Therapists in Steilacoom, WA

Photo of Lisa Cornell, MA MHP, LMHC , CMHS, Counselor
Lisa Cornell
Counselor, MA MHP, LMHC , CMHS
Verified Verified
Steilacoom, WA 98388  (Online Only)
I have a Master's degree in Psychology from Saint Martins University. I enjoy working with individuals, couples and families. I am also a Child Mental Health Specialist with a background in teaching. My specialty is childhood trauma, (children and adults), grief and PTSD.I practice from a systems prospective incorporating a systemic approach. I help clients look at all aspects of life current and past, to assist them with identifying where I can support them to have fuller, more satisfying experiences and relationships. I support clients empowering themselves to make long term positive changes.
I have a Master's degree in Psychology from Saint Martins University. I enjoy working with individuals, couples and families. I am also a Child Mental Health Specialist with a background in teaching. My specialty is childhood trauma, (children and adults), grief and PTSD.I practice from a systems prospective incorporating a systemic approach. I help clients look at all aspects of life current and past, to assist them with identifying where I can support them to have fuller, more satisfying experiences and relationships. I support clients empowering themselves to make long term positive changes.
(253) 201-1725 View (253) 201-1725
Photo of Brandi Dunham, LICSWA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Brandi Dunham
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSWA
Verified Verified
Steilacoom, WA 98388  (Online Only)
My professional approach is to guide individuals to their own mental health success with a humanistic and strength-based approach. I believe in building strong working relationships with individuals based on confidentiality, trust, and respect.
My professional approach is to guide individuals to their own mental health success with a humanistic and strength-based approach. I believe in building strong working relationships with individuals based on confidentiality, trust, and respect.
(253) 499-7344 View (253) 499-7344
Photo of Shanae Marie Bezusko - Humble Steps Psychotherapy, LICSW, APHSW-C, MSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Humble Steps Psychotherapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, APHSW-C, MSW
Verified Verified
Steilacoom, WA 98388  (Online Only)
Was it difficult to click on this page? Well you did it and if that is your accomplishment for the day then that is one step closer towards healing. It is my belief that healing is a series of small, humble steps leading to transformation. Pain takes many forms, headaches, chronic physical pain, the pain from loss, the pain from one's limitations after a serious diagnosis, the pain from abuse and the pain from the love that you didn't receive. These experiences teaches us some harsh lessons that keep us safe, but they can also keep us trapped.
Was it difficult to click on this page? Well you did it and if that is your accomplishment for the day then that is one step closer towards healing. It is my belief that healing is a series of small, humble steps leading to transformation. Pain takes many forms, headaches, chronic physical pain, the pain from loss, the pain from one's limitations after a serious diagnosis, the pain from abuse and the pain from the love that you didn't receive. These experiences teaches us some harsh lessons that keep us safe, but they can also keep us trapped.
(253) 264-0898 View (253) 264-0898
Photo of Kortnie Williams, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kortnie Williams
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Steilacoom, WA 98388  (Online Only)
My ideal client acknowledges that life is hard and is ready to get tools to work through it! The goal is to gain the tools to combat life’s struggles to include anxiety, depression, life transitions, trauma, negative self-image, and parenting.
My ideal client acknowledges that life is hard and is ready to get tools to work through it! The goal is to gain the tools to combat life’s struggles to include anxiety, depression, life transitions, trauma, negative self-image, and parenting.
(757) 767-5077 View (757) 767-5077
Photo of Maria Carrington - New Directions Therapy, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
New Directions Therapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Steilacoom, WA 98388  (Online Only)
I love working with all different types of people wanting to change how they respond to life. My ideal clients want to learn how to respond to life, rather than react to life. The last four years have been hard and everyone can benefit from therapy. The couples I work best are seeking help with their sex life. A lot of couples I work with are also seeking help related to Polyamory/ENM and or Kink. I am happy to work with individuals, couples, and different and varying relationship designs and configurations.
I love working with all different types of people wanting to change how they respond to life. My ideal clients want to learn how to respond to life, rather than react to life. The last four years have been hard and everyone can benefit from therapy. The couples I work best are seeking help with their sex life. A lot of couples I work with are also seeking help related to Polyamory/ENM and or Kink. I am happy to work with individuals, couples, and different and varying relationship designs and configurations.
(253) 242-6883 View (253) 242-6883
Photo of Benjamin J Strader, PsyD, Psychologist
Benjamin J Strader
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Steilacoom, WA 98388
Everyday we face unwanted thoughts, moods, emotions, memories, and body sensations, which can interfere with our school, career, relationships, and our mental and emotional well being. If this sounds like you or your loved one, know that you are not alone and that change is possible. My greatest professional satisfaction comes from witnessing the process of growth and I am here to walk with you or your loved one on that journey of change. I have a passion for the collaborative process and supporting those who want to understand themselves better and value the process of growth.
Everyday we face unwanted thoughts, moods, emotions, memories, and body sensations, which can interfere with our school, career, relationships, and our mental and emotional well being. If this sounds like you or your loved one, know that you are not alone and that change is possible. My greatest professional satisfaction comes from witnessing the process of growth and I am here to walk with you or your loved one on that journey of change. I have a passion for the collaborative process and supporting those who want to understand themselves better and value the process of growth.
(253) 544-5644 View (253) 544-5644

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Stacie Harcus, LMHC, Counselor
Stacie Harcus
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Lakewood, WA 98498
I specialize in men and women's issues, life transitions, grief, anxiety, depression and childhood trauma. I believe therapy should be a safe place. I have an empathetic but direct approach that creates an open environment where the client can explore who they are or want to be.
I specialize in men and women's issues, life transitions, grief, anxiety, depression and childhood trauma. I believe therapy should be a safe place. I have an empathetic but direct approach that creates an open environment where the client can explore who they are or want to be.
(206) 483-1058 View (206) 483-1058
Photo of Christina Minott, MA, LMHC, Counselor
Christina Minott
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
Lakewood, WA 98498
Welcome to a safe space for self-discovery and healing. As a trauma-informed therapist I'm here to help you explore the behaviors and patterns that have shaped your life. Together, we'll honor their role in your survival, uncover their origins, and discern their relevance today. You're the expert in your journey, and I'm here to walk alongside you as you courageously embrace healing and self-discovery. I utilize EMDR and draw on somatic based therapies.
Welcome to a safe space for self-discovery and healing. As a trauma-informed therapist I'm here to help you explore the behaviors and patterns that have shaped your life. Together, we'll honor their role in your survival, uncover their origins, and discern their relevance today. You're the expert in your journey, and I'm here to walk alongside you as you courageously embrace healing and self-discovery. I utilize EMDR and draw on somatic based therapies.
(253) 523-2780 View (253) 523-2780
Photo of Shannon Rawlings, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Shannon Rawlings
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lakewood, WA 98498  (Online Only)
I believe there are times in a person's life when they need a trustworthy ally who offers integrity, understanding, and nonjudgement. I believe this is also someone who can help another person explore the causes of his/her/their thoughts, feelings, or behaviors and develop new ways of thinking, acting and feeling. I am committed to helping individuals, couples, and families achieve these goals in an environment that emphasizes confidentiality, respect, trust, and compassion.
I believe there are times in a person's life when they need a trustworthy ally who offers integrity, understanding, and nonjudgement. I believe this is also someone who can help another person explore the causes of his/her/their thoughts, feelings, or behaviors and develop new ways of thinking, acting and feeling. I am committed to helping individuals, couples, and families achieve these goals in an environment that emphasizes confidentiality, respect, trust, and compassion.
(253) 461-6275 View (253) 461-6275
Photo of Robyn Crout, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Robyn Crout
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Tacoma, WA 98498
Recovery from trauma is my specialization. I care deeply about each person who steps into my office, and the alliance we can create could be life-changing for you. I am trained in EMDR, a psychotherapy that can de-code the traumatic memories and beliefs that are stuck within your brain and nervous system. EMDR can then rewire your brain with positive beliefs such as "I am good enough as I am" or "I'm valuable". Once you believe good things about yourself, you start living differently! I love EMDR and fully believe in its power to heal many different types of trauma.
Recovery from trauma is my specialization. I care deeply about each person who steps into my office, and the alliance we can create could be life-changing for you. I am trained in EMDR, a psychotherapy that can de-code the traumatic memories and beliefs that are stuck within your brain and nervous system. EMDR can then rewire your brain with positive beliefs such as "I am good enough as I am" or "I'm valuable". Once you believe good things about yourself, you start living differently! I love EMDR and fully believe in its power to heal many different types of trauma.
(253) 338-5343 View (253) 338-5343
Photo of Constance B Sharp - Dr Connie Sharp, PhD, Psychologist
Dr Connie Sharp
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Lakewood, WA 98498  (Online Only)
Relationships are important. Your relationship with yourself impacts your relationship with others. Your relationships with others (coworkers, neighbors, family) play a significant role in your life and theirs. You may even have pets and/or a spiritual nature. These, too, are relational. The only person you can change is yourself. Changing yourself changes your world, which includes all these relationships.
Relationships are important. Your relationship with yourself impacts your relationship with others. Your relationships with others (coworkers, neighbors, family) play a significant role in your life and theirs. You may even have pets and/or a spiritual nature. These, too, are relational. The only person you can change is yourself. Changing yourself changes your world, which includes all these relationships.
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Photo of Katherine Lynn Gerard - Gerard Counseling and Consulting, LLC, ACSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gerard Counseling and Consulting, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, ACSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Lakewood, WA 98498  (Online Only)
I am a licensed clinical social worker with over 20 years of experience. I enjoy being present for others and helping people work through their unique interpersonal challenges and barriers. I have experience working people with situational anxiety, depression, extreme stress, burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse issues, and people trying to cope with medical conditions, such as celiac disease or sleep apnea. After taking the time to learn about you and your situation, we will work together to identify your goals are and identify strategies to help you meet your goals and obtain stability.
I am a licensed clinical social worker with over 20 years of experience. I enjoy being present for others and helping people work through their unique interpersonal challenges and barriers. I have experience working people with situational anxiety, depression, extreme stress, burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse issues, and people trying to cope with medical conditions, such as celiac disease or sleep apnea. After taking the time to learn about you and your situation, we will work together to identify your goals are and identify strategies to help you meet your goals and obtain stability.
(253) 900-2207 View (253) 900-2207
Photo of Josette Darlene Parker, MSW, LICSW, CDVT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Josette Darlene Parker
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW, CDVT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lakewood, WA 98498
I offer therapy services to any and all individuals seeking support and healing in their lives. Many clients seek out counseling when things in their lives seem out of control or they feel unheard. They want to speak to someone who is unbiased, honest, and who has empathy for their situation. I also have groups available for anger management, parenting, and domestic violence. I also provide assessments and evaluations for family law, criminal, and dependency cases as a separate service.
I offer therapy services to any and all individuals seeking support and healing in their lives. Many clients seek out counseling when things in their lives seem out of control or they feel unheard. They want to speak to someone who is unbiased, honest, and who has empathy for their situation. I also have groups available for anger management, parenting, and domestic violence. I also provide assessments and evaluations for family law, criminal, and dependency cases as a separate service.
(253) 364-7720 View (253) 364-7720
Photo of Jazmin Mercado Evans, MA, LMHC, MHP, CMHS, Counselor
Jazmin Mercado Evans
Counselor, MA, LMHC, MHP, CMHS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lakewood, WA 98498
I have been in the mental health field since 2014 and have worked with various ages and demographics. With a background that includes being a military child, collegiate athlete, and now a parent myself, I have found that I enjoy working with people who are finding themselves in a time of change. At this time, I am seeing clients 14 and older who need extra support in finding coping skills, navigating symptoms of depression or anxiety, communication skills, relationship challenges, and boundary work among other goals. At this time, I will also be taking a break from couples therapy and will update once accepting new clients.
I have been in the mental health field since 2014 and have worked with various ages and demographics. With a background that includes being a military child, collegiate athlete, and now a parent myself, I have found that I enjoy working with people who are finding themselves in a time of change. At this time, I am seeing clients 14 and older who need extra support in finding coping skills, navigating symptoms of depression or anxiety, communication skills, relationship challenges, and boundary work among other goals. At this time, I will also be taking a break from couples therapy and will update once accepting new clients.
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Photo of Sabrina Danley - Cardinal Counseling and Wellness , LMHCA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Cardinal Counseling and Wellness
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMHCA
Verified Verified
Lakewood, WA 98499
Hello, my name is Sabrina Danley, owner and operator of Cardinal Counseling and Wellness. I believe that therapy is about finding your authentic self and learning to embrace suffering that is part of life. It is my passion to develop a genuine relationship with my clients where we can safely have difficult conversations, have and resolve conflicts, and experience your authentic self, including your pain. I will work with you to tune into your true self, recognize your unfavorable coping mechanisms, and discover self-compassionate ways of living. My therapeutic modality is a blend of Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Hello, my name is Sabrina Danley, owner and operator of Cardinal Counseling and Wellness. I believe that therapy is about finding your authentic self and learning to embrace suffering that is part of life. It is my passion to develop a genuine relationship with my clients where we can safely have difficult conversations, have and resolve conflicts, and experience your authentic self, including your pain. I will work with you to tune into your true self, recognize your unfavorable coping mechanisms, and discover self-compassionate ways of living. My therapeutic modality is a blend of Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
(253) 321-1160 View (253) 321-1160
Photo of Ginger Ingersoll MacDuff, LMHC, LBA, BCBA, Counselor
Ginger Ingersoll MacDuff
Counselor, LMHC, LBA, BCBA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lakewood, WA 98498
Are you seeking compassionate support? Look no further! As a seasoned therapist, I offer individual and family therapy services with a neurodiversity focus. Whether you’re a teen, young adult, or a family in transition, I’m here for you. Let’s navigate life’s challenges together. Autism Support: Families and individuals impacted by autism find a safe space here. I am highly trained and experienced in working with autism. Transition Guidance: Whether it’s adolescence or major life changes (divorce, moving, etc), I’ve got your back. Discover your strengths, embrace your uniqueness, and thrive! Contact me today.
Are you seeking compassionate support? Look no further! As a seasoned therapist, I offer individual and family therapy services with a neurodiversity focus. Whether you’re a teen, young adult, or a family in transition, I’m here for you. Let’s navigate life’s challenges together. Autism Support: Families and individuals impacted by autism find a safe space here. I am highly trained and experienced in working with autism. Transition Guidance: Whether it’s adolescence or major life changes (divorce, moving, etc), I’ve got your back. Discover your strengths, embrace your uniqueness, and thrive! Contact me today.
(253) 215-8804 View (253) 215-8804
Photo of Dr. Michael Gramlich, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Michael Gramlich
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Lakewood, WA 98498  (Online Only)
I have openings for new clients via telehealth. Struggling with painful memories of trauma (PTSD)? Exhausted from chronic insomnia or nightmares? Feeling defeated by panic attacks, excessive worrying, or avoidance of feared situations (anxiety)? Difficulties with feeling down, little enjoyment, or low motivation (depression)? Bothered by intense feelings, challenging life transitions, or stress? Looking to connect with others, healthy behaviors, or purpose? I am passionate to offer you evidence-based counseling to help you achieve your goals using the convenient access provided by online therapy.
I have openings for new clients via telehealth. Struggling with painful memories of trauma (PTSD)? Exhausted from chronic insomnia or nightmares? Feeling defeated by panic attacks, excessive worrying, or avoidance of feared situations (anxiety)? Difficulties with feeling down, little enjoyment, or low motivation (depression)? Bothered by intense feelings, challenging life transitions, or stress? Looking to connect with others, healthy behaviors, or purpose? I am passionate to offer you evidence-based counseling to help you achieve your goals using the convenient access provided by online therapy.
(253) 223-6954 View (253) 223-6954
Photo of Joel Hencken, PsyD, Psychologist
Joel Hencken
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Tacoma, WA 98498
I feel very fortunate that in clinical psychology I have found a field where I have been glad to go to work since I saw my first client in 1974. My training has been "˜eclectic'. My undergrad work was in philosophy of science at University of Michigan. After a short stint in medical school, I went to San Diego State University, where my professors were Rogerians, cognitivists and behaviorists (that was before the latter two got hyphenated and finally acronym-ized into CBT), plus one crypto-Freudian who spoke little but offered the most amazing insights. I also had some years of personal psychoanalysis.
I feel very fortunate that in clinical psychology I have found a field where I have been glad to go to work since I saw my first client in 1974. My training has been "˜eclectic'. My undergrad work was in philosophy of science at University of Michigan. After a short stint in medical school, I went to San Diego State University, where my professors were Rogerians, cognitivists and behaviorists (that was before the latter two got hyphenated and finally acronym-ized into CBT), plus one crypto-Freudian who spoke little but offered the most amazing insights. I also had some years of personal psychoanalysis.
(253) 364-4308 View (253) 364-4308
Photo of Judith Frost, MSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Judith Frost
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Lakewood, WA 98498
This is a no shame, no blame zone where you will be heard. If you ask yourself "what's wrong with me" or hear it from others, it's the wrong question. The right question is "what has happened to you?" Trauma and grief reactions are normal human responses, not pathological diagnoses. But no one is born knowing how to deal with them- not you, not your best friend. Asking for help is the first step to healing. I'm a seasoned Grief Therapist, Certified Trauma Professional and EFT (Tapping) Expert who will collaborate with you to help you clear away the chaos to a more peaceful, productive life. Good therapy works. Give a call now.
This is a no shame, no blame zone where you will be heard. If you ask yourself "what's wrong with me" or hear it from others, it's the wrong question. The right question is "what has happened to you?" Trauma and grief reactions are normal human responses, not pathological diagnoses. But no one is born knowing how to deal with them- not you, not your best friend. Asking for help is the first step to healing. I'm a seasoned Grief Therapist, Certified Trauma Professional and EFT (Tapping) Expert who will collaborate with you to help you clear away the chaos to a more peaceful, productive life. Good therapy works. Give a call now.
(253) 245-1312 View (253) 245-1312
Photo of Liz Cotton, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Liz Cotton
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Tacoma, WA 98498
I provide a space for people to be with all aspects of who they are "“ mentally, emotionally, physically, and spiritually. I believe we are all experts on our own lives and have within us the knowing of what is best for us. There are times when we feel disconnected from that knowing and can benefit from support in reconnecting with it. I offer space to enter into a deeper exploration of one's life. I support others in accessing their inner process in order to be with all of the parts of one's personality and all the information and wisdom held there.
I provide a space for people to be with all aspects of who they are "“ mentally, emotionally, physically, and spiritually. I believe we are all experts on our own lives and have within us the knowing of what is best for us. There are times when we feel disconnected from that knowing and can benefit from support in reconnecting with it. I offer space to enter into a deeper exploration of one's life. I support others in accessing their inner process in order to be with all of the parts of one's personality and all the information and wisdom held there.
(253) 563-1895 View (253) 563-1895

See more therapy options for Steilacoom

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Steilacoom, WA

< 10

Therapists in Steilacoom, WA who prioritize treating:

67% Anxiety
50% Depression
50% Chronic Pain
50% Grief
50% Family Conflict
50% Veterans
50% Stress

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Premera
50% Aetna
50% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Steilacoom, WA see their clients

83% Online Only
17% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

84% Female
16% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Steilacoom?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.