Therapists in Hanover, NH

Photo of David Pelletier, LCMHC, Counselor
David Pelletier
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
David Pelletier is a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor (NH & VT) with extensive experience in assisting adults with a wide variety of mental health and life challenges.
David Pelletier is a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor (NH & VT) with extensive experience in assisting adults with a wide variety of mental health and life challenges.
(603) 865-1321 View (603) 865-1321
Photo of Judy Anne Williams, LICSW, LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Judy Anne Williams
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LLC
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
People come to therapy for many different reasons: To deal with a specific problem or concern; to develop better ways of coping with life's stresses; to overcome old obstacles; to heal from loss; to become happier, stronger and more resilient. Numerous studies have shown that one of the most important factors in helping people in therapy achieve change is a strong and trusting relationship with their therapist. I am committed to creating a warm and supportive environment in which my clients can explore their challenges, learn new skills, and find and use the innate strengths that they possess.
People come to therapy for many different reasons: To deal with a specific problem or concern; to develop better ways of coping with life's stresses; to overcome old obstacles; to heal from loss; to become happier, stronger and more resilient. Numerous studies have shown that one of the most important factors in helping people in therapy achieve change is a strong and trusting relationship with their therapist. I am committed to creating a warm and supportive environment in which my clients can explore their challenges, learn new skills, and find and use the innate strengths that they possess.
(603) 704-4610 View (603) 704-4610
Photo of Justine Fahey, MA, NCC, LCMHC, Counselor
Justine Fahey
Counselor, MA, NCC, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Justine Fahey is a licensed clinical mental health counselor. Her approach emphasizes collaboration and partnership between counselor and client. She partners with clients to help navigate a wide range of life concerns and works together to develop coping strategies and shift non-productive thought processes. Justine's theoretical orientation draws from several approaches including person-centered, cognitive-behavioral (CBT), mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Additionally, Justine draws from twenty years experience as a yoga instructor to increase clients' mind-body awareness.
Justine Fahey is a licensed clinical mental health counselor. Her approach emphasizes collaboration and partnership between counselor and client. She partners with clients to help navigate a wide range of life concerns and works together to develop coping strategies and shift non-productive thought processes. Justine's theoretical orientation draws from several approaches including person-centered, cognitive-behavioral (CBT), mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Additionally, Justine draws from twenty years experience as a yoga instructor to increase clients' mind-body awareness.
(603) 865-1321 View (603) 865-1321
Photo of Katherine Allen, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Katherine Allen
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Not accepting new clients
My primary goal is to help people who feel stuck, either in unproductive communication patterns or conflicts that threaten their most important relationships. I place great value on being a compassionate, non-judgmental, responsive collaborator, uncovering clients' strengths, unrecognized needs, new or under-utilized talents and problem solving abilities. I find that this approach helps most clients come "unstuck" and reach their goals in a gentle and supportive process. I use Brainspotting™ with clients for resolving traumatic experiences, PTSD, attachment and anxiety. I also use trauma-sensitive HeartMath™ tools.
My primary goal is to help people who feel stuck, either in unproductive communication patterns or conflicts that threaten their most important relationships. I place great value on being a compassionate, non-judgmental, responsive collaborator, uncovering clients' strengths, unrecognized needs, new or under-utilized talents and problem solving abilities. I find that this approach helps most clients come "unstuck" and reach their goals in a gentle and supportive process. I use Brainspotting™ with clients for resolving traumatic experiences, PTSD, attachment and anxiety. I also use trauma-sensitive HeartMath™ tools.
(833) 427-7528 View (833) 427-7528
Photo of Dr. Frank Van Santen - Psychoeducational & Neuropsychological Assessment, PhD, Psychologist
Psychoeducational & Neuropsychological Assessment
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Dr. Van Santen conducts comprehensive evaluations for children, adolescents, and adults that include a variety of components that are found in psychoeducational, neuropsychological, and psychological evaluations. Evaluations can be used to identify Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ages 16 and older), Learning Disabilities such as reading disorders (e.g., dyslexia), writing disorders (e.g., dysgraphia), and math disorders (e.g., dyscalculia). After a comprehensive evaluation has been completed, Dr. Van Santen can also provide Diagnostic Teaching (DT).
Dr. Van Santen conducts comprehensive evaluations for children, adolescents, and adults that include a variety of components that are found in psychoeducational, neuropsychological, and psychological evaluations. Evaluations can be used to identify Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ages 16 and older), Learning Disabilities such as reading disorders (e.g., dyslexia), writing disorders (e.g., dysgraphia), and math disorders (e.g., dyscalculia). After a comprehensive evaluation has been completed, Dr. Van Santen can also provide Diagnostic Teaching (DT).
(603) 755-6535 View (603) 755-6535
Photo of Gretchen Cook Dominiak, PsyD, Psychologist
Gretchen Cook Dominiak
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
I work with adults and college students facing a variety of issues including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, stress management, relationship problems, and identity questions. I provide a safe, supportive environment in which people can address difficult feelings and thoughts in order to increase self-awareness and facilitate healthy change.
I work with adults and college students facing a variety of issues including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, stress management, relationship problems, and identity questions. I provide a safe, supportive environment in which people can address difficult feelings and thoughts in order to increase self-awareness and facilitate healthy change.
(603) 819-4181 View (603) 819-4181
Photo of Stephen T Cole, PhD, Psychologist
Stephen T Cole
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
I am a licensed clinical psychologist with 30 years of post-doctoral experience working with individual adults and youth. I provide a warm, professional, and respectful environment where we can work together on the concerns that bring you in. Clients reach out to me for help with a variety of difficulties, such as troubled relationships, difficulties in coping, anxiety, anger, grief, depression, substance misuse, attentional difficulties, and trauma, as well as parenting and marital challenges.
I am a licensed clinical psychologist with 30 years of post-doctoral experience working with individual adults and youth. I provide a warm, professional, and respectful environment where we can work together on the concerns that bring you in. Clients reach out to me for help with a variety of difficulties, such as troubled relationships, difficulties in coping, anxiety, anger, grief, depression, substance misuse, attentional difficulties, and trauma, as well as parenting and marital challenges.
(603) 244-3867 View (603) 244-3867
Photo of Michael Sun, PhD, Psychologist
Michael Sun
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
The needs of my clients are multifaceted. They are those who come to therapy with a range of challenges that are deeply intertwined with their everyday life. They are in search of effective coping mechanisms, improved decision-making skills, and an enhanced sense of mental well-being. Essentially, they are looking to develop a healthier relationship with themselves and with others around them. They are focused on tangible progress. What they want is a transformative experience – learning practical skills for for daily life management and gaining insights for long-term mental health and personal growth.
The needs of my clients are multifaceted. They are those who come to therapy with a range of challenges that are deeply intertwined with their everyday life. They are in search of effective coping mechanisms, improved decision-making skills, and an enhanced sense of mental well-being. Essentially, they are looking to develop a healthier relationship with themselves and with others around them. They are focused on tangible progress. What they want is a transformative experience – learning practical skills for for daily life management and gaining insights for long-term mental health and personal growth.
(844) 973-2265 View (844) 973-2265
Photo of Eliza Polli, PsyD, Psychologist
Eliza Polli
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hanover, NH 03755
Not accepting new clients
I have extensive training in empirically-supported treatments including mindfulness and acceptance-based CBTs (ACT and DBT) for the treatment of anxiety, emotion regulation, and trauma. In particular, I specialize in treating adults with difficulties related to anxiety, depression/mood disorders, posttraumatic stress, aging/retirement, changes in cognitive functioning, caregiver stress, grief/bereavement, and insomnia. I also have two years of postdoctoral training with ERP specialists treating OCD and OC-spectrum disorders and find it very rewarding to help clients struggling with OCD.
I have extensive training in empirically-supported treatments including mindfulness and acceptance-based CBTs (ACT and DBT) for the treatment of anxiety, emotion regulation, and trauma. In particular, I specialize in treating adults with difficulties related to anxiety, depression/mood disorders, posttraumatic stress, aging/retirement, changes in cognitive functioning, caregiver stress, grief/bereavement, and insomnia. I also have two years of postdoctoral training with ERP specialists treating OCD and OC-spectrum disorders and find it very rewarding to help clients struggling with OCD.
(603) 280-4739 View (603) 280-4739
Photo of Tamar Schreibman, MSW, SW, Licensed Professional Counselor
Tamar Schreibman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSW, SW
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
My approach is to help you assess your current situation by examining the biological, psychological, and social factors that are at play, explore your past in order to understand how it has affected your current perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and actions, and identify practical solutions toward acceptance or change. I draw from a variety of theoretical orientations including psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) — and my work is always client-centered and strengths-based.
My approach is to help you assess your current situation by examining the biological, psychological, and social factors that are at play, explore your past in order to understand how it has affected your current perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and actions, and identify practical solutions toward acceptance or change. I draw from a variety of theoretical orientations including psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) — and my work is always client-centered and strengths-based.
(603) 704-4535 View (603) 704-4535
Photo of Terry Stone-Porreca, MA, LCHMC, Counselor
Terry Stone-Porreca
Counselor, MA, LCHMC
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
At Counseling Associates, I have the opportunity to work with a dedicated team of experienced clinical professionals with a wide range of specialties and interests. At our offices in New London, Hanover, Newport and Claremont, NH, we offer comprehensive, specialized strengths-based services for children, adolescents, adults, couples and families.
At Counseling Associates, I have the opportunity to work with a dedicated team of experienced clinical professionals with a wide range of specialties and interests. At our offices in New London, Hanover, Newport and Claremont, NH, we offer comprehensive, specialized strengths-based services for children, adolescents, adults, couples and families.
(603) 865-1321 View (603) 865-1321
Photo of Miriam R. Osofsky, PhD, Psychologist
Miriam R. Osofsky
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Whether I am with a child, teen, adult, couple or family, I strive to earn my clients' trust with honesty, warmth and humor; a secure and close therapeutic relationship allows for the most healing and progress. A lot of psychological distress occurs when people feel cut off from or ashamed of some of their feelings. I help clients access and feel compassion about previously disavowed feelings and parts of themselves, allowing for better self-care and self-regulation, and greater closeness with loved ones.
Whether I am with a child, teen, adult, couple or family, I strive to earn my clients' trust with honesty, warmth and humor; a secure and close therapeutic relationship allows for the most healing and progress. A lot of psychological distress occurs when people feel cut off from or ashamed of some of their feelings. I help clients access and feel compassion about previously disavowed feelings and parts of themselves, allowing for better self-care and self-regulation, and greater closeness with loved ones.
(603) 941-4334 View (603) 941-4334
Photo of Hilary Coons, PhD, Psychologist
Hilary Coons
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Good psychological care offers people relief from acute pain and new ways of framing the challenges they face. We will work together using a variety of tools, strategies, and insights that support your recovery and growth. Seeing you through this process is my greatest honor. My approach is integrative and responsive, intelligent and professional.
Good psychological care offers people relief from acute pain and new ways of framing the challenges they face. We will work together using a variety of tools, strategies, and insights that support your recovery and growth. Seeing you through this process is my greatest honor. My approach is integrative and responsive, intelligent and professional.
(603) 643-9717 View (603) 643-9717
Photo of Sarah Ackerman, PhD, Psychologist
Sarah Ackerman
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Although I have experience treating a broad array of diagnostic categories, my approach is centered on treating the whole person. I look toward an understanding of the behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and ways of interacting that individuals repeat in spite of a wish to behave differently. My focus is on helping patients hear beyond what they know themselves to be saying, which, in my experience, allows individuals to feel more freedom and less angst in being in the world. I find that I am most helpful with people who want to know themselves better, or feel differently on a deep level.
Although I have experience treating a broad array of diagnostic categories, my approach is centered on treating the whole person. I look toward an understanding of the behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and ways of interacting that individuals repeat in spite of a wish to behave differently. My focus is on helping patients hear beyond what they know themselves to be saying, which, in my experience, allows individuals to feel more freedom and less angst in being in the world. I find that I am most helpful with people who want to know themselves better, or feel differently on a deep level.
(603) 546-7648 View (603) 546-7648
Photo of John Nesbitt - John Nesbitt LICSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
John Nesbitt LICSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hanover, NH 03755
Are you feeling overwhelmed or unsatisfied at home, school, work, or in an important relationship? Is your child struggling socially or academically? I provide a warm, professional, and respectful environment where we will explore the concerns that brought you to therapy. We will work together to develop a coherent narrative of what is working and not working in your life, and draw on my experience and training to cultivate the insights, tools, and resources to create positive change. My website is www.johnnesbittlicsw.com
Are you feeling overwhelmed or unsatisfied at home, school, work, or in an important relationship? Is your child struggling socially or academically? I provide a warm, professional, and respectful environment where we will explore the concerns that brought you to therapy. We will work together to develop a coherent narrative of what is working and not working in your life, and draw on my experience and training to cultivate the insights, tools, and resources to create positive change. My website is www.johnnesbittlicsw.com
(603) 825-4979 View (603) 825-4979
Photo of Phoebe Manchester, MS, NCC, LCMHC, Counselor
Phoebe Manchester
Counselor, MS, NCC, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
I specialize in working with clients with OCD, perfectionism, anxiety, and phobias. I utilize CBT, ERP, ACT and I-CBT in my practice. I have attended the IOCDF's Behavioral Therapy Training Institute and have also been trained in CBT at the Beck Institute in Philadelphia. Prior to my work as a therapist, I coached NCAA ice hockey, so I utilize my experience as a coach and therapist in my work with improving athletes' mental performance. I have completed the coursework for a master's in exercise science and am currently pursuing my Certified Mental Performance Consultant (CMPC) through AASP.
I specialize in working with clients with OCD, perfectionism, anxiety, and phobias. I utilize CBT, ERP, ACT and I-CBT in my practice. I have attended the IOCDF's Behavioral Therapy Training Institute and have also been trained in CBT at the Beck Institute in Philadelphia. Prior to my work as a therapist, I coached NCAA ice hockey, so I utilize my experience as a coach and therapist in my work with improving athletes' mental performance. I have completed the coursework for a master's in exercise science and am currently pursuing my Certified Mental Performance Consultant (CMPC) through AASP.
(603) 259-1260 View (603) 259-1260
Photo of Anna West, LCMHC, Counselor
Anna West
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Anna B.T. West, LCMHC, is a Licensed Mental Health Clinician with 15 years of post-graduate experience working with adults. The therapeutic approaches that inform Anna's work include Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Behavioral Activation (BA), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD (PE for PTSD). Anna has a graduate degree from Lesley University in Expressive Art Therapy.
Anna B.T. West, LCMHC, is a Licensed Mental Health Clinician with 15 years of post-graduate experience working with adults. The therapeutic approaches that inform Anna's work include Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Behavioral Activation (BA), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD (PE for PTSD). Anna has a graduate degree from Lesley University in Expressive Art Therapy.
(603) 865-1321 View (603) 865-1321
Photo of Gloria Whaley, PhD, LP, LSP, NCSP, Psychologist
Gloria Whaley
Psychologist, PhD, LP, LSP, NCSP
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Dr. Whaley has over 10 years of experience providing psychotherapy and psychological assessment services to children, adolescents, and adults within schools, mental health clinics, and hospitals. She specializes in addressing issues related to attachment, trauma, emotional and behavioral problems, and academic achievement. Some of the therapeutic approaches that inform her clinical work include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based practices, strengths-based, solution-focused, and relational approaches.
Dr. Whaley has over 10 years of experience providing psychotherapy and psychological assessment services to children, adolescents, and adults within schools, mental health clinics, and hospitals. She specializes in addressing issues related to attachment, trauma, emotional and behavioral problems, and academic achievement. Some of the therapeutic approaches that inform her clinical work include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based practices, strengths-based, solution-focused, and relational approaches.
(603) 865-1321 View (603) 865-1321
Photo of Hanover Center For Cognitive Behavioral Therapies - Hanover Center for Cognitive Behavioral Therapies, Psychologist
Hanover Center for Cognitive Behavioral Therapies
Psychologist
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Are you looking for compassionate care to help you or a loved one address difficult emotions, experiences, or transitions? Hanover CBT is a group private practice with clinicians who specialize in working with individuals across the lifespan experiencing a wide range of mental health struggles. We seek to assist clients in cultivating awareness, wisdom, and courage in every aspect of their lives while meeting each client with compassion, integrity, and presence. We believe that it is brave to ask for support and we work with our patients to develop strength-based practices and approaches to coping with challenges.
Are you looking for compassionate care to help you or a loved one address difficult emotions, experiences, or transitions? Hanover CBT is a group private practice with clinicians who specialize in working with individuals across the lifespan experiencing a wide range of mental health struggles. We seek to assist clients in cultivating awareness, wisdom, and courage in every aspect of their lives while meeting each client with compassion, integrity, and presence. We believe that it is brave to ask for support and we work with our patients to develop strength-based practices and approaches to coping with challenges.
(603) 392-7241 View (603) 392-7241
Photo of Chris Lamontagne, MSW, SW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Chris Lamontagne
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW, SW
Verified Verified
Hanover, NH 03755
Chris is passionate about co-creative and strength-based work with children and families, and believes deeply in the power of a body, mind, spirit approach to their healing process. In addition to his clinical training, he has an extremely diverse background that has assisted him in his ability to effectively connect with, support, and serve adolescents and their families. He has extensive experience as an outdoor/experiential educator, facilitator and wilderness adventure professional (w/ current Wilderness EMT certifications as a SOLO Wilderness First Responder Instructor and a level II Maine Whitewater Guide license).
Chris is passionate about co-creative and strength-based work with children and families, and believes deeply in the power of a body, mind, spirit approach to their healing process. In addition to his clinical training, he has an extremely diverse background that has assisted him in his ability to effectively connect with, support, and serve adolescents and their families. He has extensive experience as an outdoor/experiential educator, facilitator and wilderness adventure professional (w/ current Wilderness EMT certifications as a SOLO Wilderness First Responder Instructor and a level II Maine Whitewater Guide license).
(603) 691-1615 View (603) 691-1615
1

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Hanover, NH

100+

Average cost per session

$165

Therapists in Hanover, NH who prioritize treating:

89% Anxiety
84% Depression
80% Relationship Issues
74% Self Esteem
68% Trauma and PTSD
68% Coping Skills
66% Grief

Average years in practice

17 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

57% BlueCross and BlueShield
57% Cigna and Evernorth
50% Optum

How Therapists in Hanover, NH see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
19% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Hanover?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.