Photo of Pamela Hall, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Pamela Hall
Registered Psychotherapist, MC, RP, CCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K
Have you been searching for a therapist who offers a space free of judgement, where you feel heard and understood? It is my goal to provide you with compassion and respect. I recognize the courage it takes to reach out for support, and truly feel it is a privilege to sit with you along your journey.
Have you been searching for a therapist who offers a space free of judgement, where you feel heard and understood? It is my goal to provide you with compassion and respect. I recognize the courage it takes to reach out for support, and truly feel it is a privilege to sit with you along your journey.
(343) 339-9223 View (343) 339-9223
Photo of Jackie Bristow, ADHD, Self Esteem, Trauma, Anxiety, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Jackie Bristow, ADHD, Self Esteem, Trauma, Anxiety
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, RP, CCC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K  (Online Only)
Therapy doesn't have to be intimidating or shameful. Whether you can't stop thinking about something, never feel good enough, or constantly compare yourself to others, I am here to help. If you are navigating dissociation or flashbacks, struggling with forming your identity or developing meaning in life, I can provide DBT & Trauma informed therapy. Or maybe you're looking for support with leaving a toxic job or relationship, trying to decrease the inner critic and perfectionism, or struggle with focusing and completing a task. Understanding our unconscious motivations and defence mechanisms can also be revealing character work.
Therapy doesn't have to be intimidating or shameful. Whether you can't stop thinking about something, never feel good enough, or constantly compare yourself to others, I am here to help. If you are navigating dissociation or flashbacks, struggling with forming your identity or developing meaning in life, I can provide DBT & Trauma informed therapy. Or maybe you're looking for support with leaving a toxic job or relationship, trying to decrease the inner critic and perfectionism, or struggle with focusing and completing a task. Understanding our unconscious motivations and defence mechanisms can also be revealing character work.
(343) 308-0259 View (343) 308-0259
Photo of Maggie Hogan, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Maggie Hogan
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
Currently accepting individual clients only. Many of us -young and older- experience trials in life and in our relationships that challenge our ability to function, feel secure and prosper. We may struggle to cope when life's events compromise and overwhelm our support networks and coping mechanisms. I provide non-judgmental support to help identify and overcome patterns of behaving, thinking and feeling that are no longer adaptive, and help establish new awareness, habits, attitudes and actions. I support adults as they navigate life transitions and the accompanying anxiety, depression, grief and substance use.
Currently accepting individual clients only. Many of us -young and older- experience trials in life and in our relationships that challenge our ability to function, feel secure and prosper. We may struggle to cope when life's events compromise and overwhelm our support networks and coping mechanisms. I provide non-judgmental support to help identify and overcome patterns of behaving, thinking and feeling that are no longer adaptive, and help establish new awareness, habits, attitudes and actions. I support adults as they navigate life transitions and the accompanying anxiety, depression, grief and substance use.
(613) 902-1175 View (613) 902-1175
Photo of Resolve Counselling Services Canada, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Resolve Counselling Services Canada
Registered Psychotherapist
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
Resolve Counselling Services Canada offers a number of programs and services that have been developed to support adults, youth, couples and families overcome challenges that affect their emotional and social well-being. All of our counsellors believe that the individuals, couples, families, and groups who come to us for counselling are resilient and possess the inherent strengths needed to solve their unique set of challenges. Each of our clinical counsellors uses a counselling approach that is informed by current best practices.
Resolve Counselling Services Canada offers a number of programs and services that have been developed to support adults, youth, couples and families overcome challenges that affect their emotional and social well-being. All of our counsellors believe that the individuals, couples, families, and groups who come to us for counselling are resilient and possess the inherent strengths needed to solve their unique set of challenges. Each of our clinical counsellors uses a counselling approach that is informed by current best practices.
(613) 519-5967 View (613) 519-5967
Photo of Jodie Waisberg, Psychologist in K7K, ON
Jodie Waisberg
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K
At certain times in their lives, people experience problems that are too difficult to handle alone. When their usual modes of coping no longer work for them, they feel overwhelmed and may want to learn new ways of coping through psychotherapy. Even though ways of responding based on past experiences may no longer be helpful, people tend to repeat old patterns of behaving, thinking and feeling. In psychotherapy I can assist you to understand these "habits", to see alternatives and to change.
At certain times in their lives, people experience problems that are too difficult to handle alone. When their usual modes of coping no longer work for them, they feel overwhelmed and may want to learn new ways of coping through psychotherapy. Even though ways of responding based on past experiences may no longer be helpful, people tend to repeat old patterns of behaving, thinking and feeling. In psychotherapy I can assist you to understand these "habits", to see alternatives and to change.
(613) 544-0789 View (613) 544-0789
Photo of Angela Nicholson, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Angela Nicholson
Registered Psychotherapist, BAH, MA, RP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K
I work with individuals who are finding themselves stuck, unsure of next steps or finding it difficult to work through life's obstacles. Together we will address areas of challenges and growth to improve life satisfaction, communication, emotional expression and behaviours that are getting in the way of life. I have experience working with military, first responders, and frontline workers and their families, those affected by Operational Stress Injuries including PTSD, and major life transitions associated with the their occupations.
I work with individuals who are finding themselves stuck, unsure of next steps or finding it difficult to work through life's obstacles. Together we will address areas of challenges and growth to improve life satisfaction, communication, emotional expression and behaviours that are getting in the way of life. I have experience working with military, first responders, and frontline workers and their families, those affected by Operational Stress Injuries including PTSD, and major life transitions associated with the their occupations.
(613) 801-4692 View (613) 801-4692
Photo of Holly Knowles, Registered Social Worker in K7K, ON
Holly Knowles
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
I am accepting new clients. Are you feeling stressed and overwhelmed by the pressures in life, at work or in relationships? Do you doubt your self-worth in life, relationships or work? Are you hoping to build stronger, more meaningful connections with yourself, your partner and others? Perhaps you need healthier, more balanced relationships, or to discover how to reduce stress, practice self-care, or discover your value while meeting all those challenges. Despite your pain, you have a growing vision of your life that is more connected, fulfilled, and aligned with your true self. I can help you get there.
I am accepting new clients. Are you feeling stressed and overwhelmed by the pressures in life, at work or in relationships? Do you doubt your self-worth in life, relationships or work? Are you hoping to build stronger, more meaningful connections with yourself, your partner and others? Perhaps you need healthier, more balanced relationships, or to discover how to reduce stress, practice self-care, or discover your value while meeting all those challenges. Despite your pain, you have a growing vision of your life that is more connected, fulfilled, and aligned with your true self. I can help you get there.
(343) 321-2641 View (343) 321-2641
Photo of Brittnee Stewart - Spear Counselling And Psychotherapy, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Brittnee Stewart - Spear Counselling And Psychotherapy
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, MA, BA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K
I am a Registered Psychotherapist and co-creator of Spear Wellness Centre and Spear Counselling & Psychotherapy. I am a self-led Certified EMDR Therapist, EMDR Consultant in Training, IFS Level 1 trained Therapist and trained Psychedelic Assisted Therapist. My practice embodies a holistic approach to wellness, using the alchemy of science + spirituality to facilitate meaningful and long lasting positive changes. I am passionate about helping others achieve balance and harmony within their internal system and I create a safe container to support personal transformation so you can find your way back home - to yourself.
I am a Registered Psychotherapist and co-creator of Spear Wellness Centre and Spear Counselling & Psychotherapy. I am a self-led Certified EMDR Therapist, EMDR Consultant in Training, IFS Level 1 trained Therapist and trained Psychedelic Assisted Therapist. My practice embodies a holistic approach to wellness, using the alchemy of science + spirituality to facilitate meaningful and long lasting positive changes. I am passionate about helping others achieve balance and harmony within their internal system and I create a safe container to support personal transformation so you can find your way back home - to yourself.
(343) 500-6291 View (343) 500-6291
Photo of Marc J Whitehouse, Registered Social Worker in K7K, ON
Marc J Whitehouse
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K  (Online Only)
Accepting new clients for Video and Phone sessions. Specialized working with Men and Professionals. Are you having issues getting motivated? Are you feeling that you are making the same mistakes over and over? Do you lack the follow through to turn your thoughts into actions? I will collaborate with you to improve your self-awareness, coping skills and your follow through! My approach is non-judgmental, active and engaging! I can work with you and guide you down the path towards your best mental health!
Accepting new clients for Video and Phone sessions. Specialized working with Men and Professionals. Are you having issues getting motivated? Are you feeling that you are making the same mistakes over and over? Do you lack the follow through to turn your thoughts into actions? I will collaborate with you to improve your self-awareness, coping skills and your follow through! My approach is non-judgmental, active and engaging! I can work with you and guide you down the path towards your best mental health!
(343) 306-5527 View (343) 306-5527
Photo of Angela Daw, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Angela Daw
Registered Psychotherapist, MACP, RP, CCC, CCTSI
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K  (Online Only)
Are you getting triggered, experiencing unexplained pain, or a lack of enjoyment in things you used to love? What about facing an unexpected life transition and feeling overwhelmed, perhaps even questioning who you are anymore? It could be that you've lost someone you loved and the loneliness feels unbearable, or you struggle to manage your emotions when things don't go as planned. If any of those situations resonate with you, let's talk! I work with my clients to grow in self-compassion and to harness their inner bravery to feel better, find connection, and meet their goals. Let's work together to bring transformation to your life.
Are you getting triggered, experiencing unexplained pain, or a lack of enjoyment in things you used to love? What about facing an unexpected life transition and feeling overwhelmed, perhaps even questioning who you are anymore? It could be that you've lost someone you loved and the loneliness feels unbearable, or you struggle to manage your emotions when things don't go as planned. If any of those situations resonate with you, let's talk! I work with my clients to grow in self-compassion and to harness their inner bravery to feel better, find connection, and meet their goals. Let's work together to bring transformation to your life.
(343) 305-1992 View (343) 305-1992
Photo of Emily West Coaching, Registered Social Worker in K7K, ON
Emily West Coaching
Registered Social Worker, RSW
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
Are you ready for more pleasure in your life? Do you wish you were more into sex, or wonder whether amazing sex and relationships are possible for you? Do you want to feel empowered, whole and at home in your body? In my somatic coaching practice, we can discover what turns you on, what hits the brakes, and what else (shame, fear, fantasies, upbringing) shapes your romantic and sexual life. We can identify your boundaries and how to deeply connect to yourself, your partners and the moment. I work with women and gender diverse people. Let me celebrate who you are and be there to guide you towards whatever intimate life you want.
Are you ready for more pleasure in your life? Do you wish you were more into sex, or wonder whether amazing sex and relationships are possible for you? Do you want to feel empowered, whole and at home in your body? In my somatic coaching practice, we can discover what turns you on, what hits the brakes, and what else (shame, fear, fantasies, upbringing) shapes your romantic and sexual life. We can identify your boundaries and how to deeply connect to yourself, your partners and the moment. I work with women and gender diverse people. Let me celebrate who you are and be there to guide you towards whatever intimate life you want.
View
Photo of Chelsea Stelmach, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Chelsea Stelmach
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, MACP, BAH
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Hey. Been feeling lost? Wondering how you wound up here? I know the feeling, and I want you to know: there is hope.
Hey. Been feeling lost? Wondering how you wound up here? I know the feeling, and I want you to know: there is hope.
(343) 453-2424 View (343) 453-2424
Photo of Sara Beck, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Sara Beck
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, MACP
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
Waitlist for new clients
Do you struggle with words? Together, we can help you find the words you need to understand both your past and present, whether you are navigating depression, anxiety, grief, or trauma, coping with change, having difficulties with relationships, or struggling to communicate. I am an LGBTQ+ ally, and I welcome people in non-traditional relationships, members of all faiths/spiritual beliefs, and neurodivergent individuals. My goal is to provide a supportive, judgement-free, collaborative environment that focusses on your needs and goals.
Do you struggle with words? Together, we can help you find the words you need to understand both your past and present, whether you are navigating depression, anxiety, grief, or trauma, coping with change, having difficulties with relationships, or struggling to communicate. I am an LGBTQ+ ally, and I welcome people in non-traditional relationships, members of all faiths/spiritual beliefs, and neurodivergent individuals. My goal is to provide a supportive, judgement-free, collaborative environment that focusses on your needs and goals.
(343) 309-9020 View (343) 309-9020
Photo of Cheryl Parsons-Sheldrake, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Cheryl Parsons-Sheldrake
Registered Psychotherapist, MEd, CCC, RP
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
I believe you are the expert in your own life. My role is one of listening compassionately and non-judgementally, asking questions, and gently guiding you as you look deeper at the challenges confronting you. We work together in the therapeutic space, using techniques appropriate for your unique situation; we might set goals, or simply explore more deeply whatever brings you to counselling. I consider it a privilege to do this work, and I look forward to sharing it with you.
I believe you are the expert in your own life. My role is one of listening compassionately and non-judgementally, asking questions, and gently guiding you as you look deeper at the challenges confronting you. We work together in the therapeutic space, using techniques appropriate for your unique situation; we might set goals, or simply explore more deeply whatever brings you to counselling. I consider it a privilege to do this work, and I look forward to sharing it with you.
(613) 704-0431 View (613) 704-0431
Photo of Anne Hanley, Registered Psychotherapist in K7K, ON
Anne Hanley
Registered Psychotherapist, RP
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
My therapeutic approach in my clinical practice is based upon an initial assessment of Client's core values, sense of meaning and identity . It is my experience that people of all stripes seek interior / spiritual balance. Assisting them in the areas that they identify as challenges; feeling overwhelmed, a want of vision and/or control, depression, grieving losses, stress, anxiety, or a sense of aloneness are areas where I can provide my expertise to help them along the path of healing, wellness, and purposefulness.
My therapeutic approach in my clinical practice is based upon an initial assessment of Client's core values, sense of meaning and identity . It is my experience that people of all stripes seek interior / spiritual balance. Assisting them in the areas that they identify as challenges; feeling overwhelmed, a want of vision and/or control, depression, grieving losses, stress, anxiety, or a sense of aloneness are areas where I can provide my expertise to help them along the path of healing, wellness, and purposefulness.
(343) 307-5949 View (343) 307-5949
Photo of Ada Mullett, Psychologist in K7K, ON
Ada Mullett
Psychologist, MA, CPsych
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K
Not accepting new clients
I have 10 years of clinical experience in Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology. I employ a multi-faceted collaborative approach to psychology. I work with you to come up with strategies to help make life a little easier. I provide individual therapy to people aged 18 to 65.
I have 10 years of clinical experience in Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology. I employ a multi-faceted collaborative approach to psychology. I work with you to come up with strategies to help make life a little easier. I provide individual therapy to people aged 18 to 65.
(613) 706-4742 View (613) 706-4742
Photo of Kathleen White Counselling Services, Registered Social Worker in K7K, ON
Kathleen White Counselling Services
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
Not accepting new clients
At all stages of life individuals and families can find themselves wanting change. Approaches to counselling need to fit the needs of the individuals looking for support. My practice focuses primarily on supporting children, teens and young adults navigate issues related to relationships, family dynamics, self identity, anxiety and stress. Young children often have difficulty expressing themselves verbally. Children are invited to express themselves in counselling through art, puppetry, sand and play.
At all stages of life individuals and families can find themselves wanting change. Approaches to counselling need to fit the needs of the individuals looking for support. My practice focuses primarily on supporting children, teens and young adults navigate issues related to relationships, family dynamics, self identity, anxiety and stress. Young children often have difficulty expressing themselves verbally. Children are invited to express themselves in counselling through art, puppetry, sand and play.
(343) 306-0708 View (343) 306-0708
Photo of J. Spape Psychological Services, Psychologist in K7K, ON
J. Spape Psychological Services
Psychologist, MSc, CPsych
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kingston, ON K7K
Accepting new clients! We have extensive experience supporting individuals who are struggling with stress, anxiety, trauma, depression, distress intolerance, relationship difficulties, emotional instability, self-harm, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, grief, or living with major mental illness. Clinicians work collaboratively with clients to develop a deeper and more insightful understanding of thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and how to manage these to ensure individuals live rich meaningful lives. We work to connect how past experiences shape present struggles while assisting in the development of new practical skills.
Accepting new clients! We have extensive experience supporting individuals who are struggling with stress, anxiety, trauma, depression, distress intolerance, relationship difficulties, emotional instability, self-harm, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, grief, or living with major mental illness. Clinicians work collaboratively with clients to develop a deeper and more insightful understanding of thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and how to manage these to ensure individuals live rich meaningful lives. We work to connect how past experiences shape present struggles while assisting in the development of new practical skills.
(343) 338-5695 View (343) 338-5695
Photo of Ginger Pharand, Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) in K7K, ON
Ginger Pharand
Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying), MACP
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
What's your story? I was asked that question not too many years ago when I was going through my own major life transition, one that would take me from a life as a teacher and editor to this second chapter as a psychotherapist. I had heard the phrase many times in life but at that moment of change it resonated more deeply than ever before. Our lives are our stories, and they have chapters, episodes, plot twists... You might be feeling your story is changing, maybe you've just experienced the whole plot unravelling. Maybe you're ready to start again. Maybe you're too tired and scared to look at the next page.
What's your story? I was asked that question not too many years ago when I was going through my own major life transition, one that would take me from a life as a teacher and editor to this second chapter as a psychotherapist. I had heard the phrase many times in life but at that moment of change it resonated more deeply than ever before. Our lives are our stories, and they have chapters, episodes, plot twists... You might be feeling your story is changing, maybe you've just experienced the whole plot unravelling. Maybe you're ready to start again. Maybe you're too tired and scared to look at the next page.
(343) 305-5641 View (343) 305-5641
Photo of Sabrina Tripolitano, Registered Social Worker in K7K, ON
Sabrina Tripolitano
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
Kingston, ON K7K
I provide clinical support to individuals who have experienced early trauma and loss, as well as families experiencing adjustment difficulties related to separation and divorce. In my practice, I offer counselling for situational life stressors, as well as mild to moderate mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety. Services available for childre
I provide clinical support to individuals who have experienced early trauma and loss, as well as families experiencing adjustment difficulties related to separation and divorce. In my practice, I offer counselling for situational life stressors, as well as mild to moderate mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety. Services available for childre
(343) 307-5247 View (343) 307-5247

See more therapy options for K7K

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in K7K

100+

Average cost per session

$150

Counsellors in K7K who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
89% Depression
84% Stress
79% Relationship Issues
76% Trauma and PTSD
76% Self Esteem
74% Grief

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

67% Blue Cross
56% Medavie Blue Cross
48% Canada Life | Great-West Life

How Counsellors in K7K see their clients

70% In Person and Online
30% Online Only

Gender breakdown

87% Female
11% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in K7K?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.