Therapists in Ellicott City, MD

Photo of Varghese Joseph, LCSW-C, ERYT300, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Varghese Joseph
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, ERYT300
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Waitlist for new clients
Are you struggling with attention and focus? Feeling low energy and have you lost interest in activities that you used to enjoy? Do you feel like something is happening within you that is holding you back from being your true self? Is this affecting your relationship with your family, friends or career? Do you feel like you can’t continue like this anymore and want to change? Yes, the change will happen. You made the right decision to seek help. In these difficult situations the best choice is to find a person who is trained in helping and who can establish a professional relationship with you to help.
Are you struggling with attention and focus? Feeling low energy and have you lost interest in activities that you used to enjoy? Do you feel like something is happening within you that is holding you back from being your true self? Is this affecting your relationship with your family, friends or career? Do you feel like you can’t continue like this anymore and want to change? Yes, the change will happen. You made the right decision to seek help. In these difficult situations the best choice is to find a person who is trained in helping and who can establish a professional relationship with you to help.
(410) 936-4242 View (410) 936-4242
Photo of Stephanie Caruso, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Stephanie Caruso
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21043
I believe that every individual possesses an innate capacity for resilience and personal growth. My goal is to create a safe and supportive environment for individuals and families to find solutions to everyday problems, as well as those that may be associated with past experiences and relationships. Rather than primarily focusing on challenges, we will work collaboratively to mobilize your unique strengths and abilities to lead a more fulfilling and resilient life.
I believe that every individual possesses an innate capacity for resilience and personal growth. My goal is to create a safe and supportive environment for individuals and families to find solutions to everyday problems, as well as those that may be associated with past experiences and relationships. Rather than primarily focusing on challenges, we will work collaboratively to mobilize your unique strengths and abilities to lead a more fulfilling and resilient life.
(410) 970-3656 View (410) 970-3656
Photo of Candice Richardson Dickens, LCPC-S, LCADC, NCC, MA, CCTP, Counselor
Candice Richardson Dickens
Counselor, LCPC-S, LCADC, NCC, MA, CCTP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Are you tired of your past traumas getting in the way of experiencing joy, long lasting intimacy, stability and happiness? If so, I want you to know that healing is possible. and you deserve to have the life that you want. I am a trauma specialist, and I am trained in helping clients heal from past abuse, hurt, and acts of violence. Restoration, liberation from trauma, and peace are the goals for my ideal client.
Are you tired of your past traumas getting in the way of experiencing joy, long lasting intimacy, stability and happiness? If so, I want you to know that healing is possible. and you deserve to have the life that you want. I am a trauma specialist, and I am trained in helping clients heal from past abuse, hurt, and acts of violence. Restoration, liberation from trauma, and peace are the goals for my ideal client.
(443) 218-9560 View (443) 218-9560
Photo of Jeanne Garrett, NCC , LGPC, Counselor
Jeanne Garrett
Counselor, NCC , LGPC
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Do you grapple with an unshakeable sense of discontentment, feeling that something vital is missing in life? Do you recognize a void within yourself despite your achievements that is driving you to seek therapy? Do you seek to unravel the complexities of your identity, motivations, and desires, hoping to uncover the root cause of your dissatisfaction? You may want to address surface-level issues and embark on a journey of self-exploration and understanding. I specialize in anxiety, depression, college mental health, ADHD, and life transitions, making me equipped to address a wide range of concerns.
Do you grapple with an unshakeable sense of discontentment, feeling that something vital is missing in life? Do you recognize a void within yourself despite your achievements that is driving you to seek therapy? Do you seek to unravel the complexities of your identity, motivations, and desires, hoping to uncover the root cause of your dissatisfaction? You may want to address surface-level issues and embark on a journey of self-exploration and understanding. I specialize in anxiety, depression, college mental health, ADHD, and life transitions, making me equipped to address a wide range of concerns.
(410) 584-3035 View (410) 584-3035
Photo of Kamayani Odegard, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kamayani Odegard
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
You deserve to live a life with purpose, peace and joy! My primary purpose “is to enhance human wellbeing and help meet the basic human needs of all people.” Mental Health treatment is very stigmatized in our society, but I want to overcome those preconceived notions and evolve. I come from a place of understanding and concern and want the best for my clients. Let’s walk this journey together and discover what you are really seeking in life.
You deserve to live a life with purpose, peace and joy! My primary purpose “is to enhance human wellbeing and help meet the basic human needs of all people.” Mental Health treatment is very stigmatized in our society, but I want to overcome those preconceived notions and evolve. I come from a place of understanding and concern and want the best for my clients. Let’s walk this journey together and discover what you are really seeking in life.
(443) 323-2363 View (443) 323-2363
Photo of Rachael D Wallace, MSW, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Rachael D Wallace
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Just as music, art, food, seasons and politics resonate with people on uniquely personal levels, so too does therapy. As a Humanist, I integrate multiple treatment modalities to address metal health challenges including fear, sadness, anger, frustration, trauma, guilt, shame or feeling "stuck." The core of my practice encourages continuous translation of therapeutic insights into personal growth opportunities. Integrated interventions may be insight-oriented, cognitive-behavioral, mindful and/or supportive to help us understand who you are, where you come from, who you want to be and what gets in the way.
Just as music, art, food, seasons and politics resonate with people on uniquely personal levels, so too does therapy. As a Humanist, I integrate multiple treatment modalities to address metal health challenges including fear, sadness, anger, frustration, trauma, guilt, shame or feeling "stuck." The core of my practice encourages continuous translation of therapeutic insights into personal growth opportunities. Integrated interventions may be insight-oriented, cognitive-behavioral, mindful and/or supportive to help us understand who you are, where you come from, who you want to be and what gets in the way.
(443) 313-5050 View (443) 313-5050
Photo of Clarissa B Thomas, MSW, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Clarissa B Thomas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Clarissa’s therapeutic approach varies based on the needs and goals of her clients I am master certified for Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART) for trauma intervention and a Gottman clinically trained couples’ therapist. Other treatment approaches include Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT); Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT); and Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT). Clarissa is dedicated to bringing compassionate, patient-centered care that empowers, supports, and brings hope and healing to her clients.
Clarissa’s therapeutic approach varies based on the needs and goals of her clients I am master certified for Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART) for trauma intervention and a Gottman clinically trained couples’ therapist. Other treatment approaches include Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT); Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT); and Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT). Clarissa is dedicated to bringing compassionate, patient-centered care that empowers, supports, and brings hope and healing to her clients.
(443) 329-9497 View (443) 329-9497
Photo of Virginia E Voigt, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Virginia E Voigt
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
I believe that anyone who wants to make a change in their life can do it. My style is laid back, with an emphasis on listening and getting to know the client on their own terms, and assisting them with self expression when needed. My orientation is self psychological and relational. For some issues, I find that a more structured, directed approach is helpful. I have recently incorporated DBT skills groups into my practice.
I believe that anyone who wants to make a change in their life can do it. My style is laid back, with an emphasis on listening and getting to know the client on their own terms, and assisting them with self expression when needed. My orientation is self psychological and relational. For some issues, I find that a more structured, directed approach is helpful. I have recently incorporated DBT skills groups into my practice.
(410) 941-8984 View (410) 941-8984
Photo of Dr. Kenneth Karim, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Kenneth Karim
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Waitlist for new clients
Many people suffer unhappiness related to perfectionism and "people pleasing". Unhelpful ways of thinking in the present often started as an appropriate way of dealing with stress in the past. I help the client to identify sources of unhelpful thinking, and understand how they are not adaptive today. Then, I work with the client's sense of self, personal values, and goals to find better ways of thinking and coping with today's stressors. Throughout the process, I emphasize the need for acceptance and patience with ourselves.
Many people suffer unhappiness related to perfectionism and "people pleasing". Unhelpful ways of thinking in the present often started as an appropriate way of dealing with stress in the past. I help the client to identify sources of unhelpful thinking, and understand how they are not adaptive today. Then, I work with the client's sense of self, personal values, and goals to find better ways of thinking and coping with today's stressors. Throughout the process, I emphasize the need for acceptance and patience with ourselves.
(410) 498-6102 View (410) 498-6102
Photo of Rita J Platt, LCPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Rita J Platt
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Are you feeling overwhelmed by life events or relational challenges? Do you feel stuck, anxious or invisible? I am here to walk with you on your journey to hope and reconnection to self and others. I am an experienced psychotherapist offering compassionate integrative care, valuing each client as whole person: body, mind, heart and spirit. I find great joy in empowering my clients to move forward in strength and wholeness. I work with adults, adolescents, couples and families. I'm here to provide support, understanding and validation as we work together to achieve your goals.
Are you feeling overwhelmed by life events or relational challenges? Do you feel stuck, anxious or invisible? I am here to walk with you on your journey to hope and reconnection to self and others. I am an experienced psychotherapist offering compassionate integrative care, valuing each client as whole person: body, mind, heart and spirit. I find great joy in empowering my clients to move forward in strength and wholeness. I work with adults, adolescents, couples and families. I'm here to provide support, understanding and validation as we work together to achieve your goals.
(443) 574-7941 View (443) 574-7941
Photo of Halcyon Francis, DSW, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Halcyon Francis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DSW, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21043  (Online Only)
H.F. & Associates, LLC provides mental health therapy services for clients ages 21 and older. This includes individual and family sessions. Dr. Halcyon Francis has expertise in working with clients who have a history of depression and a range of traumas, including sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Dr. Francis also treat clients who have been traumatized as a result of neglect, witnessing or experiencing community and/or domestic violence and trauma related to school or workplace bullying.
H.F. & Associates, LLC provides mental health therapy services for clients ages 21 and older. This includes individual and family sessions. Dr. Halcyon Francis has expertise in working with clients who have a history of depression and a range of traumas, including sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Dr. Francis also treat clients who have been traumatized as a result of neglect, witnessing or experiencing community and/or domestic violence and trauma related to school or workplace bullying.
(443) 296-5124 View (443) 296-5124
Photo of Olivia L Baylor - Life Revisions Counseling, LLC, LCPC, NCC, BC-TMH
Life Revisions Counseling, LLC
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC, NCC, BC-TMH
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21042  (Online Only)
You have just taken the first step in taking care of yourself. Now let's work together to help you meet your goals. Do you struggle with low self-esteem and anxiety? Has it been overwhelming going to work and school? Are you having problems in your marriage or relationship? Do you ever feel like you're not good enough for others or can't rely on yourself without questioning things? Need immigration evaluations so that you or a loved one can stay in the US? Let's work together to revise your life! Working on your anger and looking for anger management courses? We love helping people achieve satisfaction in their lives.
You have just taken the first step in taking care of yourself. Now let's work together to help you meet your goals. Do you struggle with low self-esteem and anxiety? Has it been overwhelming going to work and school? Are you having problems in your marriage or relationship? Do you ever feel like you're not good enough for others or can't rely on yourself without questioning things? Need immigration evaluations so that you or a loved one can stay in the US? Let's work together to revise your life! Working on your anger and looking for anger management courses? We love helping people achieve satisfaction in their lives.
(410) 941-0436 View (410) 941-0436
Photo of Shahid Khan, MSW, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Shahid Khan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LMSW
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
My ideal client seeks a therapist who understands the complexities of their lived experiences. They may be struggling with issues like trauma, addiction, stress, anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, identity struggles, life transitions, existential concerns, or oppression. They would come to me because they need a safe, nonjudgmental space to explore their emotions and experiences, seeking personal growth, well-being, and fulfillment. They choose me for support in achieving a fulfilling life, recognizing my capacity to guide them through personal growth and empower them to access their transformative potential.
My ideal client seeks a therapist who understands the complexities of their lived experiences. They may be struggling with issues like trauma, addiction, stress, anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, identity struggles, life transitions, existential concerns, or oppression. They would come to me because they need a safe, nonjudgmental space to explore their emotions and experiences, seeking personal growth, well-being, and fulfillment. They choose me for support in achieving a fulfilling life, recognizing my capacity to guide them through personal growth and empower them to access their transformative potential.
(443) 578-3713 View (443) 578-3713
Photo of Taelon Um, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Taelon Um
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
My ideal client may need help with confidence, relationships, or learning who they are. They aim to reduce symptoms of clinical diagnoses and work with me to see progress in their lives. This client would want to learn more about themselves and improve their relationships with others and with themselves. They would be a motivated and insightful client who attends sessions regularly and comes prepared with topics to discuss. I would help this client by listening to them and their thoughts, offering support, and building a rapport with them.
My ideal client may need help with confidence, relationships, or learning who they are. They aim to reduce symptoms of clinical diagnoses and work with me to see progress in their lives. This client would want to learn more about themselves and improve their relationships with others and with themselves. They would be a motivated and insightful client who attends sessions regularly and comes prepared with topics to discuss. I would help this client by listening to them and their thoughts, offering support, and building a rapport with them.
(443) 448-8692 View (443) 448-8692
Photo of Maryam Fakhruddin, LMSW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Maryam Fakhruddin
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMSW
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042
My passion lies in helping clients manage conditions such as anxiety, depression, grief, trauma, and PTSD. I use a range of therapeutic approaches, including somatic therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, compassion-focused therapy, and EMDR. My practice is grounded in a client-centered, anti-oppressive lens, ensuring a safe and inclusive space.
My passion lies in helping clients manage conditions such as anxiety, depression, grief, trauma, and PTSD. I use a range of therapeutic approaches, including somatic therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, compassion-focused therapy, and EMDR. My practice is grounded in a client-centered, anti-oppressive lens, ensuring a safe and inclusive space.
(443) 785-2927 View (443) 785-2927
Photo of Inahlai Powers, MS, LCPC, Counselor
Inahlai Powers
Counselor, MS, LCPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21042  (Online Only)
You are worthy! You are powerful! You deserve good things! Are you struggling to feel your personal power, your worth, due to depression, anxiety, anger, low self esteem, relationship issues, fear, addiction, stress, emotional pain, or trauma and abuse? I know what it's like to be afraid and in pain. I provide a safe space for you to give voice to your pain and be validated. This is a sacred space where you will learn to connect with your personal power, stand in your truth, and discover a love of self that is life changing and life affirming! If you are a highly sensitive person/HSP or Empath, WELCOME, this is a place to call home!
You are worthy! You are powerful! You deserve good things! Are you struggling to feel your personal power, your worth, due to depression, anxiety, anger, low self esteem, relationship issues, fear, addiction, stress, emotional pain, or trauma and abuse? I know what it's like to be afraid and in pain. I provide a safe space for you to give voice to your pain and be validated. This is a sacred space where you will learn to connect with your personal power, stand in your truth, and discover a love of self that is life changing and life affirming! If you are a highly sensitive person/HSP or Empath, WELCOME, this is a place to call home!
(443) 241-3276 View (443) 241-3276
Photo of Lexa Grobicki - CoTenacious Therapy, LGPC, LCSW-C, LCPC, LCMFT, LMSW, Marriage & Family Therapist
CoTenacious Therapy
Marriage & Family Therapist, LGPC, LCSW-C, LCPC, LCMFT, LMSW
Verified Verified
11 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21043  (Online Only)
We work hard WITH you!
We work hard WITH you!
(443) 565-4906 View (443) 565-4906
Photo of Arlene C. Gerson, PhD, Psychologist
Arlene C. Gerson
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Do you stay up at night worrying about your child? Have you tried everything you can think of to make things better? Are you thinking that it might be time to get some professional advice from an expert in child development and child behavior? My warm and playful interpersonal style goes a long way in developing a trusting relationship and in assisting your child in making positive changes. I am a PhD licensed psychologist with 23 years of experience at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. I specialize in treating children, adolescents and young adults with anxiety, ADHD, chronic illness, and emotional regulation problems.
Do you stay up at night worrying about your child? Have you tried everything you can think of to make things better? Are you thinking that it might be time to get some professional advice from an expert in child development and child behavior? My warm and playful interpersonal style goes a long way in developing a trusting relationship and in assisting your child in making positive changes. I am a PhD licensed psychologist with 23 years of experience at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. I specialize in treating children, adolescents and young adults with anxiety, ADHD, chronic illness, and emotional regulation problems.
(443) 991-7211 View (443) 991-7211
Photo of Ryan Heemann, LCPC, Counselor
Ryan Heemann
Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Greetings! I am a gay, white cisgender therapist whose passion is working with LGBTQ clients. I specialize in working with clients with depression, anxiety, and trauma along with identity challenges tied to sexual orientation, gender identity, and religious rejection. I help reduce shame and stigma around mental health, and introduce a range of grounding skills to both calm and boost ourselves. My approaches include Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Emotionally Focused Individual Therapy (EFIT). I am currently receiving training in EMDR Therapy at the EMDR International Association.
Greetings! I am a gay, white cisgender therapist whose passion is working with LGBTQ clients. I specialize in working with clients with depression, anxiety, and trauma along with identity challenges tied to sexual orientation, gender identity, and religious rejection. I help reduce shame and stigma around mental health, and introduce a range of grounding skills to both calm and boost ourselves. My approaches include Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Emotionally Focused Individual Therapy (EFIT). I am currently receiving training in EMDR Therapy at the EMDR International Association.
(301) 360-4349 View (301) 360-4349
Photo of John Gingrich, MCPAT, LGPC, Counselor
John Gingrich
Counselor, MCPAT, LGPC
Verified Verified
Ellicott City, MD 21042  (Online Only)
Do you feel emotionally, relationally or spiritually blocked? Do you want to reach your full potential? Do you suffer from anxiety, depression, pain or trauma that prevents you from living a functional or fulfilling life? We will work together to retrain your mentality towards positivity, and give you the ability to address adversity. Therapy with me is tailored specifically to your needs. Huge positive change is possible with your commitment and John’s art therapeutic approach. In sessions we often apply the power of images to overcome obstacles and connect with our deeper selves.
Do you feel emotionally, relationally or spiritually blocked? Do you want to reach your full potential? Do you suffer from anxiety, depression, pain or trauma that prevents you from living a functional or fulfilling life? We will work together to retrain your mentality towards positivity, and give you the ability to address adversity. Therapy with me is tailored specifically to your needs. Huge positive change is possible with your commitment and John’s art therapeutic approach. In sessions we often apply the power of images to overcome obstacles and connect with our deeper selves.
(410) 983-3428 View (410) 983-3428
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Ellicott City, MD

400+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Ellicott City, MD who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
89% Depression
78% Relationship Issues
73% Self Esteem
69% Coping Skills
69% Stress
65% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% BlueCross and BlueShield
74% CareFirst
72% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Ellicott City, MD see their clients

63% In Person and Online
37% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Ellicott City?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.