Therapists in Austin, TX

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Photo of undefined - Conscious Grace Therapy, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Conscious Grace Therapy
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78750
At Conscious Grace Therapy, I work with clients to explore their relationship to self and to develop a life that is a more authentic expression of who they are and how they actually experience the world. My clients often identify feeling so overwhelmed by expectations, responsibilities and challenging experiences that being honest with what they feel, need, desire or experience is often not a realistic option. Instead, they live in the tension of striving to be the person they need to be or are supposed to be.
At Conscious Grace Therapy, I work with clients to explore their relationship to self and to develop a life that is a more authentic expression of who they are and how they actually experience the world. My clients often identify feeling so overwhelmed by expectations, responsibilities and challenging experiences that being honest with what they feel, need, desire or experience is often not a realistic option. Instead, they live in the tension of striving to be the person they need to be or are supposed to be.
(512) 710-2124 View (512) 710-2124
Photo of Chantille Rees, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Chantille Rees
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78754
I believe the transforming power of psychotherapy begins with a connection between you and I. Our conversations create a safe space for you to explore your life and grow in the confidence of your worth, your aspirations, and your life circumstances. From this awareness comes a deeper knowing of yourself and a more effective "hands on" capacity for dealing thoughtfully and constructively with the challenges of life. Together, we define your goals for therapy, and together we create the path to make these goals your reality.
I believe the transforming power of psychotherapy begins with a connection between you and I. Our conversations create a safe space for you to explore your life and grow in the confidence of your worth, your aspirations, and your life circumstances. From this awareness comes a deeper knowing of yourself and a more effective "hands on" capacity for dealing thoughtfully and constructively with the challenges of life. Together, we define your goals for therapy, and together we create the path to make these goals your reality.
(512) 710-1738 View (512) 710-1738
Photo of Karin Amador, MS, LPC-A, NCC
Karin Amador
LPC Associate, MS, LPC-A, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78723
Hello! Whether this is your first time searching for a therapist, or you are deep into your search for a therapist that clicks, I am here to help with your search. I provide a safe, comfortable, collaborative, and nurturing environment for adults and adolescents to begin a journey of self-discovery and take actionable steps toward managing issues such as depression, anxiety, stress, challenging life transitions, and low self-esteem. I help my clients gain an understanding of their thoughts, feelings, relationships, and how they experience life to support them in addressing the barriers that are hindering their personal growth.
Hello! Whether this is your first time searching for a therapist, or you are deep into your search for a therapist that clicks, I am here to help with your search. I provide a safe, comfortable, collaborative, and nurturing environment for adults and adolescents to begin a journey of self-discovery and take actionable steps toward managing issues such as depression, anxiety, stress, challenging life transitions, and low self-esteem. I help my clients gain an understanding of their thoughts, feelings, relationships, and how they experience life to support them in addressing the barriers that are hindering their personal growth.
(512) 866-6268 View (512) 866-6268
Photo of Ellen Smithey, ATR-BC, LPC-A, CCTP
Ellen Smithey
Licensed Professional Counselor Associate, ATR-BC, LPC-A, CCTP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78752  (Online Only)
First and foremost, it takes so much strength to reach out for help and I am glad you are here. It may have taken you a while to get here - maybe your undiagnosed ADHD put it off, or a people-pleasing part of you has put others before yourself, or a perfectionist part that felt bad that you couldn't "fix it" on your own. I believe seeking therapy and inner healing can hold joy and humor as deeply as it can confront and hold pain. My hope is to create a non-judgmental, secure space for you to safely embrace every part of you. Through it all, I will be there alongside you to remind you that you don’t have to carry it all on your own.
First and foremost, it takes so much strength to reach out for help and I am glad you are here. It may have taken you a while to get here - maybe your undiagnosed ADHD put it off, or a people-pleasing part of you has put others before yourself, or a perfectionist part that felt bad that you couldn't "fix it" on your own. I believe seeking therapy and inner healing can hold joy and humor as deeply as it can confront and hold pain. My hope is to create a non-judgmental, secure space for you to safely embrace every part of you. Through it all, I will be there alongside you to remind you that you don’t have to carry it all on your own.
(512) 262-9503 View (512) 262-9503
Photo of Elizabeth Bickel Rolfe, LPC-S, ATR, LCDC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Elizabeth Bickel Rolfe
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-S, ATR, LCDC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78705
I work with adults impacted by substance use and mental health related issues. Are you ready to embark on a journey of self-discovery and transformation? Are you seeking therapy not only to alleviate your immediate distress but also to cultivate a deeper understanding of yourself? I bring a client-centered approach that emphasizes compassion, empathy, and respect for individual experiences.
I work with adults impacted by substance use and mental health related issues. Are you ready to embark on a journey of self-discovery and transformation? Are you seeking therapy not only to alleviate your immediate distress but also to cultivate a deeper understanding of yourself? I bring a client-centered approach that emphasizes compassion, empathy, and respect for individual experiences.
(737) 510-7938 View (737) 510-7938
Photo of Crystal Lillard, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Crystal Lillard
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78719  (Online Only)
I believe life can be challenging enough as is, without having to navigate it with anxiety, depression and racing thoughts. I believe reaching out for help, or just someone to talk to, is the most important thing you can do. Life is stressful, life is messy and sometimes having someone to talk to can help clear your head. Please don’t overthink things, don’t spend hours looking for the “perfect therapist, and over analyze the therapy process. I’m here to help, just reach out that’s the first step!
I believe life can be challenging enough as is, without having to navigate it with anxiety, depression and racing thoughts. I believe reaching out for help, or just someone to talk to, is the most important thing you can do. Life is stressful, life is messy and sometimes having someone to talk to can help clear your head. Please don’t overthink things, don’t spend hours looking for the “perfect therapist, and over analyze the therapy process. I’m here to help, just reach out that’s the first step!
(512) 559-6958 View (512) 559-6958
Photo of Jennifer Rae Comeau, MEd, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jennifer Rae Comeau
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78704  (Online Only)
You are reaching out because you are feeling a call towards something more in your life, and you are realizing that your desire for authentic and joyful connection with yourself and others is worth finding. You're ready to clear away stale patterns that no longer serve you and learn how to create your own unique, brave, and meaningful life. I am here to explore with you as you discover how to create and reclaim a life that is in alignment with what you value most. I have seen caring and honest therapeutic relationships change lives, so if you are ready, please call or email me for a free 15 minute consultation.
You are reaching out because you are feeling a call towards something more in your life, and you are realizing that your desire for authentic and joyful connection with yourself and others is worth finding. You're ready to clear away stale patterns that no longer serve you and learn how to create your own unique, brave, and meaningful life. I am here to explore with you as you discover how to create and reclaim a life that is in alignment with what you value most. I have seen caring and honest therapeutic relationships change lives, so if you are ready, please call or email me for a free 15 minute consultation.
(737) 258-7641 View (737) 258-7641
Photo of M Karen Hampton, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
M Karen Hampton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78759
Finding a sense of peace and fostering intimate relationships are lifelong goals. Whether these goals seem permanently elusive or temporarily unattainable, I help adults travel forward on this journey. Along with my client, I strive to create a safe place in which to explore thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; increase self-awareness; and develop a more satisfying life. While the leap of faith to engage in therapy can be enormous, I believe that the power of therapy to enrich our lives to be even greater. You may wish to check out my videos on my website.
Finding a sense of peace and fostering intimate relationships are lifelong goals. Whether these goals seem permanently elusive or temporarily unattainable, I help adults travel forward on this journey. Along with my client, I strive to create a safe place in which to explore thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; increase self-awareness; and develop a more satisfying life. While the leap of faith to engage in therapy can be enormous, I believe that the power of therapy to enrich our lives to be even greater. You may wish to check out my videos on my website.
(512) 649-2224 View (512) 649-2224
Photo of Elizabeth King, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Elizabeth King
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78729  (Online Only)
Many of our deepest wounds have occurred within relationships and much of our longer lasting and most meaningful healing also occurs within relationships. I believe that counseling is most beneficial when it is based in a safe relationship to explore and understand ourselves and the choices we make. It is my desire to create a safe environment where you can laugh, cry, curse, and authentically express yourself.
Many of our deepest wounds have occurred within relationships and much of our longer lasting and most meaningful healing also occurs within relationships. I believe that counseling is most beneficial when it is based in a safe relationship to explore and understand ourselves and the choices we make. It is my desire to create a safe environment where you can laugh, cry, curse, and authentically express yourself.
(210) 981-6840 View (210) 981-6840
Photo of Nick Mecca, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Nick Mecca
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78705  (Online Only)
Currently accepting new clients! As Billy Cox once said: "Life's greatest difficulties always happen right before life's greatest breakthroughs." Following obtaining a BA in Psychology, I entered the mental health field over 11 years ago. It was there that I found both excitement and purpose in my work with clients who found themselves facing a wide variety of challenging life events and used this drive to complete an MA in Professional Counseling, gaining further certification as a Licensed Professional Counselor. I look forward to helping both teens and adults work on ways to move towards the goals they wish to meet!
Currently accepting new clients! As Billy Cox once said: "Life's greatest difficulties always happen right before life's greatest breakthroughs." Following obtaining a BA in Psychology, I entered the mental health field over 11 years ago. It was there that I found both excitement and purpose in my work with clients who found themselves facing a wide variety of challenging life events and used this drive to complete an MA in Professional Counseling, gaining further certification as a Licensed Professional Counselor. I look forward to helping both teens and adults work on ways to move towards the goals they wish to meet!
(512) 729-3470 View (512) 729-3470
Photo of Quinn K Smelser, PhD, LCPC, RPT
Quinn K Smelser
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, PhD, LCPC, RPT
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78745  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
You have taken a very courageous step in seeking therapy. I have counseled children, families, and individuals at all stages of life. Over the course of my career, I have worked in urban, rural, and suburban communities, under government-funded grants, and through private funding in homes, schools, and residential treatment. Using an integrative approach that is trauma-informed, evidence-based, and family systems oriented, I draw from attachment theory, neurobiology research, systems theory, cognitive-behavioral theory, and existentialism. I also am an approved clinical supervisor in Maryland.
You have taken a very courageous step in seeking therapy. I have counseled children, families, and individuals at all stages of life. Over the course of my career, I have worked in urban, rural, and suburban communities, under government-funded grants, and through private funding in homes, schools, and residential treatment. Using an integrative approach that is trauma-informed, evidence-based, and family systems oriented, I draw from attachment theory, neurobiology research, systems theory, cognitive-behavioral theory, and existentialism. I also am an approved clinical supervisor in Maryland.
(240) 213-7314 View (240) 213-7314
Photo of Ali Putnam, LMFT-A, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Ali Putnam
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, LMFT-A
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78731
Are you seeking help to work through relationship issues? Do you feel unable to communicate with your partner or other people in your life? Do you feel something is missing from your life or relationship?
Are you seeking help to work through relationship issues? Do you feel unable to communicate with your partner or other people in your life? Do you feel something is missing from your life or relationship?
(512) 865-4877 View (512) 865-4877
Photo of Anne R Walker, MA, LPC, LMFT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Anne R Walker
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LMFT
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78759
Although everyone who begins therapy hopes for a more satisfying life, people bring a variety of concerns to their first sessions. In your sessions with me, the emphasis will be on you. You'll find a comfortable place to explore your concerns and dreams and determine how to improve your experiences and relationships. I'll honor who you are--your cultural background, life choices, sexual orientation, and age. I'll offer support and feedback as you work through current and past issues and rediscover strengths that will help you move forward in a positive direction.
Although everyone who begins therapy hopes for a more satisfying life, people bring a variety of concerns to their first sessions. In your sessions with me, the emphasis will be on you. You'll find a comfortable place to explore your concerns and dreams and determine how to improve your experiences and relationships. I'll honor who you are--your cultural background, life choices, sexual orientation, and age. I'll offer support and feedback as you work through current and past issues and rediscover strengths that will help you move forward in a positive direction.
(512) 649-0096 View (512) 649-0096
Photo of Nehemiah R Gutierrez, MEd, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Nehemiah R Gutierrez
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78748  (Online Only)
My approach to counseling is to meet you where you are at and to understand your story to get you where you want to be. Together we will understand your inner wants and needs to form an authentic and genuine self.
My approach to counseling is to meet you where you are at and to understand your story to get you where you want to be. Together we will understand your inner wants and needs to form an authentic and genuine self.
(512) 229-9865 View (512) 229-9865
Photo of Em Manning, LMSW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Em Manning
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMSW
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78723
Are you navigating the complexities of your gender identity, seeking healing from past traumas, or struggling with disordered eating and body image concerns? You might feel overwhelmed, misunderstood, or disconnected from yourself and others. Your goals might include embracing your authentic self, building healthier relationships, overcoming social anxiety, and letting go of perfectionism. You deserve a safe, affirming space where you can explore your identity without judgment, heal from interpersonal violence, and find peace with your body.
Are you navigating the complexities of your gender identity, seeking healing from past traumas, or struggling with disordered eating and body image concerns? You might feel overwhelmed, misunderstood, or disconnected from yourself and others. Your goals might include embracing your authentic self, building healthier relationships, overcoming social anxiety, and letting go of perfectionism. You deserve a safe, affirming space where you can explore your identity without judgment, heal from interpersonal violence, and find peace with your body.
(512) 648-2454 View (512) 648-2454
Photo of Corie Martin, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Corie Martin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78731  (Online Only)
Hello! My name is Corie and I've been a practicing therapist for nearly 10 years. I view myself as a guide and support on your journey toward the life you seek for yourself. My style is compassionate and collaborative, and I bring a calm curiosity to the therapeutic relationship. I have experience working with all ages in diverse mental health settings, and incorporate a variety of methods to assist with issues including grief and loss, relationship and family concerns, substance use, trauma, adjustment, personality disorders and major mental health diagnoses.
Hello! My name is Corie and I've been a practicing therapist for nearly 10 years. I view myself as a guide and support on your journey toward the life you seek for yourself. My style is compassionate and collaborative, and I bring a calm curiosity to the therapeutic relationship. I have experience working with all ages in diverse mental health settings, and incorporate a variety of methods to assist with issues including grief and loss, relationship and family concerns, substance use, trauma, adjustment, personality disorders and major mental health diagnoses.
(737) 258-7330 View (737) 258-7330
Photo of Dr. Kristie Engel, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Kristie Engel
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78738
Is your child struggling? Children, teens and their parents face unprecedented challenges in today's rapidly changing world. Anxiety, depression, learning disabilities, attention problems, school stress, difficult relationships, life transitions, chronic illness, grief, mental illness and other experiences compound the inherent challenges of growing up. You and your child may feel discouraged and alone braving these challenges yet experiencing challenges is universal and affirms our connection to each other. How different would life be if we instinctively embraced this truth and reached out for connection to grow through challenges together?
Is your child struggling? Children, teens and their parents face unprecedented challenges in today's rapidly changing world. Anxiety, depression, learning disabilities, attention problems, school stress, difficult relationships, life transitions, chronic illness, grief, mental illness and other experiences compound the inherent challenges of growing up. You and your child may feel discouraged and alone braving these challenges yet experiencing challenges is universal and affirms our connection to each other. How different would life be if we instinctively embraced this truth and reached out for connection to grow through challenges together?
(512) 549-2903 View (512) 549-2903
Photo of Elizabeth Buckley, MA, LPC Intern
Elizabeth Buckley
LPC Intern, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Austin, TX 78704
Are you struggling with relationships? Do you suffer from deep anxiety or depression? Do you feel stuck or alone? Through my facilitation and guidance of the therapeutic process combined with the safety created in the space between us, we can work toward healing. Therapy with me is highly relational, as I recognize the importance of establishing trust and safety in order for therapy to happen. As a therapist, I utilize an integrative, holistic approach, with IFS, Interpersonal Neurobiology, and Attachment theory as anchoring modalities. My areas of focus include generalized anxiety & depression, relationships & trauma.
Are you struggling with relationships? Do you suffer from deep anxiety or depression? Do you feel stuck or alone? Through my facilitation and guidance of the therapeutic process combined with the safety created in the space between us, we can work toward healing. Therapy with me is highly relational, as I recognize the importance of establishing trust and safety in order for therapy to happen. As a therapist, I utilize an integrative, holistic approach, with IFS, Interpersonal Neurobiology, and Attachment theory as anchoring modalities. My areas of focus include generalized anxiety & depression, relationships & trauma.
(512) 501-2874 View (512) 501-2874
Photo of Monica Alexander, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Monica Alexander
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78737
It is a brave and courageous step to start this healing journey. Have you noticed yourself, or child feel overwhelmed? Have you experienced hurt, that causes you struggles in your daily life and relationships? Do you need a safe space to process difficult emotions or issues? Do you need assistance as a caregiver to connect with your child more? I would be honored to help you navigate any of these life stressors. I want my clients to gain as many skills as possible; leaving therapy feeling well equipped to manage any curve ball thrown your way.
It is a brave and courageous step to start this healing journey. Have you noticed yourself, or child feel overwhelmed? Have you experienced hurt, that causes you struggles in your daily life and relationships? Do you need a safe space to process difficult emotions or issues? Do you need assistance as a caregiver to connect with your child more? I would be honored to help you navigate any of these life stressors. I want my clients to gain as many skills as possible; leaving therapy feeling well equipped to manage any curve ball thrown your way.
(737) 530-4324 View (737) 530-4324
Photo of Lara Dye, MS, PhD, CSAT, Psychologist
Lara Dye
Psychologist, MS, PhD, CSAT
Verified Verified
Austin, TX 78745
My work focuses on helping people struggling with addiction and/or symptoms resulting from childhood relational trauma Over 25 years of experience, I have seen that childhood experiences of neglect or emotional, physical and sexual abuse can cause serious psychological problems. 'Less than nurturing' parenting can cause adulthood anxiety, depression and addiction. Many of my clients have struggled with addictive behaviors using substances (alcohol, drugs) or processes (sex, love, work) to deal with emotional pain. There is a high correlation between painful childhood experiences and addictive behaviors.
My work focuses on helping people struggling with addiction and/or symptoms resulting from childhood relational trauma Over 25 years of experience, I have seen that childhood experiences of neglect or emotional, physical and sexual abuse can cause serious psychological problems. 'Less than nurturing' parenting can cause adulthood anxiety, depression and addiction. Many of my clients have struggled with addictive behaviors using substances (alcohol, drugs) or processes (sex, love, work) to deal with emotional pain. There is a high correlation between painful childhood experiences and addictive behaviors.
(512) 872-4585 View (512) 872-4585

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Austin, TX

3,000+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Austin, TX who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
74% Relationship Issues
73% Self Esteem
70% Stress
69% Trauma and PTSD
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% Aetna
74% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
66% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Austin, TX see their clients

54% In Person and Online
46% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Austin?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.