Counselling in Manchester

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Photo of Maliha Neesa, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Maliha Neesa
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M20  (Online Only)
Be a lamp, or a lifeboat, or a ladder. Help someone's soul heal'. (Rumi). As a therapist, for me this sums up counselling in one short sentence, which is helping and facilitating the healing process. I am a fully qualified person-centred, and integrative therapist. I offer safe, non-judgemental, confidential therapy for you to explore your concerns and issues. Having a non-judgemental and supportive manner is essential in the work I do with people. I feel this allows people to be more comfortable within the process of therapy and allows them to safely explore the issues they are bringing to therapy.
Be a lamp, or a lifeboat, or a ladder. Help someone's soul heal'. (Rumi). As a therapist, for me this sums up counselling in one short sentence, which is helping and facilitating the healing process. I am a fully qualified person-centred, and integrative therapist. I offer safe, non-judgemental, confidential therapy for you to explore your concerns and issues. Having a non-judgemental and supportive manner is essential in the work I do with people. I feel this allows people to be more comfortable within the process of therapy and allows them to safely explore the issues they are bringing to therapy.
0161 524 2212 View 0161 524 2212
Photo of Anamaria Tigan, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Anamaria Tigan
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M21
I often tell my clients (and remind myself!) that uncertainty, loss, and worry - are all parts of being human. Yet, sometimes, it all may become overwhelming. What used to help, no longer does, and we end up feeling stuck in a pattern. We might struggle in relationships, at work, and more. Therapy can help you make sense of it all, to find clarity. As your therapist, I will support you to carefully and safely unpack any difficulties you might be facing. We will work together to understand all those parts of you, that make you who you are. We will do so with curiosity, honesty, and a sense of humour (where appropriate, of course).
I often tell my clients (and remind myself!) that uncertainty, loss, and worry - are all parts of being human. Yet, sometimes, it all may become overwhelming. What used to help, no longer does, and we end up feeling stuck in a pattern. We might struggle in relationships, at work, and more. Therapy can help you make sense of it all, to find clarity. As your therapist, I will support you to carefully and safely unpack any difficulties you might be facing. We will work together to understand all those parts of you, that make you who you are. We will do so with curiosity, honesty, and a sense of humour (where appropriate, of course).
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Photo of Zoe Moss, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Zoe Moss
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M21
I am a Counsellor and Psychotherapist based in Chorlton, South Manchester, offering in-person, online and walk and talk sessions. You may be struggling with a specific issue or pattern of behaviour and know already what you would like to talk about. Alternatively, you may be feeling anxious or depressed and need support with processing your feelings and emotions. Counselling may be able to offer a fresh perspective, or support you to make changes needed to get you to a better place. I offer space to talk and discuss current and past events. I am very open minded, nonjudgmental and happy to talk about difficult or challenging issues
I am a Counsellor and Psychotherapist based in Chorlton, South Manchester, offering in-person, online and walk and talk sessions. You may be struggling with a specific issue or pattern of behaviour and know already what you would like to talk about. Alternatively, you may be feeling anxious or depressed and need support with processing your feelings and emotions. Counselling may be able to offer a fresh perspective, or support you to make changes needed to get you to a better place. I offer space to talk and discuss current and past events. I am very open minded, nonjudgmental and happy to talk about difficult or challenging issues
0161 524 0976 View 0161 524 0976
Photo of Nellie Macharia - Graceful Growth , MA, GMBPsS, Psychologist
Graceful Growth
Psychologist, MA, GMBPsS
Verified Verified
Manchester M19  (Online Only)
Hi, are you feeling weighed down by feelings of depression, anxiety, panic, anger, or stress? Are you unhappy with your marriage or relationship?Come, let's talk.
Hi, are you feeling weighed down by feelings of depression, anxiety, panic, anger, or stress? Are you unhappy with your marriage or relationship?Come, let's talk.
01538 712381 View 01538 712381
Photo of Alexandra Harper, MSc, GMBPsS, Psychologist
Alexandra Harper
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified Verified
Manchester M3
Are you a busy, driven athlete or professional who’s keen to perform at their best but is currently struggling with a particular emotional state, maybe in the form of sudden onsets of anger, anxiety or low mood which feel difficult to resolve? Do you want to be happier or perform better? Are you not reaching your potential due to unhelpful emotional states, not understanding or expressing your emotions, feeling lost or demotivated, or arguing with loved ones? Are you looking for a therapist who is committed to helping you feel happier and reach or even exceed your goals efficiently and effectively?
Are you a busy, driven athlete or professional who’s keen to perform at their best but is currently struggling with a particular emotional state, maybe in the form of sudden onsets of anger, anxiety or low mood which feel difficult to resolve? Do you want to be happier or perform better? Are you not reaching your potential due to unhelpful emotional states, not understanding or expressing your emotions, feeling lost or demotivated, or arguing with loved ones? Are you looking for a therapist who is committed to helping you feel happier and reach or even exceed your goals efficiently and effectively?
01707 241515 View 01707 241515
Photo of Diane Judith Adderley, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Diane Judith Adderley
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Manchester M25
I am a qualified psychotherapist, life coach, trainer and supervisor, with over 20 years experience in private practice. I work with adults who may be encountering life's stressors to a greater-than-usual degree or may be struggling to find their way forward in a diverse range of circumstances. These may be from personal or professional sources but usually involve our own, perhaps not very helpful, habitual ways of dealing with such difficulties - we all can revert to old habits in times of trouble. I am available to do both short- and long-term work according to need.
I am a qualified psychotherapist, life coach, trainer and supervisor, with over 20 years experience in private practice. I work with adults who may be encountering life's stressors to a greater-than-usual degree or may be struggling to find their way forward in a diverse range of circumstances. These may be from personal or professional sources but usually involve our own, perhaps not very helpful, habitual ways of dealing with such difficulties - we all can revert to old habits in times of trouble. I am available to do both short- and long-term work according to need.
01890 230083 View 01890 230083
Photo of Esther Calek, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Esther Calek
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M25
Hi, if you are reading this, congratulations on taking the first step on reaching out for help. I imagine you are going through a rocky period, or maybe have come through a tough time and would like to reflect and feel emotionally stable again. Or perhaps you are simply interested in doing some work on resilience. Whatever your goal is I am here to support you in an empathic, supportive and confidential environment.
Hi, if you are reading this, congratulations on taking the first step on reaching out for help. I imagine you are going through a rocky period, or maybe have come through a tough time and would like to reflect and feel emotionally stable again. Or perhaps you are simply interested in doing some work on resilience. Whatever your goal is I am here to support you in an empathic, supportive and confidential environment.
0161 524 4057 View 0161 524 4057
Photo of Khurshid Ali - Breakthrough Counselling, Psychotherapist
Breakthrough Counselling
Psychotherapist
Verified Verified
Manchester M1
I have been offering listening support in various roles for the past 10 years. I am able to help you with anger, depression, bullying, relationships, anxiety, confidence, loneliness, isolation and many more. Do you sometimes feel suicidal and feel there is no way forward? I can provide you with a listening empathic ear, to understand why you feel suicidal and work with you, so that you may find the reason why, and work with with you to see a better future.
I have been offering listening support in various roles for the past 10 years. I am able to help you with anger, depression, bullying, relationships, anxiety, confidence, loneliness, isolation and many more. Do you sometimes feel suicidal and feel there is no way forward? I can provide you with a listening empathic ear, to understand why you feel suicidal and work with you, so that you may find the reason why, and work with with you to see a better future.
0161 696 1030 View 0161 696 1030
Photo of Patrick John Breheny, BACP, Counsellor
Patrick John Breheny
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M19
I am an experienced and qualified Integrative Counsellor and Psychotherapist. I am registered with the BACP (British Association For Counselling & Psychotherapy). My name is Patrick Breheny, I am a father of three young boys and Husband. I believe in good communication both in my personal life and professional life, I have a strong belief that Counselling is a way of life and I use the foundations of Counselling to enhance all my relationships. Born in Manchester I am familiar with the culture and the togetherness Manchester brings to peoples lives.
I am an experienced and qualified Integrative Counsellor and Psychotherapist. I am registered with the BACP (British Association For Counselling & Psychotherapy). My name is Patrick Breheny, I am a father of three young boys and Husband. I believe in good communication both in my personal life and professional life, I have a strong belief that Counselling is a way of life and I use the foundations of Counselling to enhance all my relationships. Born in Manchester I am familiar with the culture and the togetherness Manchester brings to peoples lives.
0161 850 4987 View 0161 850 4987
Photo of Sasha Alexander England - Alexander Psychotherapy, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Alexander Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Manchester M1
If you are looking at my profile you maybe struggling with anxiety or stress, perhaps you feel sad all the time and feel a lack of motivation in life. I maybe of some help to you. I specialise in working with clients who may feel overwhelmed by their responses to life's challenges, perhaps as the result of childhood trauma or other big life events. I can offer you emotional support, a space to explore the root cause of your issues, and provide coping strategies to help manage stress and anxiety better.
If you are looking at my profile you maybe struggling with anxiety or stress, perhaps you feel sad all the time and feel a lack of motivation in life. I maybe of some help to you. I specialise in working with clients who may feel overwhelmed by their responses to life's challenges, perhaps as the result of childhood trauma or other big life events. I can offer you emotional support, a space to explore the root cause of your issues, and provide coping strategies to help manage stress and anxiety better.
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Photo of Yasmin Dewan, PsychD, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Yasmin Dewan
Psychotherapist, PsychD, MBACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M21
With my brother diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia nearly 30 years ago, I have personal experience of the family sacrifices and struggles related to the pain and stigma of mental illness. Having since, committing my life to the improvement of people’s emotional fitness and mental resilience, with support from organisations such as SANE and MIND, my own journey has allowed me to discover the true benefits of therapy first-hand. Personal therapy is proving invaluable for people to manage certain difficult or crisis situations in their lives and so transform their problems into major opportunities for personal growth.
With my brother diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia nearly 30 years ago, I have personal experience of the family sacrifices and struggles related to the pain and stigma of mental illness. Having since, committing my life to the improvement of people’s emotional fitness and mental resilience, with support from organisations such as SANE and MIND, my own journey has allowed me to discover the true benefits of therapy first-hand. Personal therapy is proving invaluable for people to manage certain difficult or crisis situations in their lives and so transform their problems into major opportunities for personal growth.
0161 694 7381 View 0161 694 7381
Photo of Michael Halpin, MBACP, Counsellor
Michael Halpin
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Manchester M21
Making the decision to reach out and admit that you need the help of someone else can be hard. Making the decision to attend counselling can be even harder. Partners, peers and family may not understand, you may feel like you've failed somehow, you may feel like you are not enough. We also know that this is far from the truth. Taking the step to attend counselling is often the first step on a journey that allows us to confront our difficulties, face our fears, become more self-aware and ultimately take a path that can lead to a better life.
Making the decision to reach out and admit that you need the help of someone else can be hard. Making the decision to attend counselling can be even harder. Partners, peers and family may not understand, you may feel like you've failed somehow, you may feel like you are not enough. We also know that this is far from the truth. Taking the step to attend counselling is often the first step on a journey that allows us to confront our difficulties, face our fears, become more self-aware and ultimately take a path that can lead to a better life.
0161 524 1442 View 0161 524 1442
Photo of Sue Antrobus, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Sue Antrobus
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M2
Hello! I specialise in working with women who have depression, anxiety, stress, anger issues, addictions, low self-esteem, relationship difficulties, or who wish to explore and deal with trauma or abuse from their past and the impact it is having on their lives today. I have expertise in and I am certified in the clinical treatment of clients who present with complex psychological trauma. I believe the key to healing is in supporting you to transform how your mind, body and soul remembers what has happened to you. This involves bringing to consciousness your patterns and supporting you to heal, change and grow.
Hello! I specialise in working with women who have depression, anxiety, stress, anger issues, addictions, low self-esteem, relationship difficulties, or who wish to explore and deal with trauma or abuse from their past and the impact it is having on their lives today. I have expertise in and I am certified in the clinical treatment of clients who present with complex psychological trauma. I believe the key to healing is in supporting you to transform how your mind, body and soul remembers what has happened to you. This involves bringing to consciousness your patterns and supporting you to heal, change and grow.
0161 850 3558 View 0161 850 3558
Photo of Laura McGrath - South Manchester Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
South Manchester Psychologist
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Manchester M20
I am an experienced HCPC registered clinical psychologist with over 10 years post-qualification experience. Based in Didsbury, South Manchester, I offer psychological assessment and therapy to young people and adults. I have seen the transformative power of psychological therapy personally and in the hundreds of clients I have worked with over the years so I am passionate about my work. I understand the importance of providing a safe, compassionate and nonjudgemental space for my clients. In my spare time I enjoy spending time with my family, being outdoors, walking and yoga.
I am an experienced HCPC registered clinical psychologist with over 10 years post-qualification experience. Based in Didsbury, South Manchester, I offer psychological assessment and therapy to young people and adults. I have seen the transformative power of psychological therapy personally and in the hundreds of clients I have worked with over the years so I am passionate about my work. I understand the importance of providing a safe, compassionate and nonjudgemental space for my clients. In my spare time I enjoy spending time with my family, being outdoors, walking and yoga.
0161 524 1707 View 0161 524 1707
Photo of Stephanie J. Mace, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Stephanie J. Mace
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M1
I’m an experienced psychotherapist and a registered member of the British Association of Counselling & Psychotherapy [BACP]. I offer a supportive, safe and confidential space where clients are helped to explore and understand difficulties arising from past or present experiences, and future anxieties. Located in Manchester city centre for in-person sessions, and available for remote sessions online (via Zoom)
I’m an experienced psychotherapist and a registered member of the British Association of Counselling & Psychotherapy [BACP]. I offer a supportive, safe and confidential space where clients are helped to explore and understand difficulties arising from past or present experiences, and future anxieties. Located in Manchester city centre for in-person sessions, and available for remote sessions online (via Zoom)
01707 241845 View 01707 241845
Photo of Dr Mark Widdowson, PhD, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Dr Mark Widdowson
Psychotherapist, PhD, MUKCP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Manchester M1
Waitlist for new clients
I have almost 30 years experience as it a psychotherapist and have worked with an extensive range of issues and in many different settings over that time. I am visiting professor of psychotherapy at Adam Mickiewicz University, director of Manchester Psychotherapy Foundation and former senior lecturer in psychotherapy at University of Salford. I teach psychotherapists around Europe. After initially training in counselling, I then completed Transactional Analysis psychotherapy training. I am a teaching and supervising Transactional analyst. I am also an accredited EMDR therapist. I work in a time limited format of up to 20 sessions
I have almost 30 years experience as it a psychotherapist and have worked with an extensive range of issues and in many different settings over that time. I am visiting professor of psychotherapy at Adam Mickiewicz University, director of Manchester Psychotherapy Foundation and former senior lecturer in psychotherapy at University of Salford. I teach psychotherapists around Europe. After initially training in counselling, I then completed Transactional Analysis psychotherapy training. I am a teaching and supervising Transactional analyst. I am also an accredited EMDR therapist. I work in a time limited format of up to 20 sessions
07970 541816 View 07970 541816
Photo of Kirsty Lucas-Smyth, MSc, Psychotherapist
Kirsty Lucas-Smyth
Psychotherapist, MSc
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Manchester M44  (Online Only)
I am a qualified CBT Psychotherapist, who supports young people and adults who are struggling with mental health difficulties, such as depression and/or anxiety. I can support you to understand your current difficulties, where they may be stemming from, and what may be impacting upon the way you think, feel and behave. We can identify your goals for therapy together, and what 'feeling better' means for you. Whether you prefer to talk things through, or a more active approach, I will tailor therapy to meet your goals.
I am a qualified CBT Psychotherapist, who supports young people and adults who are struggling with mental health difficulties, such as depression and/or anxiety. I can support you to understand your current difficulties, where they may be stemming from, and what may be impacting upon the way you think, feel and behave. We can identify your goals for therapy together, and what 'feeling better' means for you. Whether you prefer to talk things through, or a more active approach, I will tailor therapy to meet your goals.
0161 524 3182 View 0161 524 3182
Photo of Celestine Uzoma Orajiaka - Crown Therapies and Wellbeing, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Crown Therapies and Wellbeing
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Manchester M24
Greetings and welcome to my profile. I am a Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapist (CBT). CBT is a talking therapy that looks at the the connections between how you think, feel and behave. Are you struggling with anxiety or depression, feeling overwhelmed and out of control? Have you experienced loss and trauma and don't appear to move on with your life? Does this have negative impact on your life, family and job? Are you on a long NHS waiting list? Your first step could be to find professional support to assist you get your life back on track.
Greetings and welcome to my profile. I am a Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapist (CBT). CBT is a talking therapy that looks at the the connections between how you think, feel and behave. Are you struggling with anxiety or depression, feeling overwhelmed and out of control? Have you experienced loss and trauma and don't appear to move on with your life? Does this have negative impact on your life, family and job? Are you on a long NHS waiting list? Your first step could be to find professional support to assist you get your life back on track.
0161 524 1282 View 0161 524 1282
Photo of Charles Brooks, MSc, BACP, Counsellor
Charles Brooks
Counsellor, MSc, BACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M20
Taking the step to speak to someone, whether you have done this before or it is your first time, can feel daunting. You’re likely here because there’s something you’re going through at the moment; you’ve given this a lot of thought, looked at your options and are trying to find someone who you can talk to about all this.
Taking the step to speak to someone, whether you have done this before or it is your first time, can feel daunting. You’re likely here because there’s something you’re going through at the moment; you’ve given this a lot of thought, looked at your options and are trying to find someone who you can talk to about all this.
07721 376450 View 07721 376450
Photo of Sophie Ruddle, BACP, Counsellor
Sophie Ruddle
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Manchester M1
Hi there, my name’s Sophie and I’m a Person-Centered Counsellor who works with issues around self-esteem. Low self-esteem can be so impactful, we can feel incredibly stressed, overwhelmed, anxious, a crippling need to people please, feeling unable to say no, always feeling like you’re bottom of the list with everyone and everything coming first. You may feel unheard, unseen, overlooked, taken for granted. Even a feeling of complete disconnect from yourself, unable to connect with the person you felt like you used to be or want to be and unsure of how to reach that person.
Hi there, my name’s Sophie and I’m a Person-Centered Counsellor who works with issues around self-esteem. Low self-esteem can be so impactful, we can feel incredibly stressed, overwhelmed, anxious, a crippling need to people please, feeling unable to say no, always feeling like you’re bottom of the list with everyone and everything coming first. You may feel unheard, unseen, overlooked, taken for granted. Even a feeling of complete disconnect from yourself, unable to connect with the person you felt like you used to be or want to be and unsure of how to reach that person.
07496 415638 View 07496 415638
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See more therapy options for Manchester

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Manchester

800+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in Manchester who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
80% Stress
77% Relationship Issues
67% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

62% Aviva
57% AXA PPP
45% Bupa

How Counsellors in Manchester see their clients

66% In Person and Online
34% Online Only

Gender breakdown

71% Female
27% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Manchester?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.