Therapists in Chattanooga, TN

Photo of Karen Chambless, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chattanooga, TN
Karen Chambless
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCMHSP, NCC
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37411
There has been so much change in your life with no time to process or take a breath. You can’t afford to fall apart; everyone in your life needs you to keep it together. You’re the most self-aware person you know, but you can’t escape your own mind, even with lots of compulsive googling. Maybe things aren’t working in a role or relationship or religion, but changing it feels impossible. The anxiety and grief are exhausting – you're doing your best, but you can feel yourself fragmenting apart behind the scenes. You’re tired of performing the self that others want. You wish you could feel clear and confident about who you are.
There has been so much change in your life with no time to process or take a breath. You can’t afford to fall apart; everyone in your life needs you to keep it together. You’re the most self-aware person you know, but you can’t escape your own mind, even with lots of compulsive googling. Maybe things aren’t working in a role or relationship or religion, but changing it feels impossible. The anxiety and grief are exhausting – you're doing your best, but you can feel yourself fragmenting apart behind the scenes. You’re tired of performing the self that others want. You wish you could feel clear and confident about who you are.
(423) 214-2146 View (423) 214-2146
Photo of Leigh Irvin, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chattanooga, TN
Leigh Irvin
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37404
As an individual committed to your well-being, I offer personalized counseling to guide you through life's challenges. Together, we can explore strengths, navigate difficulties, and foster a positive mindset. I can provide deep understanding of diverse challenges, offering proven strategies for positive change. Step into a safe space where your thoughts are heard without judgment. My commitment to providing this safe space ensures you can explore, express, and heal. Take the first step toward a more fulfilling life because your path to a happier, healthier life can begin here. Let's embark on this journey together.
As an individual committed to your well-being, I offer personalized counseling to guide you through life's challenges. Together, we can explore strengths, navigate difficulties, and foster a positive mindset. I can provide deep understanding of diverse challenges, offering proven strategies for positive change. Step into a safe space where your thoughts are heard without judgment. My commitment to providing this safe space ensures you can explore, express, and heal. Take the first step toward a more fulfilling life because your path to a happier, healthier life can begin here. Let's embark on this journey together.
(423) 509-0480 View (423) 509-0480
Photo of Megan Tresh, Marriage & Family Therapist Intern in Chattanooga, TN
Megan Tresh
Marriage & Family Therapist Intern, MS
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37405
Embracing life's uncertainties, transitions, & unmet expectations can be challenging, but we are able to move forward with meaning & purpose. Sometimes building a level of resilience & mental fortitude is required for us to progress. By using an underlying attachment-based approach, I’m able to provide therapeutic services that are safe, authentic, & non-judgemental to allow for healing & growth. I have found that tailoring the modalities used to each client provides positive outcomes in various situations. EMDR, exposure & response prevention (ERP), experiential activities, & play therapy are among those that I am trained in.
Embracing life's uncertainties, transitions, & unmet expectations can be challenging, but we are able to move forward with meaning & purpose. Sometimes building a level of resilience & mental fortitude is required for us to progress. By using an underlying attachment-based approach, I’m able to provide therapeutic services that are safe, authentic, & non-judgemental to allow for healing & growth. I have found that tailoring the modalities used to each client provides positive outcomes in various situations. EMDR, exposure & response prevention (ERP), experiential activities, & play therapy are among those that I am trained in.
(423) 370-0124 View (423) 370-0124
Photo of Delaney Harris, Pre-Licensed Professional in Chattanooga, TN
Delaney Harris
Pre-Licensed Professional, MS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37408
Sometimes life is more challenging than we are able to handle without outside help and guidance. "What do I do to feel better?" and "How do I fix this?" are questions you may find yourself asking. Having the right tools to manage and overcome life’s obstacles is essential. I am here to help you build the tool set to handle these oppositions. Having a double master's in School Counseling and Mental Health Counseling, I have acquired a rare skill set designed to reach individuals and families both in the school system and out. I am eager to be a part of your healing journey.
Sometimes life is more challenging than we are able to handle without outside help and guidance. "What do I do to feel better?" and "How do I fix this?" are questions you may find yourself asking. Having the right tools to manage and overcome life’s obstacles is essential. I am here to help you build the tool set to handle these oppositions. Having a double master's in School Counseling and Mental Health Counseling, I have acquired a rare skill set designed to reach individuals and families both in the school system and out. I am eager to be a part of your healing journey.
(423) 933-2073 View (423) 933-2073
Photo of Sara Deyoung, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chattanooga, TN
Sara Deyoung
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37405
I have been a clinical social worker for approximately 15 years and I feel honored that my clients share their stories, their dreams and their goals with me. I enjoy working with people of all ages and backgrounds. I tend to work more with depression, anxiety and relationship issues. I would love to discuss with you more about your specific needs.
I have been a clinical social worker for approximately 15 years and I feel honored that my clients share their stories, their dreams and their goals with me. I enjoy working with people of all ages and backgrounds. I tend to work more with depression, anxiety and relationship issues. I would love to discuss with you more about your specific needs.
(423) 972-4649 View (423) 972-4649
Photo of Adriene Petmecky, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chattanooga, TN
Adriene Petmecky
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37405
Not accepting new clients
My approach is to support and partner with each person. Working together to build on their knowledge and strengths and to help create change as identified by each individual.
My approach is to support and partner with each person. Working together to build on their knowledge and strengths and to help create change as identified by each individual.
(423) 501-2201 View (423) 501-2201
Photo of Micah Arfons, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chattanooga, TN
Micah Arfons
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37405
I am currently accepting new clients! I am passionate about working with those who are experiencing depression and anxiety from stage of life transitions, past trauma, codependency, postpartum, birth and abortion trauma and child loss, as well as couples who are seeking to build a healthy and lasting relationship. In my work as a Child Welfare Case Manager, later as a Crisis Counselor and now as an individual therapist, I have helped families and individuals navigate the most difficult times of their lives.
I am currently accepting new clients! I am passionate about working with those who are experiencing depression and anxiety from stage of life transitions, past trauma, codependency, postpartum, birth and abortion trauma and child loss, as well as couples who are seeking to build a healthy and lasting relationship. In my work as a Child Welfare Case Manager, later as a Crisis Counselor and now as an individual therapist, I have helped families and individuals navigate the most difficult times of their lives.
(423) 445-7084 View (423) 445-7084
Photo of Kristen Stice, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chattanooga, TN
Kristen Stice
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37419
Not accepting new clients
I will be on maternity leave starting May 10th and returning September ....................................................................................Life is full of non-stop change, especially so if you are between the ages of 6-30. These changes are constant and unrelenting. Whether it's yourself, your children or your family it can become overwhelming and deeply affect every area of your life. In our work together, I hope you feel encouraged to explore and build strengths that you are already doing to enrich your relationships and deepen awareness of yourself.
I will be on maternity leave starting May 10th and returning September ....................................................................................Life is full of non-stop change, especially so if you are between the ages of 6-30. These changes are constant and unrelenting. Whether it's yourself, your children or your family it can become overwhelming and deeply affect every area of your life. In our work together, I hope you feel encouraged to explore and build strengths that you are already doing to enrich your relationships and deepen awareness of yourself.
(423) 933-2575 View (423) 933-2575
Photo of Abby Wallace, Counselor in Chattanooga, TN
Abby Wallace
Counselor, MA, LPCMHSP, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Abby is a Licensed Professional Counselor in both Tennessee and Georgia and is a Nationally Certified Counselor. Abby graduated from Richmont Graduate University in 2012 with a Masters in Professional Counseling and a Specialization in Trauma Counseling. She has since continued her education in Trauma counseling with training in a variety of Trauma Processing methods, healing attachment following Trauma, and military culture. Abby specializes in seeing people of all ages with a history of trauma or abuse, including rape, childhood abuse, combat PTSD, and more, as well as assisting couples with relational and communication issues.
Abby is a Licensed Professional Counselor in both Tennessee and Georgia and is a Nationally Certified Counselor. Abby graduated from Richmont Graduate University in 2012 with a Masters in Professional Counseling and a Specialization in Trauma Counseling. She has since continued her education in Trauma counseling with training in a variety of Trauma Processing methods, healing attachment following Trauma, and military culture. Abby specializes in seeing people of all ages with a history of trauma or abuse, including rape, childhood abuse, combat PTSD, and more, as well as assisting couples with relational and communication issues.
(423) 588-7261 View (423) 588-7261
Photo of Ashley Liston-Avnaim in Chattanooga, TN
Ashley Liston-Avnaim
LPC, MHSP, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37408  (Online Only)
It is my hope to partner with you in learning how to first be with and then move through life's painful experiences in such a way that feels authentic to you. If you have unresolved grief, trauma or other barriers to your ability to thrive, I would love to join you in opening new doors to embodied and conscious living. I enjoy working with folks from most walks of life, those with body-based concerns such as chronic illness, chronic pain or difficult to diagnose physical symptoms that may be having an impact on mental health.
It is my hope to partner with you in learning how to first be with and then move through life's painful experiences in such a way that feels authentic to you. If you have unresolved grief, trauma or other barriers to your ability to thrive, I would love to join you in opening new doors to embodied and conscious living. I enjoy working with folks from most walks of life, those with body-based concerns such as chronic illness, chronic pain or difficult to diagnose physical symptoms that may be having an impact on mental health.
(931) 271-5936 View (931) 271-5936
Photo of William Kelly, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chattanooga, TN
William Kelly
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37404  (Online Only)
William “Bill” Kelly has been a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in both California and Tennessee for over 20 years. Bill has worked with adults, children, and adolescents in a variety of settings, including outpatient clinics, juvenile halls, and local school systems. While he has helped clients deal with grief/loss, life transitions, depression, and anxiety, Bill has particular interests in Christian counseling (because he’s a Christian) and men’s issues (because he’s a man). Bill completed his Master of Science (MS) in Psychology at California State University, Fullerton.
William “Bill” Kelly has been a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in both California and Tennessee for over 20 years. Bill has worked with adults, children, and adolescents in a variety of settings, including outpatient clinics, juvenile halls, and local school systems. While he has helped clients deal with grief/loss, life transitions, depression, and anxiety, Bill has particular interests in Christian counseling (because he’s a Christian) and men’s issues (because he’s a man). Bill completed his Master of Science (MS) in Psychology at California State University, Fullerton.
(423) 430-6175 View (423) 430-6175
Photo of Nancy Holland in Chattanooga, TN
Nancy Holland
MS, LPE, CPC
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Not accepting new clients
Choosing to make changes in our lives can be scary and challenging. Having the right individual to help you in facing those changes is imperative. I enjoy working with those interested in making changes in their lives whether it be in facing present life transitions and stressors or dealing with past events/traumas. I have great empathy, compassion and patience in working with those who want to tackle their challenges in a safe and supportive therapeutic environment. I would be honored to work with you and/or your loved one(s) to help you take the steps towards change in your journey through life.
Choosing to make changes in our lives can be scary and challenging. Having the right individual to help you in facing those changes is imperative. I enjoy working with those interested in making changes in their lives whether it be in facing present life transitions and stressors or dealing with past events/traumas. I have great empathy, compassion and patience in working with those who want to tackle their challenges in a safe and supportive therapeutic environment. I would be honored to work with you and/or your loved one(s) to help you take the steps towards change in your journey through life.
(423) 800-5099 View (423) 800-5099
Photo of Jan F Sherbak, Psychologist in Chattanooga, TN
Jan F Sherbak
Psychologist, PsyD, CEDS
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37404  (Online Only)
I am a clinical psychologist trained to work Adolescents and Adults who are experiencing many forms of psychological distress including depression, anxiety, life transitions, loss, and divorce. I am also a Certified Eating Disorder Specialist trained to work with all Eating Disorders, including Anorexia, Bulimia, Food Addiction and Compulsive Overeating. I use an eclectic and individualized approach to treatment with a strong focus on the Internal Family Systems treatment model. This model helps to more deeply explore wounds and burdens within the individual and then work to heal those wounds in a respectful and compassionate way
I am a clinical psychologist trained to work Adolescents and Adults who are experiencing many forms of psychological distress including depression, anxiety, life transitions, loss, and divorce. I am also a Certified Eating Disorder Specialist trained to work with all Eating Disorders, including Anorexia, Bulimia, Food Addiction and Compulsive Overeating. I use an eclectic and individualized approach to treatment with a strong focus on the Internal Family Systems treatment model. This model helps to more deeply explore wounds and burdens within the individual and then work to heal those wounds in a respectful and compassionate way
(423) 781-6943 View (423) 781-6943
Photo of Edward Austin Clower, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chattanooga, TN
Edward Austin Clower
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37421
Not accepting new clients
I graduated from Covenant Theological Seminary with a Masters in Counseling. My hope is to come along side those who are struggling, hurting or just figuring something(s) out and to do in a safe place. I have experience working with: substance abuse, young people ages 15 and older (younger ages considered on a case by case basis), individuals and couples. I have a passion for family dynamics, communication and understanding who you are and how your history shapes your day to day life. Some of the people I have worked with describe me as being "easy to talk to, safe and perceptive".
I graduated from Covenant Theological Seminary with a Masters in Counseling. My hope is to come along side those who are struggling, hurting or just figuring something(s) out and to do in a safe place. I have experience working with: substance abuse, young people ages 15 and older (younger ages considered on a case by case basis), individuals and couples. I have a passion for family dynamics, communication and understanding who you are and how your history shapes your day to day life. Some of the people I have worked with describe me as being "easy to talk to, safe and perceptive".
(423) 763-1739 x4 View (423) 763-1739 x4
Photo of Dr. Lorrie Byrd Slater, Counselor in Chattanooga, TN
Dr. Lorrie Byrd Slater
Counselor, PhD, LMFT, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37404
Life can become overwhelming at times. I consider it a privilege to walk through difficult parts of your journey with you. Life transitions, family distress and conflict, abuse, divorce, anxiety, depression, as well as child and adolescent behavioral concerns, can leave you feeling helpless. I am honored to help you find your strength to cope in times of pain and suffering.
Life can become overwhelming at times. I consider it a privilege to walk through difficult parts of your journey with you. Life transitions, family distress and conflict, abuse, divorce, anxiety, depression, as well as child and adolescent behavioral concerns, can leave you feeling helpless. I am honored to help you find your strength to cope in times of pain and suffering.
(423) 437-0859 View (423) 437-0859
Photo of Karen Casey, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chattanooga, TN
Karen Casey
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37403
Not accepting new clients
I have 18 years experience working with a variety of concerns including : relationship issues, disordered eating, body image struggles, substance addiction, life transitions, grief and loss and individuation from family of origin experiences. I have a special interest in helping couples develop deeper emotional connections based on attachment, vulnerability, and authenticity and recovering from losses such as the impact of addiction, fertility challenges, emotional distance, and conflict in communication. I enjoy helping others explore their relationship with food and eating behaviors.
I have 18 years experience working with a variety of concerns including : relationship issues, disordered eating, body image struggles, substance addiction, life transitions, grief and loss and individuation from family of origin experiences. I have a special interest in helping couples develop deeper emotional connections based on attachment, vulnerability, and authenticity and recovering from losses such as the impact of addiction, fertility challenges, emotional distance, and conflict in communication. I enjoy helping others explore their relationship with food and eating behaviors.
(423) 564-4348 View (423) 564-4348
Photo of Ashlee Howard, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chattanooga, TN
Ashlee Howard
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37411
I work with children, adolescents, and adults. It is my goal to help these individuals work through struggles with attachment/relationships, anxiety, depression, ADHD, trauma and more at their own pace. As a neurodivergent, I am passionate about helping others learn how to function with and to love their own neurodivergence. I also enjoy working with parents (biological, foster, adoptive) who want to better their relationship, communication, understanding, and/or attachment with their children. I work diligently to maintain a safe and affirming space for members of the LGBTQIA+ community and their families.
I work with children, adolescents, and adults. It is my goal to help these individuals work through struggles with attachment/relationships, anxiety, depression, ADHD, trauma and more at their own pace. As a neurodivergent, I am passionate about helping others learn how to function with and to love their own neurodivergence. I also enjoy working with parents (biological, foster, adoptive) who want to better their relationship, communication, understanding, and/or attachment with their children. I work diligently to maintain a safe and affirming space for members of the LGBTQIA+ community and their families.
(423) 702-6475 View (423) 702-6475
Photo of J. Gail Carson-Webb, Psychologist in Chattanooga, TN
J. Gail Carson-Webb
Psychologist, PsyD, LP
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37421  (Online Only)
Every person who steps through my door is a unique individual. Like many multi-faceted people, you may be experiencing confusing or conflicting internal "signals" telling you your life needs changing. Ongoing frustration, worry, sadness, tension, relationship conflict, or disinterest in things that used to give you joy are signs that your life really wants your attention! Distress may drive you to seek relief, but may also indicate your readiness for change. With careful attention, hard work, and the right therapeutic fit, your deepest challenges could, ironically, become the bedrock for a better life.
Every person who steps through my door is a unique individual. Like many multi-faceted people, you may be experiencing confusing or conflicting internal "signals" telling you your life needs changing. Ongoing frustration, worry, sadness, tension, relationship conflict, or disinterest in things that used to give you joy are signs that your life really wants your attention! Distress may drive you to seek relief, but may also indicate your readiness for change. With careful attention, hard work, and the right therapeutic fit, your deepest challenges could, ironically, become the bedrock for a better life.
(423) 892-1795 View (423) 892-1795
Photo of Sam Wolfe, Pre-Licensed Professional in Chattanooga, TN
Sam Wolfe
Pre-Licensed Professional, MEd
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chattanooga, TN 37419
Sam has extensive experience walking alongside people facing some of life's most difficult circumstances. His desire is to enable his clients to grow into their best selves possible. Sam is well equipped to walk his clients through depression, anxiety, trauma, life transitions, and more. Sam has been trained in EMDR.
Sam has extensive experience walking alongside people facing some of life's most difficult circumstances. His desire is to enable his clients to grow into their best selves possible. Sam is well equipped to walk his clients through depression, anxiety, trauma, life transitions, and more. Sam has been trained in EMDR.
(423) 933-2575 View (423) 933-2575
Photo of Pam Guess, Psychologist in Chattanooga, TN
Pam Guess
Psychologist, PhD, HSP
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37419
Not accepting new clients
As a Psychologist with over thirty years of practice, I have had the opportunity to work alongside individuals and families as they have faced physical, emotional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal life challenges. I often see clients with issues such as depression, anxiety/stress, life transitions, and adjustments to changes in health. While life challenges often shift our focus to what may feel fragile within, I passionately believe that we can find a place of inner strength and regain a sense of .wellness. Thank you for your time in reading about my practice; I look forward to the possibility of meeting with you.
As a Psychologist with over thirty years of practice, I have had the opportunity to work alongside individuals and families as they have faced physical, emotional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal life challenges. I often see clients with issues such as depression, anxiety/stress, life transitions, and adjustments to changes in health. While life challenges often shift our focus to what may feel fragile within, I passionately believe that we can find a place of inner strength and regain a sense of .wellness. Thank you for your time in reading about my practice; I look forward to the possibility of meeting with you.
(423) 415-4220 View (423) 415-4220

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Chattanooga, TN

400+

Average cost per session

$120

Therapists in Chattanooga, TN who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
86% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
79% Self Esteem
76% Trauma and PTSD
75% Coping Skills
74% Stress

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% Cigna and Evernorth
72% Aetna
63% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Chattanooga, TN see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Chattanooga?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.