Therapists in Lancaster, PA

Photo of Adam Hultstrand (Individual And Dbt Group Openings), MDiv, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Adam Hultstrand (Individual And Dbt Group Openings)
Pre-Licensed Professional, MDiv, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17601
To those who know me best, I am considered a genuine “encourager” of people, compassionate yet direct. You don't have to journey through life alone. I seek to create a safe and confidential space for children, adults, couples, and families to process life and find greater purpose, healing and joy. I have graduate degrees in both theology and counseling with over 20 years of experience. I enjoy working with people from all backgrounds in a strengths-based way that infuses hope. I integrate a variety of relational and experiential approaches to best meet your needs and will use faith based counseling for those interested.
To those who know me best, I am considered a genuine “encourager” of people, compassionate yet direct. You don't have to journey through life alone. I seek to create a safe and confidential space for children, adults, couples, and families to process life and find greater purpose, healing and joy. I have graduate degrees in both theology and counseling with over 20 years of experience. I enjoy working with people from all backgrounds in a strengths-based way that infuses hope. I integrate a variety of relational and experiential approaches to best meet your needs and will use faith based counseling for those interested.
(717) 837-5266 View (717) 837-5266
Photo of Andrea Graybill, MSW, LSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Andrea Graybill
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17601
I believe that in order for us to be our best selves, we need connection with one another. I strive to help individuals find value and connection with others through healthy relationships. Asking for help in personal and painful situations is a vulnerable and humbling experience. Through the use of a variety of approaches, I seek to help individuals feel accepted, hopeful and not alone in their situation.
I believe that in order for us to be our best selves, we need connection with one another. I strive to help individuals find value and connection with others through healthy relationships. Asking for help in personal and painful situations is a vulnerable and humbling experience. Through the use of a variety of approaches, I seek to help individuals feel accepted, hopeful and not alone in their situation.
(717) 973-8312 View (717) 973-8312
Photo of Lisa Fritz, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lisa Fritz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17601
I believe that every client is an individual with their own story, their own unique needs, and their own inherent strengths. When I meet with a client, I strive to know them as a person and to create a plan for their treatment that will grow their strengths as they heal and walk the next steps of their journey. Fritz Counseling Services is a an outgrowth of my commitment to reaching into my community to meet individuals who are seeking someone to provide guidance and support as they prepare to face the challenges and changes that will move them towards being their fullest selves.
I believe that every client is an individual with their own story, their own unique needs, and their own inherent strengths. When I meet with a client, I strive to know them as a person and to create a plan for their treatment that will grow their strengths as they heal and walk the next steps of their journey. Fritz Counseling Services is a an outgrowth of my commitment to reaching into my community to meet individuals who are seeking someone to provide guidance and support as they prepare to face the challenges and changes that will move them towards being their fullest selves.
(717) 990-7507 View (717) 990-7507
Photo of Sophia Ellis Kreider, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sophia Ellis Kreider
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17601  (Online Only)
I am passionate about supporting clients who are coping with a significant loss or life transition, whether through death, divorce, change of profession, infertility, pregnancy, or postpartum. My 14+ years as a bereavement counselor have honed my skills in providing education that will enable clients in discerning how to move through challenges, grow self-awareness, nurture self-compassion, and recognize those parts of themselves that are helpful versus those they'd like to change. My training as an IFS informed therapist is key to how I work with clients and in creating a safe, non-judgmental place in which to heal and evolve.
I am passionate about supporting clients who are coping with a significant loss or life transition, whether through death, divorce, change of profession, infertility, pregnancy, or postpartum. My 14+ years as a bereavement counselor have honed my skills in providing education that will enable clients in discerning how to move through challenges, grow self-awareness, nurture self-compassion, and recognize those parts of themselves that are helpful versus those they'd like to change. My training as an IFS informed therapist is key to how I work with clients and in creating a safe, non-judgmental place in which to heal and evolve.
(717) 218-3008 View (717) 218-3008
Photo of Malinda Sutphin, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Malinda Sutphin
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17601
Are you feeling misunderstood and unseen? Overwhelmed and stressed out? Those are absolutely valid reasons to seek counseling! The counseling relationship is a collaborative process between the client and counselor that can spark positive growth in your life. By using creative interventions that address your main concerns, the counseling process can be even more impactful. If you are in need of a therapist who is compassionate, ready to listen and eager to help, please give me a call today! (I am in the Lanc office Wed, Thurs & I am only in the Qville office on Tuesdays at this time).
Are you feeling misunderstood and unseen? Overwhelmed and stressed out? Those are absolutely valid reasons to seek counseling! The counseling relationship is a collaborative process between the client and counselor that can spark positive growth in your life. By using creative interventions that address your main concerns, the counseling process can be even more impactful. If you are in need of a therapist who is compassionate, ready to listen and eager to help, please give me a call today! (I am in the Lanc office Wed, Thurs & I am only in the Qville office on Tuesdays at this time).
(717) 493-6002 View (717) 493-6002
Photo of Matt Brown, MA, LPC, CAADC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Matt Brown
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, CAADC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17601
Whether you're facing addiction, eating disorders, trauma, self-esteem challenges, anxiety, or depression, understanding and navigating these struggles can be overwhelming. I provide support for individuals seeking clarity and relief. Additionally, I specialize in helping couples enhance and strengthen their relationships. Let's work together to address your unique needs and goals.
Whether you're facing addiction, eating disorders, trauma, self-esteem challenges, anxiety, or depression, understanding and navigating these struggles can be overwhelming. I provide support for individuals seeking clarity and relief. Additionally, I specialize in helping couples enhance and strengthen their relationships. Let's work together to address your unique needs and goals.
(717) 536-8593 View (717) 536-8593
Photo of Breesha Comish, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Breesha Comish
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17602
I help couples and individuals work through life’s challenges. I use a caring approach while integrating effective treatment models to help people thrive in life. Specialties Include: Couples Therapy for Desire Differences, Sexual Issues, Communication Issues, Intimacy Conflict, Navigation of Medical dx, and Trauma. I am open to working with individuals and couples who have traditional as well as non-traditional partnerships. I provide a supportive and safe space for individuals in the LGBTQIA+ community. I also specialize in helping young adults recover from childhood trauma and in empowering them to find their own path in life.
I help couples and individuals work through life’s challenges. I use a caring approach while integrating effective treatment models to help people thrive in life. Specialties Include: Couples Therapy for Desire Differences, Sexual Issues, Communication Issues, Intimacy Conflict, Navigation of Medical dx, and Trauma. I am open to working with individuals and couples who have traditional as well as non-traditional partnerships. I provide a supportive and safe space for individuals in the LGBTQIA+ community. I also specialize in helping young adults recover from childhood trauma and in empowering them to find their own path in life.
(717) 297-1974 View (717) 297-1974
Photo of Sean F. Dougherty, MS, MEd
Sean F. Dougherty
MS, MEd
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17601
I seek to provide a safe, comfortable, and confidential space for individuals to process their unique life experiences. I take a person-centered learning approach in session and operate on the premise that physical, emotional, spiritual, and mental well-being are interrelated. I work with adolescent and adult clients, specializing in areas such as but not limited to stress, anxiety, depression, grief & loss, career counseling, sports anxiety, school issues, youth mental health, perfectionism, and parenting strategies.
I seek to provide a safe, comfortable, and confidential space for individuals to process their unique life experiences. I take a person-centered learning approach in session and operate on the premise that physical, emotional, spiritual, and mental well-being are interrelated. I work with adolescent and adult clients, specializing in areas such as but not limited to stress, anxiety, depression, grief & loss, career counseling, sports anxiety, school issues, youth mental health, perfectionism, and parenting strategies.
(717) 356-3219 View (717) 356-3219
Photo of Khalilah Yadullah, LPC , Licensed Professional Counselor
Khalilah Yadullah
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17603  (Online Only)
Welcome everyone! My name is Khalilah Yadullah. I am a psychotherapist. I believe in providing each person with a safe and judgement-free space, when in a therapeutic session. I use techniques from different therapeutic schools of thought to assist in the therapeutic journey with each person. I am grounded in DBT. I believe in providing each person with a safe and judgement-free space, when in a therapeutic session. I will validate your feelings, challenge cognitive distortions, encourage and explore physical wellness, and set SMART goals for each troubled area identified.
Welcome everyone! My name is Khalilah Yadullah. I am a psychotherapist. I believe in providing each person with a safe and judgement-free space, when in a therapeutic session. I use techniques from different therapeutic schools of thought to assist in the therapeutic journey with each person. I am grounded in DBT. I believe in providing each person with a safe and judgement-free space, when in a therapeutic session. I will validate your feelings, challenge cognitive distortions, encourage and explore physical wellness, and set SMART goals for each troubled area identified.
(717) 539-3057 View (717) 539-3057
Photo of Alexis Zink, Licensed Professional Counselor
Alexis Zink
Licensed Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17601
I’m so glad you are here. My name is Alexis, and I am a licensed therapist serving Pennsylvania residents. I strive to provide a safe, welcoming space for individuals to show up as their true, authentic selves by maintaining a person-centered approach to healing built on empathy, empowerment, and acceptance. I believe that therapeutic relationships can be a powerful tool in overcoming the obstacles of life. Together, we will unlock your resiliency to overcome challenges while establishing peace and personal growth.
I’m so glad you are here. My name is Alexis, and I am a licensed therapist serving Pennsylvania residents. I strive to provide a safe, welcoming space for individuals to show up as their true, authentic selves by maintaining a person-centered approach to healing built on empathy, empowerment, and acceptance. I believe that therapeutic relationships can be a powerful tool in overcoming the obstacles of life. Together, we will unlock your resiliency to overcome challenges while establishing peace and personal growth.
(717) 973-8016 View (717) 973-8016
Photo of Rebekah Coval, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Rebekah Coval
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17603
Hi there! I am a licensed individual and couples therapist, certified yoga instructor, and birth doula. I am trained in both movement therapy and EMDR. My areas of expertise include anxiety, relationships and couples counseling, grief, trauma, chronic illness/pain, and spirituality. I offer couples counseling for clients wanting to improve their relationship as well as those discerning separation. I have a special interest in clients who are in a season of transition or decision-making, whether related to college, parenthood, new relationship/career, or navigating the last stage of life.
Hi there! I am a licensed individual and couples therapist, certified yoga instructor, and birth doula. I am trained in both movement therapy and EMDR. My areas of expertise include anxiety, relationships and couples counseling, grief, trauma, chronic illness/pain, and spirituality. I offer couples counseling for clients wanting to improve their relationship as well as those discerning separation. I have a special interest in clients who are in a season of transition or decision-making, whether related to college, parenthood, new relationship/career, or navigating the last stage of life.
(223) 215-5653 View (223) 215-5653
Photo of Thalia P. Moshos - Thalia P. Moshos, PsyD, Clinical Psychologist, PsyD, CEDS, Psychologist
Thalia P. Moshos, PsyD, Clinical Psychologist
Psychologist, PsyD, CEDS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17602
Not accepting new clients
COURAGE & RECOVERY - Choosing to seek treatment, be vulnerable, and make changes takes enormous courage. As a clinical psychologist, I have been amazed by the courage and resilience of those I’ve had the privilege to work with. My residential, partial hospitalization, and intense outpatient experience has shown me that recovery is always possible. I value collaboration, transparency, and honesty in the therapeutic relationship, and employ dialectical behavioral, cognitive behavioral, radically open, exposure-based, and acceptance-based techniques. VIEW MY COMPLETE BIO at www.DrThaliaMoshos.com
COURAGE & RECOVERY - Choosing to seek treatment, be vulnerable, and make changes takes enormous courage. As a clinical psychologist, I have been amazed by the courage and resilience of those I’ve had the privilege to work with. My residential, partial hospitalization, and intense outpatient experience has shown me that recovery is always possible. I value collaboration, transparency, and honesty in the therapeutic relationship, and employ dialectical behavioral, cognitive behavioral, radically open, exposure-based, and acceptance-based techniques. VIEW MY COMPLETE BIO at www.DrThaliaMoshos.com
Photo of Jennifer L. Quigley, MA, LPC, REAT, Art Therapist
Jennifer L. Quigley
Art Therapist, MA, LPC, REAT
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17603
Hi! My name is Jennifer Quigley. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor/ Licensed Outpatient Psychotherapist. I am best suited to treat people ages 14 and older who are challenged with depression, anxiety, self-esteem, career, or simply looking to grow creatively. My goal is to support and assist you in overcoming obstacles that may be hindering you from living the life you’ve always wanted. My ideal clients are individuals seeking to heighten their level of self-awareness, personal growth, development and overall level of stability and contentment in their daily lives.
Hi! My name is Jennifer Quigley. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor/ Licensed Outpatient Psychotherapist. I am best suited to treat people ages 14 and older who are challenged with depression, anxiety, self-esteem, career, or simply looking to grow creatively. My goal is to support and assist you in overcoming obstacles that may be hindering you from living the life you’ve always wanted. My ideal clients are individuals seeking to heighten their level of self-awareness, personal growth, development and overall level of stability and contentment in their daily lives.
(717) 696-0913 View (717) 696-0913
Photo of Susan Robey - Hall, LSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Susan Robey - Hall
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17603
Taking the first step to begin therapy can be difficult. Whether you're seeking therapy to process trauma, navigate difficult relationships, or to overcome life’s daily challenges, I'm happy you're here exploring your options. Throughout my career, I've worked with clients experiencing a wide range of these challenges including sexual and physical abuse, family conflict, relationship struggles, intimacy challenges, self-esteem, and depression.
Taking the first step to begin therapy can be difficult. Whether you're seeking therapy to process trauma, navigate difficult relationships, or to overcome life’s daily challenges, I'm happy you're here exploring your options. Throughout my career, I've worked with clients experiencing a wide range of these challenges including sexual and physical abuse, family conflict, relationship struggles, intimacy challenges, self-esteem, and depression.
(223) 218-5035 View (223) 218-5035
Photo of Katie Kloos, MA, LPC, ATR, Licensed Professional Counselor
Katie Kloos
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, ATR
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17603  (Online Only)
Hello, I'm Katie! I have experience in helping those who struggle with anxiety, depression, life adjustments, grief, gender dysphoria and many other areas. I hope to create a caring, authentic, encouraging and warm environment for all my clients so they can feel supported, comforted and challenged to grow. I particularly enjoy working with older kids, adolescents and young adults. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and Registered Art Therapist (ATR) in Pennsylvania.
Hello, I'm Katie! I have experience in helping those who struggle with anxiety, depression, life adjustments, grief, gender dysphoria and many other areas. I hope to create a caring, authentic, encouraging and warm environment for all my clients so they can feel supported, comforted and challenged to grow. I particularly enjoy working with older kids, adolescents and young adults. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and Registered Art Therapist (ATR) in Pennsylvania.
(717) 276-4832 View (717) 276-4832
Photo of Laura Feeser, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Laura Feeser
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17601
When life throws curveballs, we all need a little help. Whether you desire to build new skills to manage life, or desire to process difficult life experiences, I am here to provide authentic and open-minded support.
When life throws curveballs, we all need a little help. Whether you desire to build new skills to manage life, or desire to process difficult life experiences, I am here to provide authentic and open-minded support.
(717) 420-8329 View (717) 420-8329
Photo of Tayibah Bemiah, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Tayibah Bemiah
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17603
I am Dr. Tayibah a licensed professional counselor (LPC) in Pennsylvania. I am an action-oriented therapist who is strategic and intentional in my approach. My mission is to provide you with tools and techniques to help you deal with the personal or relationship struggles that led you to seek counseling.
I am Dr. Tayibah a licensed professional counselor (LPC) in Pennsylvania. I am an action-oriented therapist who is strategic and intentional in my approach. My mission is to provide you with tools and techniques to help you deal with the personal or relationship struggles that led you to seek counseling.
(717) 790-5195 View (717) 790-5195
Photo of John Gordon Smith, DMin, PhD, CSC, Pastoral Counselor
John Gordon Smith
Pastoral Counselor, DMin, PhD, CSC
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17602  (Online Only)
Are you seeking help to navigate your grief journey, recover from shame, practice forgiveness, address aging concerns, overcome loneliness, strengthen your relationship, or resolve sexual desire, arousal, or orgasmic issues? By sourcing help for any of these concerns, you have taken a bold step on your path to achieving the change you seek. By choosing me to help you achieve this change, you have found a caring, compassionate, competent, and committed counselor who will work with you to achieve the change you desire.
Are you seeking help to navigate your grief journey, recover from shame, practice forgiveness, address aging concerns, overcome loneliness, strengthen your relationship, or resolve sexual desire, arousal, or orgasmic issues? By sourcing help for any of these concerns, you have taken a bold step on your path to achieving the change you seek. By choosing me to help you achieve this change, you have found a caring, compassionate, competent, and committed counselor who will work with you to achieve the change you desire.
(717) 937-1866 View (717) 937-1866
Photo of Danielle Hammitt - Lifebulb Counseling & Therapy, LPC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lifebulb Counseling & Therapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LPC
Verified Verified
Lancaster, PA 17603
Working with us you'll get results. Because we believe you're best served by a clinician who's passionate about not only their work, but who they work with as well. That's why we started Lifebulb - We're committed to building an organization that truly allows therapists to get back to enjoying their work, so you, our client, can receive the highest quality therapy services, whether in person at one of our locations or online through telehealth. We hire only highly trained and educated, licensed clinicians dedicated to the therapy process. We're confident we can help you achieve your therapy goals.
Working with us you'll get results. Because we believe you're best served by a clinician who's passionate about not only their work, but who they work with as well. That's why we started Lifebulb - We're committed to building an organization that truly allows therapists to get back to enjoying their work, so you, our client, can receive the highest quality therapy services, whether in person at one of our locations or online through telehealth. We hire only highly trained and educated, licensed clinicians dedicated to the therapy process. We're confident we can help you achieve your therapy goals.
(717) 864-6938 x1 View (717) 864-6938 x1
Photo of Shelby Cordeiro, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Shelby Cordeiro
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lancaster, PA 17603  (Online Only)
Hello, and congratulations on the first step of your mental health journey! Looking for a therapist can be overwhelming, so let me tell you a little about what you can expect in sessions with me. I became a therapist to help others find healing and create a life they enjoy. My clients often describe my sessions as accepting, validating, and educational. I want to help you explore your emotions, gain insights, and develop realistic coping skills. I work with you as a team to help you identify areas to improve and learn practical skills for a positive impact on your life. You are the expert on you, but you don't have to do it alone.
Hello, and congratulations on the first step of your mental health journey! Looking for a therapist can be overwhelming, so let me tell you a little about what you can expect in sessions with me. I became a therapist to help others find healing and create a life they enjoy. My clients often describe my sessions as accepting, validating, and educational. I want to help you explore your emotions, gain insights, and develop realistic coping skills. I work with you as a team to help you identify areas to improve and learn practical skills for a positive impact on your life. You are the expert on you, but you don't have to do it alone.
(223) 218-2644 View (223) 218-2644
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Lancaster, PA

400+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Lancaster, PA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
89% Depression
78% Relationship Issues
77% Self Esteem
72% Stress
70% Coping Skills
69% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

82% Highmark
67% Aetna
67% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Lancaster, PA see their clients

73% In Person and Online
27% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Lancaster?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.