Therapists in Windsor, VA

Photo of Sara Matos, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sara Matos
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Windsor, VA 23487
With over 20 years of experience in the Social Service field, I pride myself on my dedication to the safety, well-being, and stabilization of the children, adults, and families that I work with. My creativity allows me to utilize a series of treatment modalities to assist in successfully empowering my clients while meeting their psychological needs. I am comfortable with a wide range of mental health challenges. A few modalities that I specialize in are Psycho-Educational, Play, Sand Tray, Accelerated Resolution, Solution Focused, Internal Family Systems, and brain-spotting.
With over 20 years of experience in the Social Service field, I pride myself on my dedication to the safety, well-being, and stabilization of the children, adults, and families that I work with. My creativity allows me to utilize a series of treatment modalities to assist in successfully empowering my clients while meeting their psychological needs. I am comfortable with a wide range of mental health challenges. A few modalities that I specialize in are Psycho-Educational, Play, Sand Tray, Accelerated Resolution, Solution Focused, Internal Family Systems, and brain-spotting.
(757) 798-8736 View (757) 798-8736

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Karen Bailey, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Karen Bailey
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Isle Of Wight, VA 23397
My strengths and passions include being compassionate, being an advocate for my clients, creative/artistic and enjoys a good sense of humor while motivating her clients to wholeness. It is a privilege to help you along in you journey. I have worked in the field for 23 years , I specialize in depression, anxiety, PTSD, autism, grief and loss, childhood trauma, attachment, developmental issues, women issues, intellectual disabilities.
My strengths and passions include being compassionate, being an advocate for my clients, creative/artistic and enjoys a good sense of humor while motivating her clients to wholeness. It is a privilege to help you along in you journey. I have worked in the field for 23 years , I specialize in depression, anxiety, PTSD, autism, grief and loss, childhood trauma, attachment, developmental issues, women issues, intellectual disabilities.
(757) 520-0630 View (757) 520-0630
Photo of Jessica Schwartz, MSW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Jessica Schwartz
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Suffolk, VA 23434
“Normal is just a setting on the dryer” is one of my favorite quotes. Each person is unique and therefore, therapy should not feel like a “one size fits all” solution. My goal is to treat each person in a way that embraces who they are and what they need. My belief is that when a person is truly heard and valued; that they are then able to attain their goals. I have worked with children, adolescents and adults with varying backgrounds and experiences since 2009.
“Normal is just a setting on the dryer” is one of my favorite quotes. Each person is unique and therefore, therapy should not feel like a “one size fits all” solution. My goal is to treat each person in a way that embraces who they are and what they need. My belief is that when a person is truly heard and valued; that they are then able to attain their goals. I have worked with children, adolescents and adults with varying backgrounds and experiences since 2009.
(757) 530-5084 View (757) 530-5084
Photo of Brenda L Davis, MA, LPC, RPT-S, CSAC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Brenda L Davis
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, RPT-S, CSAC
Verified Verified
Carrsville, VA 23315
Often times, we are faced with challenges in our relationships at home, work or at school, that seem impossible for us to move beyond. The pain associated with a breakup, divorce, or loss of employment, can seem overwhelming. Together we can work through your challenges and help you to reach your full potential.
Often times, we are faced with challenges in our relationships at home, work or at school, that seem impossible for us to move beyond. The pain associated with a breakup, divorce, or loss of employment, can seem overwhelming. Together we can work through your challenges and help you to reach your full potential.
(757) 653-5751 View (757) 653-5751
Photo of Chiquita Merrill, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Chiquita Merrill
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Suffolk, VA 23434
My experiences with providing mental health services run the gamut of a variety of populations, age brackets, and situations, across multiple settings. My philosophy is simple. I want to help, however, whenever. My approach is eclectic, and tailored to what you need, with an emphasis on Cognitive Behavioral therapy, Person-centered, Acceptance and Commitment, and Mindfulness. We can build a plan and tackle each challenge one at a time or as they come. What you need to know is that I treat every single client based on what they need. I will not treat you like a "textbook case". Each client is different.
My experiences with providing mental health services run the gamut of a variety of populations, age brackets, and situations, across multiple settings. My philosophy is simple. I want to help, however, whenever. My approach is eclectic, and tailored to what you need, with an emphasis on Cognitive Behavioral therapy, Person-centered, Acceptance and Commitment, and Mindfulness. We can build a plan and tackle each challenge one at a time or as they come. What you need to know is that I treat every single client based on what they need. I will not treat you like a "textbook case". Each client is different.
(757) 758-5106 View (757) 758-5106
Photo of Dr. Noelle Lowry, PhD, LCP, LPC
Dr. Noelle Lowry
Clinical Psychologist, PhD, LCP, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Suffolk, VA 23434
Dr. Noelle Lowry, Ph.D., LCP, LPC, is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist and provides psychological services for a variety of different reasons to include clinical clarification, mental health diagnosing, cognitive assessment, and educational testing.
Dr. Noelle Lowry, Ph.D., LCP, LPC, is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist and provides psychological services for a variety of different reasons to include clinical clarification, mental health diagnosing, cognitive assessment, and educational testing.
(757) 792-8889 View (757) 792-8889
Photo of Renita Reid, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Renita Reid
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23432
Renita Reid is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia who has been practicing since 2020. Renita's approach is holistic, person centered, and tailored to the unique narrative of each individual she has the privilege to work with. She strives to create a supportive, nonjudgmental, and empowering environment where clients feel seen, heard, and understood. Through collaboration, empathy, and evidence based interventions, Renita supports her clients in unlocking their potential to revive their lives, discover their strengths, and cultivate lasting change.
Renita Reid is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia who has been practicing since 2020. Renita's approach is holistic, person centered, and tailored to the unique narrative of each individual she has the privilege to work with. She strives to create a supportive, nonjudgmental, and empowering environment where clients feel seen, heard, and understood. Through collaboration, empathy, and evidence based interventions, Renita supports her clients in unlocking their potential to revive their lives, discover their strengths, and cultivate lasting change.
(757) 210-7396 View (757) 210-7396
Photo of Ashley McLaughlin, LPC, LMHC, MSEd, Licensed Professional Counselor
Ashley McLaughlin
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMHC, MSEd
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23432  (Online Only)
Book with me now by clicking on my website! As a therapist, I have worked with a wide-range of individuals from various backgrounds. I specialize in working with individuals who have experienced trauma(s). Along with a vast knowledge regarding the treatment approaches of trauma, I have an extensive history of working with survivors of sexual assault. As well, my experience includes working with individuals of various identities, relationship dynamics, mental health symptoms, and addictions.
Book with me now by clicking on my website! As a therapist, I have worked with a wide-range of individuals from various backgrounds. I specialize in working with individuals who have experienced trauma(s). Along with a vast knowledge regarding the treatment approaches of trauma, I have an extensive history of working with survivors of sexual assault. As well, my experience includes working with individuals of various identities, relationship dynamics, mental health symptoms, and addictions.
(757) 703-7678 View (757) 703-7678
Photo of Sarah Pitzen, LPC, ATR, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sarah Pitzen
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ATR
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Suffolk, VA 23432
Life throws all kinds of challenges our way, and sometimes we need support from a professional to assist in looking at things from a different perspective. As a Licensed Professional Counselor and a registered Art Therapist, I offer more than a traditional talk therapy experience by using cutting-edge integrative methods of the creative art process, mindful-based interventions, and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to support trauma recovery and address the root of anxiety, self-esteem issues, limiting beliefs, emotional instabilities, and unhelpful behavioral patterns.
Life throws all kinds of challenges our way, and sometimes we need support from a professional to assist in looking at things from a different perspective. As a Licensed Professional Counselor and a registered Art Therapist, I offer more than a traditional talk therapy experience by using cutting-edge integrative methods of the creative art process, mindful-based interventions, and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to support trauma recovery and address the root of anxiety, self-esteem issues, limiting beliefs, emotional instabilities, and unhelpful behavioral patterns.
(757) 637-6464 View (757) 637-6464
Photo of Allison Russell, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Allison Russell
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Suffolk, VA 23432
As a compassionate therapist, I provide a safe and supportive space for individuals to explore their emotions, and overcome obstacles. I specialize in helping individuals navigate through difficult times and find their inner strength and resilience. My ideal client is someone who is ready to take the first step towards positive change. They may be dealing with issues such as anxiety, depression, relationship struggles, or low self-esteem. They are motivated to explore their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in a supportive and non-judgmental environment. My clients want to feel happier, more fulfilled, and at peace with themselves.
As a compassionate therapist, I provide a safe and supportive space for individuals to explore their emotions, and overcome obstacles. I specialize in helping individuals navigate through difficult times and find their inner strength and resilience. My ideal client is someone who is ready to take the first step towards positive change. They may be dealing with issues such as anxiety, depression, relationship struggles, or low self-esteem. They are motivated to explore their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in a supportive and non-judgmental environment. My clients want to feel happier, more fulfilled, and at peace with themselves.
(757) 866-4358 View (757) 866-4358
Photo of Danielle Crane, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Danielle Crane
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23434
Greetings! I am Danielle Crane, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia. My focus areas include Anxiety, Coping Skills, Depression, Relationship Issues, Self Esteem, etc. I have been a practicing Clinician for over 10 years. I have experience working with various individuals (children, adolescents, adults) who have a wide range of needs, including anxiety, depression, anger management, boundary issues, conduct issues, and interpersonal communication skills.
Greetings! I am Danielle Crane, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia. My focus areas include Anxiety, Coping Skills, Depression, Relationship Issues, Self Esteem, etc. I have been a practicing Clinician for over 10 years. I have experience working with various individuals (children, adolescents, adults) who have a wide range of needs, including anxiety, depression, anger management, boundary issues, conduct issues, and interpersonal communication skills.
(757) 906-6105 View (757) 906-6105
Photo of Ingrid Bornia, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ingrid Bornia
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23434  (Online Only)
Heal Your Pain, Reclaim Your Joy Ingrid is a very down to earth therapist and practices the model of meeting people where they are. She likes the finer things in life, but she doesn’t shy away from easily recalling her very humble beginnings. Ingrid is a strong advocate for women and mental health and after realizing that it took her 20 years to figure out how to heal from her own trauma, she decided to package her experience and offer it in outpatient treatment to others, in the hopes to save them the many years of confusion and pain.
Heal Your Pain, Reclaim Your Joy Ingrid is a very down to earth therapist and practices the model of meeting people where they are. She likes the finer things in life, but she doesn’t shy away from easily recalling her very humble beginnings. Ingrid is a strong advocate for women and mental health and after realizing that it took her 20 years to figure out how to heal from her own trauma, she decided to package her experience and offer it in outpatient treatment to others, in the hopes to save them the many years of confusion and pain.
(757) 797-9260 View (757) 797-9260
Photo of Amanda Williams, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Amanda Williams
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23434  (Online Only)
I have worked with diverse populations of individuals ranging from children, adolescents, adults, veterans, and couples. My specialty includes, but not limited to the treatment of depression, anxiety, trauma, dual diagnosis, grief, adjustment, addiction, and relational problems. My background includes clinical work, mental and behavioral health, case management, assessments, and training in the medical, educational, psychiatric, and therapeutic settings.
I have worked with diverse populations of individuals ranging from children, adolescents, adults, veterans, and couples. My specialty includes, but not limited to the treatment of depression, anxiety, trauma, dual diagnosis, grief, adjustment, addiction, and relational problems. My background includes clinical work, mental and behavioral health, case management, assessments, and training in the medical, educational, psychiatric, and therapeutic settings.
(757) 979-6453 View (757) 979-6453
Photo of Sharon M Black, LCSW, CSAC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sharon M Black
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CSAC
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23434  (Online Only)
Hello, my name is Sharon, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with an undergraduate degree in Sociology /Criminal Justice and graduate degree in Social Work (MSW). I am licensed in the state of Virginia and DC and have been providing outpatient therapy for over 5 years with an abundance of life experience that can benefit many of my clients.
Hello, my name is Sharon, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with an undergraduate degree in Sociology /Criminal Justice and graduate degree in Social Work (MSW). I am licensed in the state of Virginia and DC and have been providing outpatient therapy for over 5 years with an abundance of life experience that can benefit many of my clients.
(757) 699-4363 View (757) 699-4363
Photo of Ashley Parlier, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Ashley Parlier
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23434  (Online Only)
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who is a Certified Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapist (TF-CBT) and also trained in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). I graduated with honors from Emory & Henry College with a Bachelor of Science in Psychology and contextual support in Biology and Chemistry. I attended graduate school at August State University, now known as Georgia Regent University, and graduated with a Master of Science with honors in Clinical Psychology/Counseling. I has been working in the mental health field since 2008 and have taken on many roles, which include Therapeutic Mentor.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who is a Certified Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapist (TF-CBT) and also trained in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). I graduated with honors from Emory & Henry College with a Bachelor of Science in Psychology and contextual support in Biology and Chemistry. I attended graduate school at August State University, now known as Georgia Regent University, and graduated with a Master of Science with honors in Clinical Psychology/Counseling. I has been working in the mental health field since 2008 and have taken on many roles, which include Therapeutic Mentor.
(757) 210-9465 View (757) 210-9465
Photo of Cynthia (Cathy) Cathalina Clay, NCC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Cynthia (Cathy) Cathalina Clay
Licensed Professional Counselor, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Suffolk, VA 23432
Not accepting new clients
I am especially interested in serving children, adults, and adolescents with depression, anxiety, PTSD, schizophrenia, and Bi-Polar disorder. I have experience with providing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI). I take an interpersonal approach to treatment, with a special focus on individualized care that is based on research. I also offer trauma-informed and spiritually-integrated services.
I am especially interested in serving children, adults, and adolescents with depression, anxiety, PTSD, schizophrenia, and Bi-Polar disorder. I have experience with providing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI). I take an interpersonal approach to treatment, with a special focus on individualized care that is based on research. I also offer trauma-informed and spiritually-integrated services.
(757) 530-5156 View (757) 530-5156
Photo of Bryce Buttrill, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Bryce Buttrill
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Not Verified Not Verified
Suffolk, VA 23434
I provide individualized and compassionate care using a strengths-based approach to provide my clients with the coping skills, self-awareness and the mindset they need to overcome barriers in their life. I enjoy working with children, adolescents, and adults by providing individual and family counseling.
I provide individualized and compassionate care using a strengths-based approach to provide my clients with the coping skills, self-awareness and the mindset they need to overcome barriers in their life. I enjoy working with children, adolescents, and adults by providing individual and family counseling.
(757) 520-1235 View (757) 520-1235
Photo of Hope Holman, MSW, LCSW, RPT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hope Holman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, RPT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Suffolk, VA 23434  (Online Only)
Hi and Welcome! My name is Hope Holman. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Virginia with over 10 years of experience in the mental health field. I am a retired Navy veteran who earned my Master of Social Work at Saint Leo University. I have served clients with a wide range of concerns including; but not limited to, depression, anxiety, trauma and abuse, domestic violence, self-esteem issues, grief and loss, anger issues, relational conflict, emotional abuse, abandonment/rejection, and life changes.
Hi and Welcome! My name is Hope Holman. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Virginia with over 10 years of experience in the mental health field. I am a retired Navy veteran who earned my Master of Social Work at Saint Leo University. I have served clients with a wide range of concerns including; but not limited to, depression, anxiety, trauma and abuse, domestic violence, self-esteem issues, grief and loss, anger issues, relational conflict, emotional abuse, abandonment/rejection, and life changes.
(757) 891-6344 View (757) 891-6344
Photo of Tami Tatum, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Tami Tatum
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23432
Tami Tatum is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Virginia who has been practicing since 2000. Tami believes that we can all have the life we dream of. We can stop coming up with reasons why you cannot do things and begin to think "why not. " Tami lives an unconventional life and loves every minute of it. She enjoys working with individuals and families working on bettering their lives, increasing communication, achieving their goals and dreams, reducing anxiety/depression, prior abuse/trauma history. She has worked with individuals in the LGBTQIA communities, victims of abuse/trauma from teenagers to adults.
Tami Tatum is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Virginia who has been practicing since 2000. Tami believes that we can all have the life we dream of. We can stop coming up with reasons why you cannot do things and begin to think "why not. " Tami lives an unconventional life and loves every minute of it. She enjoys working with individuals and families working on bettering their lives, increasing communication, achieving their goals and dreams, reducing anxiety/depression, prior abuse/trauma history. She has worked with individuals in the LGBTQIA communities, victims of abuse/trauma from teenagers to adults.
(757) 280-4382 View (757) 280-4382
Photo of Patricia Crowder, LPC, CSAC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Patricia Crowder
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, CSAC
Verified Verified
Suffolk, VA 23432
Patricia Crowder, LPC, Patricia Crowder is a Licensed Professional Counselor and Certified Substance Abuse Counselor. She received her master's degree in Professional Counseling from Liberty University and her bachelor's degree in Human Services from Old Dominion University. Patricia strives to provide a safe, non-judgmental environment for patients to progress in their journey of healing. She works with patients struggling with anxiety, depression, grief, and trauma. She has worked with children placed into therapeutic foster care, military and first responders and couples.
Patricia Crowder, LPC, Patricia Crowder is a Licensed Professional Counselor and Certified Substance Abuse Counselor. She received her master's degree in Professional Counseling from Liberty University and her bachelor's degree in Human Services from Old Dominion University. Patricia strives to provide a safe, non-judgmental environment for patients to progress in their journey of healing. She works with patients struggling with anxiety, depression, grief, and trauma. She has worked with children placed into therapeutic foster care, military and first responders and couples.
(757) 859-8274 View (757) 859-8274

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Windsor, VA

< 10

Therapists in Windsor, VA who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Child
100% ADHD
100% Chronic Pain
100% Eating Disorders
100% Infertility

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Aetna
100% BlueCross and BlueShield
100% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Windsor, VA see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

100% Female
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Windsor?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.