute sessions don't work for everyone, so I offer longer sessions when appropriate (up to 4 hours), where we use experiential techniques (meditation, sound, movement, Ketamine) to go deeper and facilitate transformation.
(617) 431-5258 View (617) 431-5258
Photo of Elana Schlesinger November, PsyD, Psychologist
Elana Schlesinger November
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02192
I am a licensed psychologist with over 20 years of experience. My specialties include Child, Adolescent, Adult, and Family Psychotherapy, Parent Consultation, Couples Therapy, and Special Education and 504 Plan Consultation. Through providing a supportive, connected, compassionate environment for my clients, people find the strength to directly explore their struggles and carve a path toward greater calm, happiness, understanding, and acceptance.
I am a licensed psychologist with over 20 years of experience. My specialties include Child, Adolescent, Adult, and Family Psychotherapy, Parent Consultation, Couples Therapy, and Special Education and 504 Plan Consultation. Through providing a supportive, connected, compassionate environment for my clients, people find the strength to directly explore their struggles and carve a path toward greater calm, happiness, understanding, and acceptance.
(617) 785-5219 View (617) 785-5219
Photo of Larissa Kuechen, PhD, Psychologist
Larissa Kuechen
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
Are you looking for a compassionate and experienced child psychologist who can help your child overcome their challenges and thrive? If your child is struggling, you may feel overwhelmed and frustrated by the lack of effective solutions. You are not alone. Many parents face the same difficulties and worries as you do. With the right support and guidance, your child can learn to cope with their symptoms, develop new skills, and improve their quality of life.
Are you looking for a compassionate and experienced child psychologist who can help your child overcome their challenges and thrive? If your child is struggling, you may feel overwhelmed and frustrated by the lack of effective solutions. You are not alone. Many parents face the same difficulties and worries as you do. With the right support and guidance, your child can learn to cope with their symptoms, develop new skills, and improve their quality of life.
(617) 915-4096 View (617) 915-4096
Photo of Sandra Duggan, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sandra Duggan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02192  (Online Only)
I have over twenty years of experience providing psychotherapy for couples, adolescents, adults and families. My style is interactive, warm and compassionate. I offer easily usable strategies along with deeper dives to help improve how a client is feeling. I believe in using clients' strengths to help inform the work we do together. I believe in understanding what is going well as well as understanding where people are struggling. I have a strong respect for all of my clients and believe in providing a safe, trusting environment so clients have space to discuss what feels challenging at this time.
I have over twenty years of experience providing psychotherapy for couples, adolescents, adults and families. My style is interactive, warm and compassionate. I offer easily usable strategies along with deeper dives to help improve how a client is feeling. I believe in using clients' strengths to help inform the work we do together. I believe in understanding what is going well as well as understanding where people are struggling. I have a strong respect for all of my clients and believe in providing a safe, trusting environment so clients have space to discuss what feels challenging at this time.
(617) 420-7545 View (617) 420-7545
Photo of Lisa Kantor, PsyD, Psychologist
Lisa Kantor
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02192
Personal life transitions, relationship challenges, and school or career junctures present ideal opportunities to engage a therapist. By developing self-awareness and committing to improving outcomes in one's work and personal life, individuals often achieve far more than they'd previously imagined. As a psychologist and coach, I integrate the use of inquiry, insight, creative problem-solving, thoughtful self-reflection, hands-on "homework" assignments, and honest conversation. I will fully engage with you as a thought partner, a sounding board, and a confidential resource to help you alleviate stress and reach your potential.
Personal life transitions, relationship challenges, and school or career junctures present ideal opportunities to engage a therapist. By developing self-awareness and committing to improving outcomes in one's work and personal life, individuals often achieve far more than they'd previously imagined. As a psychologist and coach, I integrate the use of inquiry, insight, creative problem-solving, thoughtful self-reflection, hands-on "homework" assignments, and honest conversation. I will fully engage with you as a thought partner, a sounding board, and a confidential resource to help you alleviate stress and reach your potential.
(617) 855-7904 View (617) 855-7904
Photo of Katie Dobbin Binda, MSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Katie Dobbin Binda
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
People seek out therapy for a variety of reasons. For some, it’s to find ways to manage the worry of a cancer diagnosis or other acute/chronic illness. For others, it’s to help cope with the grief of losing someone they love. Some are looking for support around depression and anxiety. Others hope to explore strategies to manage the daily stress they experience - at home and/or at work. At times, we all need some extra support. Therapy can help. You’ll discover more about yourself and your strengths, better understand your relationships and build tools and strategies to help you navigate the challenges in your life.
People seek out therapy for a variety of reasons. For some, it’s to find ways to manage the worry of a cancer diagnosis or other acute/chronic illness. For others, it’s to help cope with the grief of losing someone they love. Some are looking for support around depression and anxiety. Others hope to explore strategies to manage the daily stress they experience - at home and/or at work. At times, we all need some extra support. Therapy can help. You’ll discover more about yourself and your strengths, better understand your relationships and build tools and strategies to help you navigate the challenges in your life.
(617) 379-6476 View (617) 379-6476
Photo of Kaylee D Murphy, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kaylee D Murphy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192  (Online Only)
Are you going through a stressful time right now? I can help. Hello, My name is Kaylee Murphy and I help people who are going through challenging times in their lives. What I love about the work I do is that although I initially see people at a low point, as we work together they find the courage, skills, and resilience that transforms their pain and ultimately their situation. It is an honor to be a part of their journey.
Are you going through a stressful time right now? I can help. Hello, My name is Kaylee Murphy and I help people who are going through challenging times in their lives. What I love about the work I do is that although I initially see people at a low point, as we work together they find the courage, skills, and resilience that transforms their pain and ultimately their situation. It is an honor to be a part of their journey.
(617) 539-7357 View (617) 539-7357
Photo of Cheryl Sutherland, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Cheryl Sutherland
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192  (Online Only)
Licensed in MA and NH. COUPLES only practice! If you want to change the "dance" (repeated negative cycle) you have with your significant other, Emotionally Focused Therapy can help. In fact, we have a roadmap to do just that. EFT is the only couple therapy with an effectiveness rating of over 90% (www.iceeft.com). As a Certified EFT therapist & ICEEFT-approved Clinical Supervisor-in-Training, I have advanced training in this scientifically-proven treatment for repairing a couple's relationship.
Licensed in MA and NH. COUPLES only practice! If you want to change the "dance" (repeated negative cycle) you have with your significant other, Emotionally Focused Therapy can help. In fact, we have a roadmap to do just that. EFT is the only couple therapy with an effectiveness rating of over 90% (www.iceeft.com). As a Certified EFT therapist & ICEEFT-approved Clinical Supervisor-in-Training, I have advanced training in this scientifically-proven treatment for repairing a couple's relationship.
(978) 616-3240 View (978) 616-3240
Photo of Dr. Tim Ridge, PsyD, LMHC, LMFT, Psychologist
Dr. Tim Ridge
Psychologist, PsyD, LMHC, LMFT
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
Are you dealing with anxiety, sadness, shame, grief, trauma or stuff you really want to let go of in your life? Or perhaps you are feeling a sense of not being good enough, struggling with confidence and self-criticism? Pain may show up as feeling numb or angry, withdrawing from school or work, family and friends. Hiding the stress doesn't help you feel better. My approach is collaborative and non-judgmental, focused on helping you deal with pain from the past and deal with present challenges with greater ease and confidence. If you'd like to feel better about yourself and your life, I can help you get there.
Are you dealing with anxiety, sadness, shame, grief, trauma or stuff you really want to let go of in your life? Or perhaps you are feeling a sense of not being good enough, struggling with confidence and self-criticism? Pain may show up as feeling numb or angry, withdrawing from school or work, family and friends. Hiding the stress doesn't help you feel better. My approach is collaborative and non-judgmental, focused on helping you deal with pain from the past and deal with present challenges with greater ease and confidence. If you'd like to feel better about yourself and your life, I can help you get there.
(781) 990-0825 View (781) 990-0825
Photo of Allison Barton, LMHC, Counselor
Allison Barton
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192  (Online Only)
Feeling stuck in the same patterns? I help people managing stress, anxiety, ADHD, parenting issues, eating disorders and body dysmorphia, depression, relationship issues, and chronic health problems (specifically organ transplants). I provide a non-judgmental space to work through emotions and life circumstances, to find connection and support, and be a non-biased sounding board. I work with each of my clients to help identify where they are feeling stuck in life, what kind of changes they envision, barriers that are getting in the way, and how work around those barriers.
Feeling stuck in the same patterns? I help people managing stress, anxiety, ADHD, parenting issues, eating disorders and body dysmorphia, depression, relationship issues, and chronic health problems (specifically organ transplants). I provide a non-judgmental space to work through emotions and life circumstances, to find connection and support, and be a non-biased sounding board. I work with each of my clients to help identify where they are feeling stuck in life, what kind of changes they envision, barriers that are getting in the way, and how work around those barriers.
(339) 229-6109 View (339) 229-6109
Photo of Komal Gupta, PsyD, Psychologist
Komal Gupta
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
I am a clinical psychologist in private practice in Newton Upper Falls, Massachusetts. I specialize in helping adults navigate challenges with their family, relationships, parenthood, and culture(s) that impact their well-being. Life is often complicated, painful and messy. We all have experiences that can be difficult to navigate alone and times when we would benefit from extra support. We might know the changes we want to make but may not completely understand what is getting in the way of making those changes. We will work together to create a space in which you can speak honestly about what you are thinking and feeling.
I am a clinical psychologist in private practice in Newton Upper Falls, Massachusetts. I specialize in helping adults navigate challenges with their family, relationships, parenthood, and culture(s) that impact their well-being. Life is often complicated, painful and messy. We all have experiences that can be difficult to navigate alone and times when we would benefit from extra support. We might know the changes we want to make but may not completely understand what is getting in the way of making those changes. We will work together to create a space in which you can speak honestly about what you are thinking and feeling.
View
Photo of Pamela Slater, PhD, Psychologist
Pamela Slater
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192  (Online Only)
It takes courage to decide to change and to reach out to a therapist to join you on that journey. The best outcomes occur in the context of a therapeutic relationship that feels like the right match for you, in terms of the therapist's interpersonal style, approach, and expertise. My goal as a therapist is to collaborate with my clients to make the changes they are seeking in their relationships, their self-understanding, their unwanted patterns of behavior, and their mood. My approach is active, supportive, warm, respectful, compassionate, and strength-focused. I use multiple approaches to help clients find solutions.
It takes courage to decide to change and to reach out to a therapist to join you on that journey. The best outcomes occur in the context of a therapeutic relationship that feels like the right match for you, in terms of the therapist's interpersonal style, approach, and expertise. My goal as a therapist is to collaborate with my clients to make the changes they are seeking in their relationships, their self-understanding, their unwanted patterns of behavior, and their mood. My approach is active, supportive, warm, respectful, compassionate, and strength-focused. I use multiple approaches to help clients find solutions.
(781) 230-6218 View (781) 230-6218
Photo of Jackie Washington, MSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jackie Washington
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
Welcome! My goal is to provide a non-judgmental, warm, safe space for individuals and families to process their thoughts, feelings, obstacles, and traumas. Whether it’s every day stressors, debilitating anxiety, depression, or significant family conflict, my hope is that the therapeutic process will provide insight and skills for my clients to live their best lives.
Welcome! My goal is to provide a non-judgmental, warm, safe space for individuals and families to process their thoughts, feelings, obstacles, and traumas. Whether it’s every day stressors, debilitating anxiety, depression, or significant family conflict, my hope is that the therapeutic process will provide insight and skills for my clients to live their best lives.
(781) 705-7321 View (781) 705-7321
Photo of undefined - Blue Moon Senior Counseling, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Blue Moon Senior Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192  (Online Only)
We provide In-Home counseling to Medicare beneficiaries. We understand that transportation can be a huge barrier to receiving counseling services. This is why Blue Moon Senior Counseling comes to you to provide sessions in your home.
We provide In-Home counseling to Medicare beneficiaries. We understand that transportation can be a huge barrier to receiving counseling services. This is why Blue Moon Senior Counseling comes to you to provide sessions in your home.
(754) 208-0193 View (754) 208-0193
Photo of Melissa Stone, PsyD, Psychologist
Melissa Stone
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
Not accepting new clients
** I AM NOT CURRENTLY ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS ** I have spent the first part of my career in integrated care and women’s health medical centers. In these settings I have worked with adults from diverse backgrounds seeking therapy for a range of concerns including perinatal depression and anxiety, chronic pain, chronic medical conditions, fertility/infertility, life and relationship transitions, and weight management.
** I AM NOT CURRENTLY ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS ** I have spent the first part of my career in integrated care and women’s health medical centers. In these settings I have worked with adults from diverse backgrounds seeking therapy for a range of concerns including perinatal depression and anxiety, chronic pain, chronic medical conditions, fertility/infertility, life and relationship transitions, and weight management.
(857) 271-5645 View (857) 271-5645
Photo of Blaire Melius, LICSW, PMHC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Blaire Melius
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, PMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02192  (Online Only)
Is your experience with fertility, pregnancy, postpartum, or parenting not going as you expected it might? Instead of joy, are you having feelings of anxiety, sadness, overwhelm, stress, worry, and/or grief? Though these experiences are completely normal to have, they do not have to stay that way. If you’re struggling with fertility challenges, pregnancy, postpartum, the transition to parenthood, or being a parent, I'm here to connect.
Is your experience with fertility, pregnancy, postpartum, or parenting not going as you expected it might? Instead of joy, are you having feelings of anxiety, sadness, overwhelm, stress, worry, and/or grief? Though these experiences are completely normal to have, they do not have to stay that way. If you’re struggling with fertility challenges, pregnancy, postpartum, the transition to parenthood, or being a parent, I'm here to connect.
(508) 901-2982 View (508) 901-2982
Photo of Elaine Boyer, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Elaine Boyer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
As a thirty year veteran in Clinical Social Work, I worked for many years at the premier Harvard teaching hospital for Psychiatry in Boston.. I am an eclectic therapist. My clinical work is based upon a psychodynamic foundation to which I have integrated Cognitive and/or Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Mindfulness and Relaxation Training, Family Systems Models and Coaching. In my initial assessment and subsequent work with each individual, I strive to listen as closely as possible to the feeling experience of the client and help each person develop an understanding and perspective of their life experience.
As a thirty year veteran in Clinical Social Work, I worked for many years at the premier Harvard teaching hospital for Psychiatry in Boston.. I am an eclectic therapist. My clinical work is based upon a psychodynamic foundation to which I have integrated Cognitive and/or Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Mindfulness and Relaxation Training, Family Systems Models and Coaching. In my initial assessment and subsequent work with each individual, I strive to listen as closely as possible to the feeling experience of the client and help each person develop an understanding and perspective of their life experience.
(857) 214-4753 View (857) 214-4753
Photo of Nicki Roth, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Nicki Roth
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Needham, MA 02192
Currently accepting new patients in person and online- Are you feeling overwhelmed, stuck, out of control, or unable to communicate? In my work I meet with adolescents, adults, young adults, and couples. Together we work towards addressing whatever challenges you are facing, including anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, and trauma. You are the expert in your own life, and working together we will find solutions to challenges, inspire hope, find humor, and gain a deeper understanding of what brings you joy.
Currently accepting new patients in person and online- Are you feeling overwhelmed, stuck, out of control, or unable to communicate? In my work I meet with adolescents, adults, young adults, and couples. Together we work towards addressing whatever challenges you are facing, including anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, and trauma. You are the expert in your own life, and working together we will find solutions to challenges, inspire hope, find humor, and gain a deeper understanding of what brings you joy.
(781) 776-1296 View (781) 776-1296
Photo of Alyssa Milot Travers, PhD, Psychologist
Alyssa Milot Travers
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Needham, MA 02192
Welcome! As a child and adolescent psychologist, I am passionate about providing empowering and empathic care to children, teens, and their families. I specialize in neuropsychological, psychological, and educational evaluations for children, teens, and young adults (ages 6 through college), and I also provide intelligence testing for private school admissions. Evaluations are a powerful tool to help children, teens, and their families better understand their unique strengths, passions, and areas of growth and need.
Welcome! As a child and adolescent psychologist, I am passionate about providing empowering and empathic care to children, teens, and their families. I specialize in neuropsychological, psychological, and educational evaluations for children, teens, and young adults (ages 6 through college), and I also provide intelligence testing for private school admissions. Evaluations are a powerful tool to help children, teens, and their families better understand their unique strengths, passions, and areas of growth and need.
(508) 403-7958 View (508) 403-7958

See more therapy options for 02192

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 02192

30+

Average cost per session

$200

Therapists in 02192 who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
84% Depression
82% Self Esteem
79% Stress
74% Relationship Issues
71% Life Transitions
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

69% BlueCross and BlueShield
56% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
56% Optum

How Therapists in 02192 see their clients

69% In Person and Online
31% Online Only

Gender breakdown

90% Female
10% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 02192?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.