Photo of Samantha Eisenberg, LCSW, MSW, MEd, LMT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Samantha Eisenberg
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW, MEd, LMT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
I work for The Center For Growth, treating everything from mental health to sex and relationship issues. I can help you manage thing like anxiety and depression as we explore and understand complex emotions in a safe space and find healthy and effective ways to express and release those feelings. We can immerse ourselves in exploration of your past as we make connections and gain understanding of how old patterns show up for you today. Or we can focus on the here and now, identifying what behaviors and thoughts are no longer serving you so you can create new goals that support your growth, in whatever way feels right to you.
I work for The Center For Growth, treating everything from mental health to sex and relationship issues. I can help you manage thing like anxiety and depression as we explore and understand complex emotions in a safe space and find healthy and effective ways to express and release those feelings. We can immerse ourselves in exploration of your past as we make connections and gain understanding of how old patterns show up for you today. Or we can focus on the here and now, identifying what behaviors and thoughts are no longer serving you so you can create new goals that support your growth, in whatever way feels right to you.
(484) 218-2509 View (484) 218-2509
Photo of Daniel Ruckdeschel, PhD, Psychologist
Daniel Ruckdeschel
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Not accepting new clients
Accepting new clients for video sessions during COVID-19 shut-down. While the coronavirus outbreak impacts each of us, individuals who have experienced prior traumatic events, and those predisposed to depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress response, are uniquely vulnerable. Managing these conditions in the context of a complex global health crisis presents a unique challenge. With over 18 years of professional practice, and a specific background, focused on the intersection of mental health, infectious diseases, and complex medical concerns, I feel that I am uniquely capable of helping clients/patients confront that challenge.
Accepting new clients for video sessions during COVID-19 shut-down. While the coronavirus outbreak impacts each of us, individuals who have experienced prior traumatic events, and those predisposed to depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress response, are uniquely vulnerable. Managing these conditions in the context of a complex global health crisis presents a unique challenge. With over 18 years of professional practice, and a specific background, focused on the intersection of mental health, infectious diseases, and complex medical concerns, I feel that I am uniquely capable of helping clients/patients confront that challenge.
(267) 924-4703 View (267) 924-4703
Photo of Erica Speiser Eisenberg, PhD, Psychologist
Erica Speiser Eisenberg
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
When you’re looking for a therapist, one of the most important things is finding someone with whom you can develop a safe, healthy, and trusting relationship. I believe that it is in the context of this kind of relationship, that healing, growth, and learning occur. I’ve had a rich and varied career working as a psychologist and training doctoral students in a range of settings including an inpatient hospital, a clinic for families living with HIV, in community mental health clinics, and in private practice.
When you’re looking for a therapist, one of the most important things is finding someone with whom you can develop a safe, healthy, and trusting relationship. I believe that it is in the context of this kind of relationship, that healing, growth, and learning occur. I’ve had a rich and varied career working as a psychologist and training doctoral students in a range of settings including an inpatient hospital, a clinic for families living with HIV, in community mental health clinics, and in private practice.
(267) 762-1699 View (267) 762-1699
Photo of Pamela Guzman-Tirado, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Pamela Guzman-Tirado
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Pamela Guzman-Tirado is a Licensed Professional Counselor who has been practicing since 2015. She has a Master’s Degree in Clinical Counseling Psychology and a Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology and Mental Health. Pamela is a passionate bilingual mental health clinician committed to fostering a safe, supportive non-judgmental space to cultivate an authentic and collaborative therapeutic relationship. It is her honor to be part of another person’s healing and transformational journey by encouraging the development and achievement of individualized goals.
Pamela Guzman-Tirado is a Licensed Professional Counselor who has been practicing since 2015. She has a Master’s Degree in Clinical Counseling Psychology and a Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology and Mental Health. Pamela is a passionate bilingual mental health clinician committed to fostering a safe, supportive non-judgmental space to cultivate an authentic and collaborative therapeutic relationship. It is her honor to be part of another person’s healing and transformational journey by encouraging the development and achievement of individualized goals.
(267) 489-1768 View (267) 489-1768
Photo of Lisa Grant-Feeley, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Lisa Grant-Feeley
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and I work with individuals and families. My specialties include working with children who have ADHD and explosive behaviors, teens and adults who have symptoms of anxiety and depression, and adults facing life transitions including empty nesters and career and marriage transitions. My clients have found my support helpful in gaining insight into the life they want to create and in developing the skills needed to incorporate change. Since relationship is key in finding success, we establish a foundation of trust and compassion so there is safety in beginning this journey together.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and I work with individuals and families. My specialties include working with children who have ADHD and explosive behaviors, teens and adults who have symptoms of anxiety and depression, and adults facing life transitions including empty nesters and career and marriage transitions. My clients have found my support helpful in gaining insight into the life they want to create and in developing the skills needed to incorporate change. Since relationship is key in finding success, we establish a foundation of trust and compassion so there is safety in beginning this journey together.
(267) 367-6463 View (267) 367-6463
Photo of Ella Chrelashvili, MA, LAC, NCC, Counselor
Ella Chrelashvili
Counselor, MA, LAC, NCC
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Navigating the complexities of the human experience can be hard and confusing. Despite our best efforts to construct a life aligned with our dreams and aspirations, we often find ourselves confronted by waves of pain, anxiety, grief, trauma, depression, stress, and guilt. In the midst of these struggles, it's natural to question ourselves and our behaviors, wondering, “What's wrong with me?” We feel exhausted as we desperately try to change ourselves, seeking any form of relief from the relentless tide of inner turmoil, yet it seems that nothing we do brings the desired results.
Navigating the complexities of the human experience can be hard and confusing. Despite our best efforts to construct a life aligned with our dreams and aspirations, we often find ourselves confronted by waves of pain, anxiety, grief, trauma, depression, stress, and guilt. In the midst of these struggles, it's natural to question ourselves and our behaviors, wondering, “What's wrong with me?” We feel exhausted as we desperately try to change ourselves, seeking any form of relief from the relentless tide of inner turmoil, yet it seems that nothing we do brings the desired results.
(267) 710-9141 View (267) 710-9141
Photo of Nicole Sullivan, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Nicole Sullivan
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Nicole Mastracchio, LMFT is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who believes that life-long self-discovery is how we form better relationships with those around us and better our day-to-day lives. Nicole specializes in working with children and their families through all stages of development. Through her calm demeanor and empathic approach, Nicole helps children, families, and adults gain long lasting change. Nicole graduated from Villanova University with a bachelor's degree in Psychology and earned a master's degree in Couple and Family Therapy from Thomas Jefferson University.
Nicole Mastracchio, LMFT is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who believes that life-long self-discovery is how we form better relationships with those around us and better our day-to-day lives. Nicole specializes in working with children and their families through all stages of development. Through her calm demeanor and empathic approach, Nicole helps children, families, and adults gain long lasting change. Nicole graduated from Villanova University with a bachelor's degree in Psychology and earned a master's degree in Couple and Family Therapy from Thomas Jefferson University.
(267) 310-1461 View (267) 310-1461
Photo of Wendy Nickerson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Wendy Nickerson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
Wendy Nickerson is an LCSW psychotherapist practicing since 2017. She completed an MSW degree at Temple University, Philadelphia PA with a focus on clinical work, following a long term previous career in life sciences. Wendy strives to connect with clients through a safe, respectful, supportive environment, bringing a wide range of life experiences and therapeutic expertise to the sessions. She focuses on anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, relationship challenges, improved self-confidence and connection with others, and has a background in addictions counseling.
Wendy Nickerson is an LCSW psychotherapist practicing since 2017. She completed an MSW degree at Temple University, Philadelphia PA with a focus on clinical work, following a long term previous career in life sciences. Wendy strives to connect with clients through a safe, respectful, supportive environment, bringing a wide range of life experiences and therapeutic expertise to the sessions. She focuses on anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, relationship challenges, improved self-confidence and connection with others, and has a background in addictions counseling.
(267) 551-6527 View (267) 551-6527
Photo of Kayte Roberts, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kayte Roberts
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
Ever feel like you keep hitting the same wall over and over again? Does it seem like no matter what you do, you continue to feel lost/stuck? Our past traumas, experiences, relationships, societal & familial expectations can unconsciously start to dictate the ways that we think about ourselves and how we relate to the world; we start to have trouble seeing ourselves clearly. As a therapist, I strive to provide a safe and validating space to explore the issues and pain that might be holding you back from being your most authentic self; helping to refocus your vision so that you are able to witness your own resilience and unique power.
Ever feel like you keep hitting the same wall over and over again? Does it seem like no matter what you do, you continue to feel lost/stuck? Our past traumas, experiences, relationships, societal & familial expectations can unconsciously start to dictate the ways that we think about ourselves and how we relate to the world; we start to have trouble seeing ourselves clearly. As a therapist, I strive to provide a safe and validating space to explore the issues and pain that might be holding you back from being your most authentic self; helping to refocus your vision so that you are able to witness your own resilience and unique power.
(215) 770-0053 View (215) 770-0053
Photo of undefined - Associates in Corporate Psychology, EdD, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Associates in Corporate Psychology
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdD, LPC
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
We deliver high-quality executive mental health and leadership development programs that drive business success. Unlock peak performance, elevate workplace mental health, and drive business growth. Led by a team of highly skilled corporate psychotherapists, executive performance coaches, and organizational psychologists, we support group and team relations, leadership, communication, high performance, and thriving for healthy, high-performing leaders and teams that drive business success.
We deliver high-quality executive mental health and leadership development programs that drive business success. Unlock peak performance, elevate workplace mental health, and drive business growth. Led by a team of highly skilled corporate psychotherapists, executive performance coaches, and organizational psychologists, we support group and team relations, leadership, communication, high performance, and thriving for healthy, high-performing leaders and teams that drive business success.
(877) 759-0919 View (877) 759-0919
Photo of Emily Sheehan, LPC, MT-BC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Emily Sheehan
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MT-BC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
As a licensed professional counselor and board-certified music therapist, I collaborate with individuals and couples to cultivate increased self-awareness and self-acceptance while building tools to better cope with life’s challenges. I believe that each of us deserves to develop a rich, full understanding of ourselves. While the process of self-inquiry can be challenging, I hold the space to safely explore aspects of self that might feel uncomfortable, with the goal of building a positive, authentic relationship with yourself and others.
As a licensed professional counselor and board-certified music therapist, I collaborate with individuals and couples to cultivate increased self-awareness and self-acceptance while building tools to better cope with life’s challenges. I believe that each of us deserves to develop a rich, full understanding of ourselves. While the process of self-inquiry can be challenging, I hold the space to safely explore aspects of self that might feel uncomfortable, with the goal of building a positive, authentic relationship with yourself and others.
(215) 607-8172 View (215) 607-8172
Photo of undefined - Therapy for Women, MA, LPC, NCC, BCD, Licensed Professional Counselor
Therapy for Women
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC, BCD
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Does any of this sound like you? You're exhausted, anxious and stuck. Life feels overwhelming and no matter what you do, you don't feel good enough. It feels like everyone except you has it "together". Maybe you have all you wanted on paper but it you don't feel fulfilled. You beat yourself up, drink too much or are stuck in the cycle of trying the newest Tiktok welllness trend, hoping this will make you feel better. It's not working and you wonder if you will ever feel happy and content. It's time for a change.
Does any of this sound like you? You're exhausted, anxious and stuck. Life feels overwhelming and no matter what you do, you don't feel good enough. It feels like everyone except you has it "together". Maybe you have all you wanted on paper but it you don't feel fulfilled. You beat yourself up, drink too much or are stuck in the cycle of trying the newest Tiktok welllness trend, hoping this will make you feel better. It's not working and you wonder if you will ever feel happy and content. It's time for a change.
(215) 608-3540 View (215) 608-3540
Photo of Katerina Grady, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Katerina Grady
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
Hello! I am a licensed professional counselor in Pennsylvania, and have worked in the mental health field for three years. I have gained experience working with various treatment modalities, including Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. I provide treatment to children, teens, adults, and families. Lastly, I have extensive experience working individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, and trauma-related disorders.
Hello! I am a licensed professional counselor in Pennsylvania, and have worked in the mental health field for three years. I have gained experience working with various treatment modalities, including Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. I provide treatment to children, teens, adults, and families. Lastly, I have extensive experience working individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, and trauma-related disorders.
(267) 727-2651 View (267) 727-2651
Photo of Maria J Reyes, LPC, MS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Maria J Reyes
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MS
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Waitlist for new clients
Do you need guidance in finding happiness and fulfillment in your life? Do you need someone who can help find your strengths? Are you having trouble achieving healthy relationships because of a traumatic experience? I believe that your past experience made you who you are today. What happened to you will always be a part of you, but it should not define you. I'm here to help you process your past and together we will plan your future. Don't leave yourself alone with your suffering. Let's work together to find meaningful purpose in your life's turmoil.
Do you need guidance in finding happiness and fulfillment in your life? Do you need someone who can help find your strengths? Are you having trouble achieving healthy relationships because of a traumatic experience? I believe that your past experience made you who you are today. What happened to you will always be a part of you, but it should not define you. I'm here to help you process your past and together we will plan your future. Don't leave yourself alone with your suffering. Let's work together to find meaningful purpose in your life's turmoil.
(267) 460-6864 View (267) 460-6864
Photo of Old City Counseling, Licensed Professional Counselor
Old City Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Old City Counseling provides mental health services to children and adults. Conveniently located in the heart of Philadelphia's most historic district, we pride ourselves in delivering comprehensive and compassionate care to members of our community. We offer counseling services via various modalities and look forward to helping you evolve.
Old City Counseling provides mental health services to children and adults. Conveniently located in the heart of Philadelphia's most historic district, we pride ourselves in delivering comprehensive and compassionate care to members of our community. We offer counseling services via various modalities and look forward to helping you evolve.
(267) 263-7494 View (267) 263-7494
Photo of Abby Baker, PC, Counselor
Abby Baker
Counselor, PC
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
I work with couples and individuals to overcome personal obstacles to improve their relationships and overall quality of life. Research has identified that unhealthy relationships can cause both emotional and physical stress, whereas healthy relationships can enhance and improve overall well-being. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and a qualified Counselor Supervisor in the state of PA.
I work with couples and individuals to overcome personal obstacles to improve their relationships and overall quality of life. Research has identified that unhealthy relationships can cause both emotional and physical stress, whereas healthy relationships can enhance and improve overall well-being. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and a qualified Counselor Supervisor in the state of PA.
(267) 490-4211 View (267) 490-4211
Photo of undefined - Dr. Sandra Shachar, Ph.D., PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Sandra Shachar, Ph.D.
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106  (Online Only)
Relationships are my expertise, especially issues of broken trust, poor communication, intimacy and addiction. There is no "perfect partner", but intimate partnerships should be a source of joy, safety and support. Whether you are dating or engaged, married or contemplating divorce, "straight" or LGBTQIA, monogamous or poly, kinky or vanilla, Millenial or retired, you CAN feel understood by one another with deep, joyful connection! With over 40 years of experience, my clinical toolbox is full of skills and concepts that will move you forward together. (Telehealth only. Sorry, no insurance accepted but receipts provided OON.)
Relationships are my expertise, especially issues of broken trust, poor communication, intimacy and addiction. There is no "perfect partner", but intimate partnerships should be a source of joy, safety and support. Whether you are dating or engaged, married or contemplating divorce, "straight" or LGBTQIA, monogamous or poly, kinky or vanilla, Millenial or retired, you CAN feel understood by one another with deep, joyful connection! With over 40 years of experience, my clinical toolbox is full of skills and concepts that will move you forward together. (Telehealth only. Sorry, no insurance accepted but receipts provided OON.)
(215) 650-8779 View (215) 650-8779
Photo of Adriana Castro-Convers, PhD, Psychologist
Adriana Castro-Convers
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Welcome to my page. I’m glad you’re taking the initial steps in searching for a therapist that is a “good fit.” I have many years of experience as an individual and couples therapist assisting others navigate through challenges or simply build on inner strengths in an effort to thrive and manifest their authentic selves. I am happy to assist you in working on the issues that have lead you on this search for a therapist.
Welcome to my page. I’m glad you’re taking the initial steps in searching for a therapist that is a “good fit.” I have many years of experience as an individual and couples therapist assisting others navigate through challenges or simply build on inner strengths in an effort to thrive and manifest their authentic selves. I am happy to assist you in working on the issues that have lead you on this search for a therapist.
(267) 586-2126 View (267) 586-2126
Photo of Victoria Galperin, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Victoria Galperin
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Whether you are trying to navigate day-to-day challenges, improve your awareness and the quality of your relationships, or resolve issues from your past, my goal for our sessions is for you to feel seen, supported and empowered to release the burdens that may hold you back and to move forward. I have twelve years of experience working in community mental and health and group practices with adults and children, in a one on one as well as in a group setting. Currently providing in person and virtual sessions.
Whether you are trying to navigate day-to-day challenges, improve your awareness and the quality of your relationships, or resolve issues from your past, my goal for our sessions is for you to feel seen, supported and empowered to release the burdens that may hold you back and to move forward. I have twelve years of experience working in community mental and health and group practices with adults and children, in a one on one as well as in a group setting. Currently providing in person and virtual sessions.
(267) 662-1721 View (267) 662-1721
Photo of Alison Tripptree, PsyD, Psychologist
Alison Tripptree
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Not accepting new clients
From the beginning of therapy, I want to establish a relationship that feels as comfortable and safe as possible so that we can work collaboratively to decide the direction of therapy. I bring a gentle, calming presence to the relationship, which I balance with active challenge and feedback in order to create the possibility for new behaviors, emotions, and relationship dynamics. . I work from a relational, emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy approach, which emphasizes understanding relationship patterns in the past and present in order to process the emotions related to these experiences.
From the beginning of therapy, I want to establish a relationship that feels as comfortable and safe as possible so that we can work collaboratively to decide the direction of therapy. I bring a gentle, calming presence to the relationship, which I balance with active challenge and feedback in order to create the possibility for new behaviors, emotions, and relationship dynamics. . I work from a relational, emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy approach, which emphasizes understanding relationship patterns in the past and present in order to process the emotions related to these experiences.
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 19106

200+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 19106 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
87% Depression
73% Relationship Issues
73% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
64% Stress
62% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% Aetna
65% Highmark
59% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 19106 see their clients

56% In Person and Online
44% Online Only

Gender breakdown

77% Female
20% Male
3% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 19106?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.