Therapists in Old Hickory, TN

Photo of Jason Brandon Adams, Licensed Professional Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Jason Brandon Adams
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
I have been in the mental health field for over 15 years working with adolescents and adults in individual, family, and couples therapy. I have an eclectic approach to the therapeutic process which is very client centered and collaborative in nature. I am experienced in helping with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship struggles, addictions....among numerous other things. The journey of growth and self-discovery can be a difficult road. I am in this field because I sincerely want to help.
I have been in the mental health field for over 15 years working with adolescents and adults in individual, family, and couples therapy. I have an eclectic approach to the therapeutic process which is very client centered and collaborative in nature. I am experienced in helping with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship struggles, addictions....among numerous other things. The journey of growth and self-discovery can be a difficult road. I am in this field because I sincerely want to help.
(615) 637-9711 View (615) 637-9711
Photo of St. Stephen Church, Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
St. Stephen Church
Counselor, MA, NCC, BPh, BTh
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
I welcome all, including those who have no Insurance. But the sessions will be limited. Those who prefer to incorporate Faith matters in sessions are most welcome!
I welcome all, including those who have no Insurance. But the sessions will be limited. Those who prefer to incorporate Faith matters in sessions are most welcome!
(931) 304-9964 View (931) 304-9964
Photo of Kelly G Causey, Pastoral Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Kelly G Causey
Pastoral Counselor, CTC, MA
Verified
2 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138
In order to reduce stress, depression, and anxiety I counsel individuals, couples and families, offering tools in our sessions to assist with conflict resolution, anger management, effective communication, self care, and grief recovery. Encouraging each person to take care of themselves physically, emotionally, and spiritually in order to live up to their fullest potential. Whether it's a new obstacle or something lingering from the past, a crisis, or a stronghold, biblically based counseling will rebuild restore and renew hope comfort and freedom from grief and despair.
In order to reduce stress, depression, and anxiety I counsel individuals, couples and families, offering tools in our sessions to assist with conflict resolution, anger management, effective communication, self care, and grief recovery. Encouraging each person to take care of themselves physically, emotionally, and spiritually in order to live up to their fullest potential. Whether it's a new obstacle or something lingering from the past, a crisis, or a stronghold, biblically based counseling will rebuild restore and renew hope comfort and freedom from grief and despair.
(615) 240-2683 View (615) 240-2683
Photo of Dawn's New Light Hypnotherapy in Old Hickory, TN
Dawn's New Light Hypnotherapy
CHT
Old Hickory, TN 37138
It can be very difficult achieving our goals in our own strength. More often than not, it is our own fearful beliefs that hinder us from doing so. Hypnotherapy combined with the transformational Word of God can help you overcome your anxieties, addictions and bad habits and also help you reach your goals resulting in a happier, healthier YOU! Galatians 1:5-7
It can be very difficult achieving our goals in our own strength. More often than not, it is our own fearful beliefs that hinder us from doing so. Hypnotherapy combined with the transformational Word of God can help you overcome your anxieties, addictions and bad habits and also help you reach your goals resulting in a happier, healthier YOU! Galatians 1:5-7
(615) 437-7172 View (615) 437-7172
Photo of Maura McFeely, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Old Hickory, TN
Maura McFeely
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138  (Online Only)
I have spent my entire professional career supporting people become their best selves. After working 25 years as a special education and inclusion specialist, I transitioned to a career in social work and have been working in the field for 12 years. I believe in self-care, wellness and the strength and resilience of all individuals. I am currently EMDR Institute Trained and offering EMDR, along with strength based approaches, as this technique is highly effective and proven to reduce the effects of past trauma as a way to create freedom and positive beliefs towards self and others. Please feel free to contact me with any questions.
I have spent my entire professional career supporting people become their best selves. After working 25 years as a special education and inclusion specialist, I transitioned to a career in social work and have been working in the field for 12 years. I believe in self-care, wellness and the strength and resilience of all individuals. I am currently EMDR Institute Trained and offering EMDR, along with strength based approaches, as this technique is highly effective and proven to reduce the effects of past trauma as a way to create freedom and positive beliefs towards self and others. Please feel free to contact me with any questions.
(845) 712-4649 View (845) 712-4649
Photo of Lauren Alaine Fields, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Old Hickory, TN
Lauren Alaine Fields
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138  (Online Only)
I have been working in the field of mental health and addiction since 2006. I have worked in inpatient alcohol and drug units, geriatric services, primary care, outpatient addiction, and outpatient mental health. I have experience treating a multitude of issues and enjoy clients who are motivated for change. I understand that each individual is unique and will require an individualized approach to treatment. Therefore, I will provide a thorough assessment to see if additional services are needed and work to connect my clients to the appropriate providers. I work closely with psychiatrists, primary care providers, and
I have been working in the field of mental health and addiction since 2006. I have worked in inpatient alcohol and drug units, geriatric services, primary care, outpatient addiction, and outpatient mental health. I have experience treating a multitude of issues and enjoy clients who are motivated for change. I understand that each individual is unique and will require an individualized approach to treatment. Therefore, I will provide a thorough assessment to see if additional services are needed and work to connect my clients to the appropriate providers. I work closely with psychiatrists, primary care providers, and
(615) 619-4659 View (615) 619-4659
Photo of Lisa Corbin, Licensed Professional Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Lisa Corbin
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP, LADAC
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138  (Online Only)
What an honor it is to share space with folks who want to enjoy their lives to the fullest! I'm here to help you improve relationships, regulate emotions, overcome past hurts, and plan for living your best life. I'll work with you to move past barriers so that you can achieve your goals. I am passionate about empowering you to be the greatest version of yourself. If you measure yourself as a "human doing" instead of a "human being”, if you have difficulty setting boundaries with friends and family, if you find yourself repeating the same patterns that are no longer serving you, I'd love to talk with you.
What an honor it is to share space with folks who want to enjoy their lives to the fullest! I'm here to help you improve relationships, regulate emotions, overcome past hurts, and plan for living your best life. I'll work with you to move past barriers so that you can achieve your goals. I am passionate about empowering you to be the greatest version of yourself. If you measure yourself as a "human doing" instead of a "human being”, if you have difficulty setting boundaries with friends and family, if you find yourself repeating the same patterns that are no longer serving you, I'd love to talk with you.
(615) 703-8239 View (615) 703-8239
Photo of Laura Hart, Pastoral Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Laura Hart
Pastoral Counselor, PhD, LTT, CDVC
3 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138
I have been in the counseling ministry for 30 years. I am dedicated to assist families and individuals within the community who may suffer with anger and depression and are looking for ways to resolve conflict and find resolution. I can help you with new communication skills, how to learn to improve emotional intelligence and gain spiritual well-being. I also have a desire to work with those who may be suffering with anxiety, grief or loneliness find joy and peace.
I have been in the counseling ministry for 30 years. I am dedicated to assist families and individuals within the community who may suffer with anger and depression and are looking for ways to resolve conflict and find resolution. I can help you with new communication skills, how to learn to improve emotional intelligence and gain spiritual well-being. I also have a desire to work with those who may be suffering with anxiety, grief or loneliness find joy and peace.
(615) 866-2485 View (615) 866-2485
Photo of Damaris Vargas, Pastoral Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Damaris Vargas
Pastoral Counselor, BA, CTC, CPC
1 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138
Searching for balance, direction or perhaps joy? Allow me to come along side with you to locate what may be depriving you from attaining these goals. Together, with mutual collaboration, we can set the stage on the courageous road to a balanced life. Achieving balance can involve taking a holistic approach. At times, working towards resolution with our past can be an encouraging place to start. I am an encourager by nature; I would be greatly honored to be the one walking along side with you to find realistic ways to accomplish your goal (s).
Searching for balance, direction or perhaps joy? Allow me to come along side with you to locate what may be depriving you from attaining these goals. Together, with mutual collaboration, we can set the stage on the courageous road to a balanced life. Achieving balance can involve taking a holistic approach. At times, working towards resolution with our past can be an encouraging place to start. I am an encourager by nature; I would be greatly honored to be the one walking along side with you to find realistic ways to accomplish your goal (s).
(615) 685-6123 View (615) 685-6123
Photo of Kary Valdes, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Old Hickory, TN
Kary Valdes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who specializes in treating children and adolescents. I have been working with children for over 20 years and truly enjoy seeing children move from timid and anxious to confident and self assured. I can help kids deal with divorce, death, abuse, anxiety and many other issues that affect children and adolescents. I will help them to be better at dealing with life as it comes to them and to be more assured when things get hard. I am a Consultant with EMDR which is trauma therapy. I also see adults for EMDR as well with children and adolescents.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who specializes in treating children and adolescents. I have been working with children for over 20 years and truly enjoy seeing children move from timid and anxious to confident and self assured. I can help kids deal with divorce, death, abuse, anxiety and many other issues that affect children and adolescents. I will help them to be better at dealing with life as it comes to them and to be more assured when things get hard. I am a Consultant with EMDR which is trauma therapy. I also see adults for EMDR as well with children and adolescents.
(615) 282-5138 View (615) 282-5138
Photo of Dr. Tom Essary at Adhibitus LLC, Pastoral Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Dr. Tom Essary at Adhibitus LLC
Pastoral Counselor, PhD, MaCR
1 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138
It is my desire to assist families and individuals who are interested in improving their self-esteem, emotional intelligence, and spiritual well-being. Life is easier and more satisfying when we are at peace with ourselves. It is very important that everyone knows that there is Christian counseling and then there is secular psychology counseling. Adhibitus llc is a Christian Counseling group. At Adhibitus LLC we believe counseling should involve praying about the client’s difficulties and looking to the authority of the Bible for guidance. In this way, Adhibitus LLC seek to encourage clients to build a dependency on God.
It is my desire to assist families and individuals who are interested in improving their self-esteem, emotional intelligence, and spiritual well-being. Life is easier and more satisfying when we are at peace with ourselves. It is very important that everyone knows that there is Christian counseling and then there is secular psychology counseling. Adhibitus llc is a Christian Counseling group. At Adhibitus LLC we believe counseling should involve praying about the client’s difficulties and looking to the authority of the Bible for guidance. In this way, Adhibitus LLC seek to encourage clients to build a dependency on God.
(615) 889-0005 View (615) 889-0005
Photo of Stu Walker, LPC Intern in Old Hickory, TN
Stu Walker
LPC Intern
Verified
1 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138
My first responsibility as your counselor is to provide a safe, non-judgemental and confidential space which facilitates your growth process and where you can openly share with someone who listens and cares. As we get to know each other, you’ll find that I believe change can occur when we discover or recover how to be attuned to our true, authentic selves and live from that knowing and those values. I also believe healing and growth can occur when we are seen and known and are caring for our social, physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual selves. Together, we can build knowledge and skills which can help in the long-term.
My first responsibility as your counselor is to provide a safe, non-judgemental and confidential space which facilitates your growth process and where you can openly share with someone who listens and cares. As we get to know each other, you’ll find that I believe change can occur when we discover or recover how to be attuned to our true, authentic selves and live from that knowing and those values. I also believe healing and growth can occur when we are seen and known and are caring for our social, physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual selves. Together, we can build knowledge and skills which can help in the long-term.
(615) 637-6835 View (615) 637-6835
Photo of LaToya Phillips-Burkeen, Licensed Professional Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
LaToya Phillips-Burkeen
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LPC-MH
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
LaToya Phillips-Burkeen is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Tennessee. She has a Master of Arts in Clinical Mental Health Counseling and a Bachelor of Science from Tennessee State University. LaToya utilizes strength-based approaches and integrates different treatment modalities to meet the goals and needs of individuals, such as person-centered and solution-focused theories. LaToya believes relationships and connection are very important to an individual's growth and development while managing challenging life transitions and emotions. She provides emotional support and guidance to those experiencing grief and loss.
LaToya Phillips-Burkeen is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Tennessee. She has a Master of Arts in Clinical Mental Health Counseling and a Bachelor of Science from Tennessee State University. LaToya utilizes strength-based approaches and integrates different treatment modalities to meet the goals and needs of individuals, such as person-centered and solution-focused theories. LaToya believes relationships and connection are very important to an individual's growth and development while managing challenging life transitions and emotions. She provides emotional support and guidance to those experiencing grief and loss.
(615) 471-7516 View (615) 471-7516
Photo of Dominic Alleva, Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Dominic Alleva
Counselor, LPC/MHS
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
Dominic Alleva is a Licensed Professional Mental Health Counselor in Tennessee who has been practicing since 2015. He holds a Master of Arts in Mental Health Clinical Counseling from Argosy University. Dominic is certified in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and trained in various evidence-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Dialectic Behavioral Therapy, Trauma Focused Therapy and Motivational Interviewing. He creates a compassionate and safe environment for personal growth and healing.
Dominic Alleva is a Licensed Professional Mental Health Counselor in Tennessee who has been practicing since 2015. He holds a Master of Arts in Mental Health Clinical Counseling from Argosy University. Dominic is certified in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and trained in various evidence-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Dialectic Behavioral Therapy, Trauma Focused Therapy and Motivational Interviewing. He creates a compassionate and safe environment for personal growth and healing.
(629) 276-4463 View (629) 276-4463
Photo of Olivia Carrie Taylor, Licensed Professional Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Olivia Carrie Taylor
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCMHSP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138
Olivia Taylor, LPC-MHSP is a licensed clinician at New Directions Wellness Center in Nashville, TN. Olivia has eleven plus years as a therapist specializing in providing therapy for children, adolescents and families. She has previous experience working with family court, DCS, and juvenile corrections. She comes to New Directions after working with children, adolescents, and adults in a community mental health setting for over 2 years.
Olivia Taylor, LPC-MHSP is a licensed clinician at New Directions Wellness Center in Nashville, TN. Olivia has eleven plus years as a therapist specializing in providing therapy for children, adolescents and families. She has previous experience working with family court, DCS, and juvenile corrections. She comes to New Directions after working with children, adolescents, and adults in a community mental health setting for over 2 years.
(615) 437-9503 View (615) 437-9503
Photo of Lindsay Loftis, Pre-Licensed Professional in Old Hickory, TN
Lindsay Loftis
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
1 Endorsed
Old Hickory, TN 37138
I believe that everyone can benefit from therapy. Each person has their own unique story to tell, and your experiences have led you to the person you are today. I am here to offer you a non-judgemental, safe, space to explore your deepest feelings. I am honored to be a part of your journey and aid in helping you develop healthy coping skills, empower you to set healthy boundaries, gain control of your mental health, bring awareness to negative thought patterns, and promote positive change, while providing validation, hope, and encouragement.
I believe that everyone can benefit from therapy. Each person has their own unique story to tell, and your experiences have led you to the person you are today. I am here to offer you a non-judgemental, safe, space to explore your deepest feelings. I am honored to be a part of your journey and aid in helping you develop healthy coping skills, empower you to set healthy boundaries, gain control of your mental health, bring awareness to negative thought patterns, and promote positive change, while providing validation, hope, and encouragement.
(615) 265-1488 View (615) 265-1488
Photo of Kristin Cuzzourt, Licensed Professional Counselor in Old Hickory, TN
Kristin Cuzzourt
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-MHS
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
Kristin Cuzzourt, LPC-MHSP Kristin Cuzzourt is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Tennessee who has been practicing since 2019. She has a Masters in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Argosy University, a Massage Therapy Certificate from Lexington Healing Arts Academy, and a Bachelor of Science from the University of Georgia. Kristin believes all humans have inner strengths and abilities; but sometimes life causes us to lose belief in ourselves. This can show up as anxiety, depression, stress and feeling overwhelmed, or just feeling lost or stuck.
Kristin Cuzzourt, LPC-MHSP Kristin Cuzzourt is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Tennessee who has been practicing since 2019. She has a Masters in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Argosy University, a Massage Therapy Certificate from Lexington Healing Arts Academy, and a Bachelor of Science from the University of Georgia. Kristin believes all humans have inner strengths and abilities; but sometimes life causes us to lose belief in ourselves. This can show up as anxiety, depression, stress and feeling overwhelmed, or just feeling lost or stuck.
(615) 205-0570 View (615) 205-0570
Photo of Sandy Presgrove, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Old Hickory, TN
Sandy Presgrove
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
Sandy Presgrove is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Tennessee who has been practicing since 1996. She has an undergraduate degree in Psychology and a Master's degree in Social Work. Sandy offers a safe, non-judgmental space in which one can discuss what they desire. She walks side by side with someone who wants to improve their quality of life. Sandy understands taking that first step into engaging in therapy can be overwhelming, and she is here to make sure someone has a positive experience. Sandy offers an upbeat, positive outlook on life and what life has put in front of us.
Sandy Presgrove is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Tennessee who has been practicing since 1996. She has an undergraduate degree in Psychology and a Master's degree in Social Work. Sandy offers a safe, non-judgmental space in which one can discuss what they desire. She walks side by side with someone who wants to improve their quality of life. Sandy understands taking that first step into engaging in therapy can be overwhelming, and she is here to make sure someone has a positive experience. Sandy offers an upbeat, positive outlook on life and what life has put in front of us.
(615) 802-6756 View (615) 802-6756
Photo of Tavianna Patterson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Old Hickory, TN
Tavianna Patterson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
Tavianna Patterson is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in the state of Tennessee, and she has been in practice for approximately 15 years. She has her bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of Tennessee, Martin, and her master's degree in social work from the University of Tennessee. Tavianna has had a variety of experience working in multiple settings including community mental health, a group home setting for children in state custody, an agency treating survivors of sexual assault, and private practice.
Tavianna Patterson is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in the state of Tennessee, and she has been in practice for approximately 15 years. She has her bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of Tennessee, Martin, and her master's degree in social work from the University of Tennessee. Tavianna has had a variety of experience working in multiple settings including community mental health, a group home setting for children in state custody, an agency treating survivors of sexual assault, and private practice.
(615) 544-6856 View (615) 544-6856
Photo of Alex Van Fleet, Marriage & Family Therapist in Old Hickory, TN
Alex Van Fleet
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified
Old Hickory, TN 37138
Let's be honest, relationships are hard work! Therapy takes intentional effort, vulnerability and persistence to bring about meaningful change in our lives. Before that change can occur, we must first learn what is going on. I want to help you identify the negative patterns in your life and provide tools to replace them with new life-giving actions and transforming truths to bring about healing and restoration in your relationships. Change is possible!
Let's be honest, relationships are hard work! Therapy takes intentional effort, vulnerability and persistence to bring about meaningful change in our lives. Before that change can occur, we must first learn what is going on. I want to help you identify the negative patterns in your life and provide tools to replace them with new life-giving actions and transforming truths to bring about healing and restoration in your relationships. Change is possible!
(615) 544-6068 View (615) 544-6068

See more therapy options for Old Hickory

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Old Hickory, TN

20+

Average cost per session

$100

Therapists in Old Hickory, TN who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
92% Depression
72% Relationship Issues
68% Trauma and PTSD
64% Family Conflict
56% Grief
56% Self Esteem

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Aetna
100% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
100% Optum

How Therapists in Old Hickory, TN see their clients

88% In Person and Online
12% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
25% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Old Hickory?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.