Therapists in La Jolla, CA

Photo of Leslie Ziegenhorn, Psychologist in La Jolla, CA
Leslie Ziegenhorn
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
Dr. Leslie Ziegenhorn (she/her/hers) is a licensed clinical psychologist with over 30 years of experience in the mental & behavioral health field. Although she’s enjoyed varied professional roles such as professor, researcher, clinical supervisor, and yoga instructor, she’s devoted most of her career to what she loves most: supporting individuals’ growth through psychotherapy.
Dr. Leslie Ziegenhorn (she/her/hers) is a licensed clinical psychologist with over 30 years of experience in the mental & behavioral health field. Although she’s enjoyed varied professional roles such as professor, researcher, clinical supervisor, and yoga instructor, she’s devoted most of her career to what she loves most: supporting individuals’ growth through psychotherapy.
(858) 365-8986 View (858) 365-8986
Photo of Hanna Tannenbaum, Psychological Associate in La Jolla, CA
Hanna Tannenbaum
Psychological Associate, PsyD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
Our life experiences are layered, complex, and at times can feel overwhelming. Therapy offers us a safe and nurturing environment where we can explore these experiences, comprehend their effects, and nurture a sense of compassion as we move toward who we are intended to be. Dr. Hanna is passionate about supporting young adults navigating life transitions, adults struggling with trauma, anxiety, and depression, couples, and athletes struggling with performance anxiety, transitions after injury, and identity. She integrates psychodynamic and holistic approaches in her work with clients.
Our life experiences are layered, complex, and at times can feel overwhelming. Therapy offers us a safe and nurturing environment where we can explore these experiences, comprehend their effects, and nurture a sense of compassion as we move toward who we are intended to be. Dr. Hanna is passionate about supporting young adults navigating life transitions, adults struggling with trauma, anxiety, and depression, couples, and athletes struggling with performance anxiety, transitions after injury, and identity. She integrates psychodynamic and holistic approaches in her work with clients.
(760) 417-6056 x116 View (760) 417-6056 x116
Photo of Chris Chandler, Counselor in La Jolla, CA
Chris Chandler
Counselor, MA, LPCC, LMHC, CSAT-S, AF-EMDR
Verified
12 Endorsed
La Jolla, CA 92037  (Online Only)
My passion is helping people build healthy and meaningful lives. I am a Certified Sexual Addiction Therapist trained by Dr. Patrick Carnes, the pioneer in the field of sex addiction. I have extensive experience working with individuals struggling with all forms of addictions and compulsive behaviors including: sex, pornography, drugs, alcohol, food, work, spending, codependent relationships, etc. I use Attachment-Focused EMDR, Internal Family Systems, and Lifespan Integration to help people become free from underlying relational/attachment wounds.
My passion is helping people build healthy and meaningful lives. I am a Certified Sexual Addiction Therapist trained by Dr. Patrick Carnes, the pioneer in the field of sex addiction. I have extensive experience working with individuals struggling with all forms of addictions and compulsive behaviors including: sex, pornography, drugs, alcohol, food, work, spending, codependent relationships, etc. I use Attachment-Focused EMDR, Internal Family Systems, and Lifespan Integration to help people become free from underlying relational/attachment wounds.
(619) 369-1884 View (619) 369-1884
Ellen Jacobs
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
What is commonly referred to as "mental health" is not an absolute. During my 30 years of practice, I've come to think of psychotherapy/counseling as a combination of external focus (how we manage or cope in the world) and internal focus (what needs to be healed se we feel better about who we are). I would like to help you with either/both. My practice includes work with individuals as well as couples.
What is commonly referred to as "mental health" is not an absolute. During my 30 years of practice, I've come to think of psychotherapy/counseling as a combination of external focus (how we manage or cope in the world) and internal focus (what needs to be healed se we feel better about who we are). I would like to help you with either/both. My practice includes work with individuals as well as couples.
(858) 367-9408 View (858) 367-9408
Photo of Irene Saunders, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Irene Saunders
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037  (Online Only)
Most everything you value flows from the relationship you have with yourself. Discover all that transforms when you live in a way that reflects compassion toward yourself, and a deeper connection with your emotions, truth and dreams. I am a warm, genuinely caring and intuitive therapist. People I see often say that they feel safe and at ease with me, and deeply understood. Prior to a private practice, I provided therapy at the Departments of Psychiatry at UCSD and Rady Children's Hospital, and at Scripps, and trained other therapists. I use a blend of approaches to therapy and healing, and can offer tools tailored to your needs.
Most everything you value flows from the relationship you have with yourself. Discover all that transforms when you live in a way that reflects compassion toward yourself, and a deeper connection with your emotions, truth and dreams. I am a warm, genuinely caring and intuitive therapist. People I see often say that they feel safe and at ease with me, and deeply understood. Prior to a private practice, I provided therapy at the Departments of Psychiatry at UCSD and Rady Children's Hospital, and at Scripps, and trained other therapists. I use a blend of approaches to therapy and healing, and can offer tools tailored to your needs.
(858) 914-4625 View (858) 914-4625
Photo of Valorie M. Adrio, Marriage & Family Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Valorie M. Adrio
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, ATR-BC
Verified
1 Endorsed
La Jolla, CA 92037
With over 30 years of experience, I help clients to begin again, try something new, transform their relationships, increase their sense of well-being, and heal emotional pain. As a culturally sensitive, growth-oriented, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, I create safe, affirming, non-judgemental relationships quickly with individuals and couples from many backgrounds, painful histories, faiths, cultures, and sexual orientations. I enjoy working with couples in traditional marriages or in non-traditional relationships. I am currently seeing clients by telehealth only.
With over 30 years of experience, I help clients to begin again, try something new, transform their relationships, increase their sense of well-being, and heal emotional pain. As a culturally sensitive, growth-oriented, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, I create safe, affirming, non-judgemental relationships quickly with individuals and couples from many backgrounds, painful histories, faiths, cultures, and sexual orientations. I enjoy working with couples in traditional marriages or in non-traditional relationships. I am currently seeing clients by telehealth only.
(858) 212-0257 View (858) 212-0257
Photo of Kelly McCullough, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Kelly McCullough
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
6 Endorsed
La Jolla, CA 92037
Have you ever felt like life's daily stressors are too much to handle? Are you wondering where you can turn to find some extra support? We all face challenges in our life, whether it is a transition to a new school or job, conflict in relationships, or difficulty managing our emotions. Seeking professional help can be the first vital step in making a change. I work with children, adolescents, adults, and couples looking to transform their lives. My goal is to work collaboratively with you to explore the shifts needed to launch you into a life filled with joy, peace, and fulfillment.
Have you ever felt like life's daily stressors are too much to handle? Are you wondering where you can turn to find some extra support? We all face challenges in our life, whether it is a transition to a new school or job, conflict in relationships, or difficulty managing our emotions. Seeking professional help can be the first vital step in making a change. I work with children, adolescents, adults, and couples looking to transform their lives. My goal is to work collaboratively with you to explore the shifts needed to launch you into a life filled with joy, peace, and fulfillment.
(858) 943-2002 View (858) 943-2002
Photo of Kamran Zafar, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in La Jolla, CA
Kamran Zafar
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, CADAC, PhD
La Jolla, CA 92037
My name is Dr. Kamran Zafar and I am the founder and CEO of La Jolla Healing Center. I have been in recovery for more than 30 years and know how lonely it can get. Addiction can hit a person when they least expect it: when they're trying to manage an increase in their workload, fulfill obligations with family, or for no reason whatsoever. It often begins innocently — sometimes to relieve the stress of everyday life, or even just to experience the thrill of something new. Before the person knows it, they’re using alcohol or substances to cope with the negative feelings and stress in their daily lives.
My name is Dr. Kamran Zafar and I am the founder and CEO of La Jolla Healing Center. I have been in recovery for more than 30 years and know how lonely it can get. Addiction can hit a person when they least expect it: when they're trying to manage an increase in their workload, fulfill obligations with family, or for no reason whatsoever. It often begins innocently — sometimes to relieve the stress of everyday life, or even just to experience the thrill of something new. Before the person knows it, they’re using alcohol or substances to cope with the negative feelings and stress in their daily lives.
(858) 707-7559 View (858) 707-7559
Photo of Nasim Bavar, Marriage & Family Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Nasim Bavar
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, MA, LMFT
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037  (Online Only)
In my experience, our suffering stems from a lack of self-acceptance and self-compassion. I have also realized that it is not until we are willing to take that first step of looking at ourselves kindly and respectfully, that we begin to live life fully. If you are feeling stuck dealing with difficult situations or repeating unhealthy habits, I can help.
In my experience, our suffering stems from a lack of self-acceptance and self-compassion. I have also realized that it is not until we are willing to take that first step of looking at ourselves kindly and respectfully, that we begin to live life fully. If you are feeling stuck dealing with difficult situations or repeating unhealthy habits, I can help.
(858) 444-7746 View (858) 444-7746
Photo of Alysia Wong, Marriage & Family Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Alysia Wong
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92093
My name is Alysia Wong and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in the state of California. I primarily work with adults who need support with mood disorders, trauma, domestic violence, life transitions, or anxiety. I approach treatment with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and I may incorporate Person-Centered, Strength-Based, Trauma Informed, and Applied Behavioral Analysis modalities as well. I have been working in the mental health system of care since 2013 in various settings (inpatient, outpatient, private practice, court-mandated).
My name is Alysia Wong and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in the state of California. I primarily work with adults who need support with mood disorders, trauma, domestic violence, life transitions, or anxiety. I approach treatment with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and I may incorporate Person-Centered, Strength-Based, Trauma Informed, and Applied Behavioral Analysis modalities as well. I have been working in the mental health system of care since 2013 in various settings (inpatient, outpatient, private practice, court-mandated).
(858) 422-3282 View (858) 422-3282
Photo of Noemi Balinth, Psychologist in La Jolla, CA
Noemi Balinth
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
A past president of the New York State Psychological Association clinical psychologist Dr. Noemi Balinth is committed to both practice and to public education and advocacy for mental health through the use of media and public speaking. Practicing in La Jolla California she employs an integrative clinical approach to help clients find creative solutions to life's problems, incorporating psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral models as well as tools such as EMDR. Specializations include the treatment of posttraumatic stress, couples' therapy and counseling for gifted children and adults.
A past president of the New York State Psychological Association clinical psychologist Dr. Noemi Balinth is committed to both practice and to public education and advocacy for mental health through the use of media and public speaking. Practicing in La Jolla California she employs an integrative clinical approach to help clients find creative solutions to life's problems, incorporating psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral models as well as tools such as EMDR. Specializations include the treatment of posttraumatic stress, couples' therapy and counseling for gifted children and adults.
(858) 367-3941 View (858) 367-3941
Photo of Demi Fitzpatrick, Associate Clinical Social Worker in La Jolla, CA
Demi Fitzpatrick
Associate Clinical Social Worker, ACSW, MSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
La Jolla, CA 92037
As a therapist, I aim to hold a safe space that feels both supportive and at times challenging, but always tailored to your personal needs and expressed goals. I like to think of my role as a passenger and navigator, presenting different paths that you may consider, but ultimately you are the one in the driver’s seat. I empower my clients by helping them to champion self-advocacy, assist them in reframing issues into challenges they can overcome, and explore the roots of these challenges so they may be better informed and equipped to tackle current and future adversaries.
As a therapist, I aim to hold a safe space that feels both supportive and at times challenging, but always tailored to your personal needs and expressed goals. I like to think of my role as a passenger and navigator, presenting different paths that you may consider, but ultimately you are the one in the driver’s seat. I empower my clients by helping them to champion self-advocacy, assist them in reframing issues into challenges they can overcome, and explore the roots of these challenges so they may be better informed and equipped to tackle current and future adversaries.
(858) 758-8349 View (858) 758-8349
Photo of Jessica Flowers-Guerrero, Marriage & Family Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Jessica Flowers-Guerrero
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037  (Online Only)
I enjoy working with individuals and families. I have experience assisting my clients in working through depression, anxiety, anger, perinatal mood disorders, substance use, behavioral issues, parenting issues, women's issues, and trauma. I believe that for my clients to have space for growth, they need an environment that is trusting, non-judgmental, validating, and supportive. In working with me, I hope that my clients will feel seen, heard, and understood. My ultimate goal is to help my clients feel empowered to live the life they desire and achieve alignment with who they are, balance, and overall wellness.
I enjoy working with individuals and families. I have experience assisting my clients in working through depression, anxiety, anger, perinatal mood disorders, substance use, behavioral issues, parenting issues, women's issues, and trauma. I believe that for my clients to have space for growth, they need an environment that is trusting, non-judgmental, validating, and supportive. In working with me, I hope that my clients will feel seen, heard, and understood. My ultimate goal is to help my clients feel empowered to live the life they desire and achieve alignment with who they are, balance, and overall wellness.
(310) 651-7795 View (310) 651-7795
Photo of Benjamin Towns, Psychologist in La Jolla, CA
Benjamin Towns
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
Dr. Benjamin Towns is a licensed clinical psychologist with extensive experience working with patients experiencing chronic pain, depression, anxiety, ADHD, interpersonal conflicts, school stress, work stress, substance use disorder and addiction. His therapeutic approach is client-centered, compassionate, culturally sensitive, and evidenced-based. He utilizes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-based interventions to promote recovery, wellness, and improve quality of life.
Dr. Benjamin Towns is a licensed clinical psychologist with extensive experience working with patients experiencing chronic pain, depression, anxiety, ADHD, interpersonal conflicts, school stress, work stress, substance use disorder and addiction. His therapeutic approach is client-centered, compassionate, culturally sensitive, and evidenced-based. He utilizes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-based interventions to promote recovery, wellness, and improve quality of life.
(858) 290-7583 View (858) 290-7583
Photo of Michael Villanueva, Psychologist in La Jolla, CA
Michael Villanueva
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
Dr. Michael Villanueva offers an unique approach to traditional counseling with an emphasis on Jungian psychology and two domains: Conditions more rooted in expressed psychological symptoms, and conditions more rooted in neurophysiological symptoms. This is a distinction reflecting years of experience in both counseling and analyzing the human EEG (AKA ‘brainwaves’). He can counsel and treat with various forms of talk therapy as well as analyze and train your neural pathways using neurofeedback. Dr. Villanueva also offers telehealth counseling.
Dr. Michael Villanueva offers an unique approach to traditional counseling with an emphasis on Jungian psychology and two domains: Conditions more rooted in expressed psychological symptoms, and conditions more rooted in neurophysiological symptoms. This is a distinction reflecting years of experience in both counseling and analyzing the human EEG (AKA ‘brainwaves’). He can counsel and treat with various forms of talk therapy as well as analyze and train your neural pathways using neurofeedback. Dr. Villanueva also offers telehealth counseling.
(858) 877-9301 View (858) 877-9301
Photo of Dr. Marieke Overman, Psychologist in La Jolla, CA
Dr. Marieke Overman
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
As a clinical psychologist, I help young adults with anxiety, depression, grief and loss, life transitions, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, self-esteem, spirituality, and trauma. My therapeutic approach is integrative and collaborative, using cognitive behavioral therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, expressive arts, mindfulness, and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy.
As a clinical psychologist, I help young adults with anxiety, depression, grief and loss, life transitions, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, self-esteem, spirituality, and trauma. My therapeutic approach is integrative and collaborative, using cognitive behavioral therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, expressive arts, mindfulness, and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy.
(858) 365-8047 View (858) 365-8047
Photo of Jojo Little, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Jojo Little
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
If you're ready to change and you don't know how, we can work together. Whether it's emotions you'd like to have more control over, feeling a lack of purpose, relationships you want to strengthen, goals you want to accomplish, or constant anxious thoughts, together we can build your life worth living. I teach skills that allow for making changes in your life possible. I will guide you in a warm, empathic, and nonjudgmental way continuously balancing validation and prompting change. And I won't preach anything I don't practice myself.
If you're ready to change and you don't know how, we can work together. Whether it's emotions you'd like to have more control over, feeling a lack of purpose, relationships you want to strengthen, goals you want to accomplish, or constant anxious thoughts, together we can build your life worth living. I teach skills that allow for making changes in your life possible. I will guide you in a warm, empathic, and nonjudgmental way continuously balancing validation and prompting change. And I won't preach anything I don't practice myself.
(646) 956-3413 View (646) 956-3413
Photo of Charles Cutler, Ph.D., Psychologist in La Jolla, CA
Charles Cutler, Ph.D.
Psychologist, PhD, LP
Verified
1 Endorsed
La Jolla, CA 92037
Everyone has the capacity to grow and create a more meaningful and fulfilling life. All that is required is a willingness to try and some perseverance. My goal to is create a personalized experience for you. I am passionate about my work, well trained and very experienced. Working together we can make sense of things, lessen the pain you feel, overcome stuck places and find your way forward. Whether you're suffering from anxiety, depression, loneliness, relationship issues or low self-confidence, we will address these issues and begin to find answers.
Everyone has the capacity to grow and create a more meaningful and fulfilling life. All that is required is a willingness to try and some perseverance. My goal to is create a personalized experience for you. I am passionate about my work, well trained and very experienced. Working together we can make sense of things, lessen the pain you feel, overcome stuck places and find your way forward. Whether you're suffering from anxiety, depression, loneliness, relationship issues or low self-confidence, we will address these issues and begin to find answers.
(858) 521-9382 View (858) 521-9382
Photo of Deborah Lynn Skvarna, Marriage & Family Therapist in La Jolla, CA
Deborah Lynn Skvarna
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, MFT
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037  (Online Only)
"Solution focused therapy for positive change" As a therapist, I specialize in working with individuals, couples, families, children and adolescents. My objective is to assist you and/or your family in reaching your personalized, specific goals unique to your lifestyle.
"Solution focused therapy for positive change" As a therapist, I specialize in working with individuals, couples, families, children and adolescents. My objective is to assist you and/or your family in reaching your personalized, specific goals unique to your lifestyle.
(858) 346-5830 View (858) 346-5830
Photo of Phyllis Tyson, Psychologist in La Jolla, CA
Phyllis Tyson
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
La Jolla, CA 92037
Hello and welcome! I am a licensed psychologist with over 40 years of experience. I work with preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults who struggle with anxiety, depression, grief and loss, anger management, and identity issues whether they be around sexuality, gender, religion or culture. My years of experience have led me to believe that there is nothing more precious than our emotional and physical health, and the emotional and physical health of those we love.
Hello and welcome! I am a licensed psychologist with over 40 years of experience. I work with preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults who struggle with anxiety, depression, grief and loss, anger management, and identity issues whether they be around sexuality, gender, religion or culture. My years of experience have led me to believe that there is nothing more precious than our emotional and physical health, and the emotional and physical health of those we love.
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in La Jolla, CA

800+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in La Jolla, CA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
88% Depression
75% Self Esteem
67% Relationship Issues
66% Trauma and PTSD
66% Coping Skills
61% Stress

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

66% Aetna
64% Cigna and Evernorth
58% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in La Jolla, CA see their clients

54% In Person and Online
46% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
19% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in La Jolla?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.