Therapists in San Diego, CA

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Photo of Michelle Andrea Alexander, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Diego, CA
Michelle Andrea Alexander
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92113  (Online Only)
Life can seem overwhelming at times, and sometimes we just need a little help moving forward. If you are feeling hopeless, anxious, or do not know where to turn, let me help. I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who utilizes your own strengths to help you move towards the space you envision for yourself. I utilize a combination of CBT, DBT, and Solution Focused Therapies to help you reach your goals. I have worked with a broad range of issues and diagnosis and feel confident that I can help you. I am currently offering teletherapy through a secure HIPPA compliant platform.
Life can seem overwhelming at times, and sometimes we just need a little help moving forward. If you are feeling hopeless, anxious, or do not know where to turn, let me help. I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who utilizes your own strengths to help you move towards the space you envision for yourself. I utilize a combination of CBT, DBT, and Solution Focused Therapies to help you reach your goals. I have worked with a broad range of issues and diagnosis and feel confident that I can help you. I am currently offering teletherapy through a secure HIPPA compliant platform.
(619) 927-8703 View (619) 927-8703
Photo of Stephanie Wolfe, Psychologist in San Diego, CA
Stephanie Wolfe
Psychologist, PsyD, MA
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92117  (Online Only)
Life can feel chaotic. Whether you are considering your first time in treatment, continuing or returning to treatment, my goal is to provide you with the platform and skills to effectively evaluate, identify and create solutions to help you. It’s important to remember that therapy is not always about ‘fixing’ a problem. Sometimes, it is about learning how to work with the problem by creating awareness, strengthening insight, developing or broadening skills you already have. It is a joint effort between the therapist and the client, working together, to impact change and bring balance to what may otherwise feel out of control.
Life can feel chaotic. Whether you are considering your first time in treatment, continuing or returning to treatment, my goal is to provide you with the platform and skills to effectively evaluate, identify and create solutions to help you. It’s important to remember that therapy is not always about ‘fixing’ a problem. Sometimes, it is about learning how to work with the problem by creating awareness, strengthening insight, developing or broadening skills you already have. It is a joint effort between the therapist and the client, working together, to impact change and bring balance to what may otherwise feel out of control.
(619) 547-0613 View (619) 547-0613
Photo of Jasmine Dyjak Counseling , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Diego, CA
Jasmine Dyjak Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92101
Being human comes with gifts. And challenges. Perhaps your feeling stressed out or sad. Maybe you have experienced significant life stressors, need support with solving specific problems or have relationships concerns. Or maybe your looking for a judgment free zone, a structured place to process life and increase self-esteem.
Being human comes with gifts. And challenges. Perhaps your feeling stressed out or sad. Maybe you have experienced significant life stressors, need support with solving specific problems or have relationships concerns. Or maybe your looking for a judgment free zone, a structured place to process life and increase self-esteem.
(619) 853-3291 View (619) 853-3291
Photo of Michelle Montejano, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Diego, CA
Michelle Montejano
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92130
I'm happy you're here! Choosing healing is a courageous choice and it's my greatest privilege to support those who seek the path of healing their pain and coming back home to themselves. Healing is a journey of remembering again and again that we are whole. There is nothing that can truly separate us from this wholeness, not even our most profound pain or deepest wounds. In fact, the place of our deepest pain is the portal into our healing. I am an integrative, holistic, somatic therapist and coach seeking to shift the paradigm of mental health treatment away from pathology and toward the truth: our wounding does not make us broken.
I'm happy you're here! Choosing healing is a courageous choice and it's my greatest privilege to support those who seek the path of healing their pain and coming back home to themselves. Healing is a journey of remembering again and again that we are whole. There is nothing that can truly separate us from this wholeness, not even our most profound pain or deepest wounds. In fact, the place of our deepest pain is the portal into our healing. I am an integrative, holistic, somatic therapist and coach seeking to shift the paradigm of mental health treatment away from pathology and toward the truth: our wounding does not make us broken.
(858) 465-5205 View (858) 465-5205
Photo of Carly Stewart, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Diego, CA
Carly Stewart
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92105  (Online Only)
Are you battling anxiety that feels like it holds you back from experiencing a full life? Or perhaps you're dealing with a loss that feels too heavy to hold. Or maybe you're in a relationship that is not turning out quite like you had planned or hoped? Whatever brings you to this page, I'm here to help walk with you. “Your problem is how you are going to spend this one and precious life you have been issued. Whether you're going to spend it trying to look good and creating the illusion that you have power over circumstances, or whether you are going to taste it, enjoy it and find out the truth about who you are.” ― Anne Lamott
Are you battling anxiety that feels like it holds you back from experiencing a full life? Or perhaps you're dealing with a loss that feels too heavy to hold. Or maybe you're in a relationship that is not turning out quite like you had planned or hoped? Whatever brings you to this page, I'm here to help walk with you. “Your problem is how you are going to spend this one and precious life you have been issued. Whether you're going to spend it trying to look good and creating the illusion that you have power over circumstances, or whether you are going to taste it, enjoy it and find out the truth about who you are.” ― Anne Lamott
(858) 901-7312 View (858) 901-7312
Photo of Sage Judith Dakota, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Diego, CA
Sage Judith Dakota
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92101  (Online Only)
Part shaman, part therapist. I have 4 open times for highly motivated clients. Weekly on Monday at 6 am & Wednesday 10 am, & every other Sat. 6 and 7 am. If you are looking for an “outside the box” approach to therapy, this is it. Be ready to go in deep, commit to the work. Cord healing or cutting, soul retrieval, dissolving emotional knots stuck in the body, art therapy to journey across time to heal old wounds & more. I work with adults & specialize in Mother Wound & Father Wound work; PTSD, & Twin Flames. I work with I AM teachings, Archangels, and Ascended Masters.
Part shaman, part therapist. I have 4 open times for highly motivated clients. Weekly on Monday at 6 am & Wednesday 10 am, & every other Sat. 6 and 7 am. If you are looking for an “outside the box” approach to therapy, this is it. Be ready to go in deep, commit to the work. Cord healing or cutting, soul retrieval, dissolving emotional knots stuck in the body, art therapy to journey across time to heal old wounds & more. I work with adults & specialize in Mother Wound & Father Wound work; PTSD, & Twin Flames. I work with I AM teachings, Archangels, and Ascended Masters.
(442) 282-7289 View (442) 282-7289
Photo of Penelope Young Andrade, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Diego, CA
Penelope Young Andrade
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92129
My ideal client is a person who doesn't want to give up on him/her/themself and the dream of a fulfilling life. I support clients to know the truth: they deserve love and success no matter what wounds they've experienced. I help people uncover the deep wisdom and restorative potential living within them. I do this gently in the present moment by reconnecting clients with healing, embodied emotional experience in safe connection with me. This gets vitality and intuition moving again I support people to take responsibility (but not blame) in any life/work/relationship upset because this is what works!
My ideal client is a person who doesn't want to give up on him/her/themself and the dream of a fulfilling life. I support clients to know the truth: they deserve love and success no matter what wounds they've experienced. I help people uncover the deep wisdom and restorative potential living within them. I do this gently in the present moment by reconnecting clients with healing, embodied emotional experience in safe connection with me. This gets vitality and intuition moving again I support people to take responsibility (but not blame) in any life/work/relationship upset because this is what works!
(858) 799-0079 View (858) 799-0079
Photo of Erin N Kownacki, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Diego, CA
Erin N Kownacki
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT, RYT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92106
Not accepting new clients
The first step in this process is recognizing that you may benefit from support; let me help you with the rest. I work well with adults and couples who benefit from a blend of goal oriented and holistic approaches to their therapeutic journey. I have experience both personally and professionally with working with LGBTQIA+ populations. I consider my style to be genuine, honest, and gentle at the same time. I strive to create safe spaces where you feel seen, heard, and accepted just the way you are.
The first step in this process is recognizing that you may benefit from support; let me help you with the rest. I work well with adults and couples who benefit from a blend of goal oriented and holistic approaches to their therapeutic journey. I have experience both personally and professionally with working with LGBTQIA+ populations. I consider my style to be genuine, honest, and gentle at the same time. I strive to create safe spaces where you feel seen, heard, and accepted just the way you are.
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Photo of Corinne Heinzelmann, Psychologist in San Diego, CA
Corinne Heinzelmann
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92130
Not accepting new clients
Life is stressful; and women experience this in unique ways. Trauma, loss, early childhood experiences, recurrent behaviors, career stress, and body and life-cycle changes can result in difficulties with a woman's self-esteem, relationships, mood, sexuality, spirituality, and health. Similarly, couples can develop patterns of relating from early experiences which result in conflict, loneliness and despair. Therapy provides deeper insight into our needs, choices, beliefs, behaviors, and emotions. Dr. heinzelmann focuses on offering the tools needed to move toward emotional and spiritual wholeness.
Life is stressful; and women experience this in unique ways. Trauma, loss, early childhood experiences, recurrent behaviors, career stress, and body and life-cycle changes can result in difficulties with a woman's self-esteem, relationships, mood, sexuality, spirituality, and health. Similarly, couples can develop patterns of relating from early experiences which result in conflict, loneliness and despair. Therapy provides deeper insight into our needs, choices, beliefs, behaviors, and emotions. Dr. heinzelmann focuses on offering the tools needed to move toward emotional and spiritual wholeness.
(760) 961-4037 View (760) 961-4037
Photo of Jordan Roeschlein, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Diego, CA
Jordan Roeschlein
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92130  (Online Only)
Anxiety can be felt in a lot of different ways; chronic worry, isolating, difficulty focusing, feeling irritable, tense, restless or frozen and even physical ailments. This can have harmful impacts our relationships, daily performance and how we engage with the world around us. Whether this stems from a traumatic event, past or present relationship(s), a major transition in your life, current events throughout the world or you're working on finding the root cause, you can experience relief, get back to enjoying your life and improve your connections.
Anxiety can be felt in a lot of different ways; chronic worry, isolating, difficulty focusing, feeling irritable, tense, restless or frozen and even physical ailments. This can have harmful impacts our relationships, daily performance and how we engage with the world around us. Whether this stems from a traumatic event, past or present relationship(s), a major transition in your life, current events throughout the world or you're working on finding the root cause, you can experience relief, get back to enjoying your life and improve your connections.
(619) 975-3114 View (619) 975-3114
Photo of Sarah Fraser, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Diego, CA
Sarah Fraser
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92127
I am part of a group practice that's primary focus is on supporting client's that are struggling with eating disorders, body image concerns, disordered eating patterns, as well as individuals that are struggling with navigating a world filled with diet culture and weight biased messaging. The relationships people have with food and their bodies are an integral component of living a well-rounded and full life, as these relationships allow us to connect intentionally with ourselves and with others. My goal for clients is to help them heal their relationships with food and their bodies, increase self-esteem, and live more presently.
I am part of a group practice that's primary focus is on supporting client's that are struggling with eating disorders, body image concerns, disordered eating patterns, as well as individuals that are struggling with navigating a world filled with diet culture and weight biased messaging. The relationships people have with food and their bodies are an integral component of living a well-rounded and full life, as these relationships allow us to connect intentionally with ourselves and with others. My goal for clients is to help them heal their relationships with food and their bodies, increase self-esteem, and live more presently.
(858) 463-4889 View (858) 463-4889
Photo of Paniz Allameh, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Diego, CA
Paniz Allameh
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT, APCC
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92128
As a Mental Health Therapist, I embarked on my journey of self-development in 2014, catalyzed by a life-altering panic attack during a traumatic event. Initially feeling isolated in my struggles, I sought help and immersed myself in various modalities aimed at nurturing my soul back to health. Through years of introspection and growth, I came to appreciate the profound significance of therapy as a safe haven, cultivating self-awareness, and harnessing the transformative potential of cognitive techniques. That's when I made the choice to transition from my role as an engineer to become a therapist.
As a Mental Health Therapist, I embarked on my journey of self-development in 2014, catalyzed by a life-altering panic attack during a traumatic event. Initially feeling isolated in my struggles, I sought help and immersed myself in various modalities aimed at nurturing my soul back to health. Through years of introspection and growth, I came to appreciate the profound significance of therapy as a safe haven, cultivating self-awareness, and harnessing the transformative potential of cognitive techniques. That's when I made the choice to transition from my role as an engineer to become a therapist.
(858) 434-5263 View (858) 434-5263
Photo of Barbara Varga, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Diego, CA
Barbara Varga
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92108
My goal as a therapist is to help individuals and couples realize their full potential in a safe, caring, nurturing and challenging environment.
My goal as a therapist is to help individuals and couples realize their full potential in a safe, caring, nurturing and challenging environment.
(619) 346-4388 View (619) 346-4388
Photo of Leticia Cantor-Lopez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Diego, CA
Leticia Cantor-Lopez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92129
My name is Leticia Cantor-Lopez. I am a bilingual licensed clinical social worker with 11 years of experience in the mental health field. My approach is client centered. My interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, trauma informed, interpersonal psychotherapy, solution focused, problem solving skills, self-regulation and mindfulness techniques, and coping techniques. My experience includes treating children, adolescents and adults with depression, anxiety, trauma, ADHD, adjustment, behavioral issues, relationships issues, and acute stress.
My name is Leticia Cantor-Lopez. I am a bilingual licensed clinical social worker with 11 years of experience in the mental health field. My approach is client centered. My interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, trauma informed, interpersonal psychotherapy, solution focused, problem solving skills, self-regulation and mindfulness techniques, and coping techniques. My experience includes treating children, adolescents and adults with depression, anxiety, trauma, ADHD, adjustment, behavioral issues, relationships issues, and acute stress.
(858) 321-8286 View (858) 321-8286
Photo of Red Galura, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Diego, CA
Red Galura
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MS, AMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92103  (Online Only)
Together, we will support the changes you want to make by first understanding more of who you are and what's important to you. We will take our time to reflect on your experiences with self-worth, overthinking, and/or grief to reveal helpful elements that have may gone unnoticed in your story so far -qualities and strengths you can apply in order to take that next step. By collaborating on effective solutions, we will come up with a clearer sense of what you need to experience the sense of connection with the people, values, strengths, cultures, relationships, and communities aligned with your life goals.
Together, we will support the changes you want to make by first understanding more of who you are and what's important to you. We will take our time to reflect on your experiences with self-worth, overthinking, and/or grief to reveal helpful elements that have may gone unnoticed in your story so far -qualities and strengths you can apply in order to take that next step. By collaborating on effective solutions, we will come up with a clearer sense of what you need to experience the sense of connection with the people, values, strengths, cultures, relationships, and communities aligned with your life goals.
(760) 652-9680 x6 View (760) 652-9680 x6
Photo of Karyn Donado, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Diego, CA
Karyn Donado
Marriage & Family Therapist
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92123
Karyn Donado is an MFT who has been practicing since 1997 in a variety of roles within the helping profession. Karyn graduated from Chapman University in 1997 with a Masters Degree in Psychology with a MFT emphasis. Karyn believes in a strength based and client centered approach along with using modalities such as Cognitive Behavioral, Behavioral, Problem Solving, Solution Focused, Mindfulness, and others to be able to meet the needs of a diverse population.
Karyn Donado is an MFT who has been practicing since 1997 in a variety of roles within the helping profession. Karyn graduated from Chapman University in 1997 with a Masters Degree in Psychology with a MFT emphasis. Karyn believes in a strength based and client centered approach along with using modalities such as Cognitive Behavioral, Behavioral, Problem Solving, Solution Focused, Mindfulness, and others to be able to meet the needs of a diverse population.
(858) 331-8201 View (858) 331-8201
Photo of Parysa Parvizian, Ph.D., Psychologist in San Diego, CA
Parysa Parvizian, Ph.D.
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Diego, CA 92108
My prominent specialty is treating trauma and PTSD symptoms (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). Each person's traumatic experience is unique to the individual due to many factors such as relationships, personality, coping skills, strengths, risk factors, and perception on life can influence how a person manages their trauma. I completed my doctorate degree by doing extensive research on trauma-related resiliency factors amongst those who have been through child abuse, as well as years of clinical experience working with trauma victims. Shame/guilt issues is a significant focus of the trauma work I do in improving a client's resilience.
My prominent specialty is treating trauma and PTSD symptoms (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). Each person's traumatic experience is unique to the individual due to many factors such as relationships, personality, coping skills, strengths, risk factors, and perception on life can influence how a person manages their trauma. I completed my doctorate degree by doing extensive research on trauma-related resiliency factors amongst those who have been through child abuse, as well as years of clinical experience working with trauma victims. Shame/guilt issues is a significant focus of the trauma work I do in improving a client's resilience.
(619) 292-0326 View (619) 292-0326
Photo of Dr. Michele McCarter, Psychologist in San Diego, CA
Dr. Michele McCarter
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92108
Michele primarily practices individual psychotherapy with adults with anxiety and mood disorders. She believes that psychotherapy should be practiced in a caring and empathetic environment.
Michele primarily practices individual psychotherapy with adults with anxiety and mood disorders. She believes that psychotherapy should be practiced in a caring and empathetic environment.
(619) 332-0810 View (619) 332-0810
Photo of Katee Zullo, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Diego, CA
Katee Zullo
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92121  (Online Only)
Do your emotions ever seem out of control? Maybe you’re in a daze, just going through the motions? Do you feel like no one understands you? Sometimes life comes at us fast and we have difficulty catching up. The good news is you no longer have to go through this alone. I’m here to help. I work to create a safe, compassionate environment to explore your thoughts and emotions, while emphasizing the healing nature of our therapist-client relationship.
Do your emotions ever seem out of control? Maybe you’re in a daze, just going through the motions? Do you feel like no one understands you? Sometimes life comes at us fast and we have difficulty catching up. The good news is you no longer have to go through this alone. I’m here to help. I work to create a safe, compassionate environment to explore your thoughts and emotions, while emphasizing the healing nature of our therapist-client relationship.
(442) 276-3580 View (442) 276-3580
Photo of Marisa Zens, Psychologist in San Diego, CA
Marisa Zens
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Diego, CA 92117
One of the most important ingredients in successful therapy is a good therapeutic fit. My approach is to provide an empathic, warm and supportive environment, and work collaboratively to identify and make sense of your unique struggles and particular obstacles. I work with adolescents and adults and use both insight-oriented and skills-based approaches to find short and long-term solutions to intercept the patterns that are interfering with your personal growth. I also provide supervision and consultation to psychologists and psychology trainees.
One of the most important ingredients in successful therapy is a good therapeutic fit. My approach is to provide an empathic, warm and supportive environment, and work collaboratively to identify and make sense of your unique struggles and particular obstacles. I work with adolescents and adults and use both insight-oriented and skills-based approaches to find short and long-term solutions to intercept the patterns that are interfering with your personal growth. I also provide supervision and consultation to psychologists and psychology trainees.
(619) 940-1548 View (619) 940-1548

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in San Diego, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in San Diego, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
71% Self Esteem
67% Relationship Issues
67% Coping Skills
66% Trauma and PTSD
62% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% Aetna
73% Cigna and Evernorth
68% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in San Diego, CA see their clients

56% In Person and Online
44% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in San Diego?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.