Therapists in Bethesda, MD

Photo of Kimberly Satin Kubler, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kimberly Satin Kubler
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814
Are you feeling worried, sad, confused, or generally stressed? Collaborating with a therapist to gain insight into these feelings can provide relief. Having a confidential, supportive, and reliable atmosphere to talk through troubling thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can lead to a greater sense of control and satisfaction in your life. I work with clients to develop a deep understanding of the challenges they are facing and to help them make life altering, sustainable changes. Feel free to give me a call if you'd like more information and we can discuss what might be helpful for your particular situation.
Are you feeling worried, sad, confused, or generally stressed? Collaborating with a therapist to gain insight into these feelings can provide relief. Having a confidential, supportive, and reliable atmosphere to talk through troubling thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can lead to a greater sense of control and satisfaction in your life. I work with clients to develop a deep understanding of the challenges they are facing and to help them make life altering, sustainable changes. Feel free to give me a call if you'd like more information and we can discuss what might be helpful for your particular situation.
(202) 759-4113 View (202) 759-4113
Photo of Robert Banks, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Robert Banks
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20817  (Online Only)
A number of the personal concerns such as issues with executive functioning, history of trauma, and multiple life stressors can impact your current functioning and overall well-being. My goal is to develop a therapeutic partnership with you to identify and explore your inner strengths and resources to develop coping skills and improve your functioning and quality of life.
A number of the personal concerns such as issues with executive functioning, history of trauma, and multiple life stressors can impact your current functioning and overall well-being. My goal is to develop a therapeutic partnership with you to identify and explore your inner strengths and resources to develop coping skills and improve your functioning and quality of life.
(301) 895-7645 View (301) 895-7645
Photo of Barbara Blitzer, MSW, LCSW-C, MEd, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Barbara Blitzer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW-C, MEd
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814  (Online Only)
Are you in your fifties, sixties or beyond looking for someone with life experience and clinical experience who can really understand and support you as you adjust to changes and challenges? Are you looking to revision your life at this time in order to live it most fully? Perhaps you are experiencing changes having to do with becoming an empty nester or looking ahead to retirement. Perhaps you are searching for ways to revitalize your career or your relationships as your circumstances change.
Are you in your fifties, sixties or beyond looking for someone with life experience and clinical experience who can really understand and support you as you adjust to changes and challenges? Are you looking to revision your life at this time in order to live it most fully? Perhaps you are experiencing changes having to do with becoming an empty nester or looking ahead to retirement. Perhaps you are searching for ways to revitalize your career or your relationships as your circumstances change.
(301) 852-6123 View (301) 852-6123
Photo of Linnea Hammer, LGPC, Counselor
Linnea Hammer
Counselor, LGPC
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20817  (Online Only)
Are you feeling exhausted by daily life? It’s okay to feel overwhelmed by tasks that “should be” simple. It’s become normal to feel anxiety and stress almost all of the time. But it doesn’t have to be like that. I believe everyone has the ability to achieve an internal state of calm-happiness. We want to be thriving, not just getting through the day. But sometimes, we need a little extra help to achieve that.
Are you feeling exhausted by daily life? It’s okay to feel overwhelmed by tasks that “should be” simple. It’s become normal to feel anxiety and stress almost all of the time. But it doesn’t have to be like that. I believe everyone has the ability to achieve an internal state of calm-happiness. We want to be thriving, not just getting through the day. But sometimes, we need a little extra help to achieve that.
(443) 400-7866 View (443) 400-7866
Photo of September Lauren Stahly, LGMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
September Lauren Stahly
Marriage & Family Therapist, LGMFT
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814
I specialize in helping families, couples, and individuals address issues around communication, identity, grief, anger, anxiety, and depression. I particularly enjoy working with teens and their families. My style is warm and genuine, inviting you to explore new ways of being. I am honest about what I see and will share my insights into how problems are maintained within the dynamics of your family, couple, or environment. I strive to understand your world so I can assist you in uncovering new solutions that actually work!
I specialize in helping families, couples, and individuals address issues around communication, identity, grief, anger, anxiety, and depression. I particularly enjoy working with teens and their families. My style is warm and genuine, inviting you to explore new ways of being. I am honest about what I see and will share my insights into how problems are maintained within the dynamics of your family, couple, or environment. I strive to understand your world so I can assist you in uncovering new solutions that actually work!
(240) 209-9564 View (240) 209-9564
Photo of Ioanna Galani, MS, LGMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Ioanna Galani
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LGMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bethesda, MD 20814  (Online Only)
Realizing that it is time for change within ourselves and in our relationships can feel overwhelming, especially coupled with stresses of daily life. My mission is to help you foster the courage and resilience it takes to strengthen your relationships and live life authentically with tangible steps. Whether you are a couple who feels disconnected and hurt from conflict and ineffective communication, a parent who has concerns about your child's fears and anxieties, or an individual who feels lonely and confused, there are ways to restore and redefine your sense of purpose, your feelings of connection, and create productive patterns.
Realizing that it is time for change within ourselves and in our relationships can feel overwhelming, especially coupled with stresses of daily life. My mission is to help you foster the courage and resilience it takes to strengthen your relationships and live life authentically with tangible steps. Whether you are a couple who feels disconnected and hurt from conflict and ineffective communication, a parent who has concerns about your child's fears and anxieties, or an individual who feels lonely and confused, there are ways to restore and redefine your sense of purpose, your feelings of connection, and create productive patterns.
(240) 301-1826 View (240) 301-1826
Photo of Juli Griffin Gross, LCPC
Juli Griffin Gross
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814  (Online Only)
Hi! My name is Juli Griffin Gross and I would love the opportunity to meet you. I am focused on active listening and collaborating with you in meeting your goals and improving your mental health.
Hi! My name is Juli Griffin Gross and I would love the opportunity to meet you. I am focused on active listening and collaborating with you in meeting your goals and improving your mental health.
(240) 474-9699 View (240) 474-9699
Photo of Nadine Lavender-Petersen, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Nadine Lavender-Petersen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814
Following my natural character of curiosity and compassion for others, my inclinations led me straight to the field of psychotherapy where I have been practicing for over 36 years. I have been privileged to work in clinic, hospital, and school settings. My work is insight-oriented and I am eager to work with individuals and couples who can engage in collaborative work, who are curious about their inner workings, and are desirous to become deeply authentic while travelling their unique path.
Following my natural character of curiosity and compassion for others, my inclinations led me straight to the field of psychotherapy where I have been practicing for over 36 years. I have been privileged to work in clinic, hospital, and school settings. My work is insight-oriented and I am eager to work with individuals and couples who can engage in collaborative work, who are curious about their inner workings, and are desirous to become deeply authentic while travelling their unique path.
(301) 841-6793 View (301) 841-6793
Photo of Amy Somerstein - Holistic Healing Counseling Center, LLC, LCPC, LCSW-C, LGPC, LMSW, Licensed Professional Counselor
Holistic Healing Counseling Center, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCPC, LCSW-C, LGPC, LMSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Bethesda, MD 20814
Holistic Healing Counseling Center (HHCC) is a virtual practice in MD. At HHCC, we believe a person's well-being is interconnected and focus on physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual health. Our holistic approach aims to improve all aspects of your life by addressing the root causes of your concerns and using natural methods whenever possible. Our telehealth model allows our clinicians to deliver care remotely for your convenience.
Holistic Healing Counseling Center (HHCC) is a virtual practice in MD. At HHCC, we believe a person's well-being is interconnected and focus on physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual health. Our holistic approach aims to improve all aspects of your life by addressing the root causes of your concerns and using natural methods whenever possible. Our telehealth model allows our clinicians to deliver care remotely for your convenience.
(240) 852-2781 View (240) 852-2781
Photo of Brenden Stinson, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Brenden Stinson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20817
For me, there is no ideal client. To some extent, everyone is on a spectrum of depression and anxiety, and I seek to work with clients who need assistance becoming oriented toward improvement. I have personal and professional experience and understand how difficult it is to find someone patient enough to grow alongside a client through the therapeutic process. I want to work alongside you to help you live a happy, meaningful life with these conditions.
For me, there is no ideal client. To some extent, everyone is on a spectrum of depression and anxiety, and I seek to work with clients who need assistance becoming oriented toward improvement. I have personal and professional experience and understand how difficult it is to find someone patient enough to grow alongside a client through the therapeutic process. I want to work alongside you to help you live a happy, meaningful life with these conditions.
(240) 266-9948 View (240) 266-9948
Photo of Jennifer Chen, LCPC, MA, MEd
Jennifer Chen
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC, MA, MEd
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bethesda, MD 20814  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Life certainly brings us many challenges along the way and my goal is to help you rediscover your joy and learn to choose yourself in navigating life’s demands and obstacles. Through a supportive, compassionate, and trusting relationship and environment, I hope to help you feel empowered to reclaim control and make positive changes in your life. You will learn to express, explore, understand, and accept underlying emotions, thoughts, and behaviors without judgment and with renewed compassion for yourself and others.
Life certainly brings us many challenges along the way and my goal is to help you rediscover your joy and learn to choose yourself in navigating life’s demands and obstacles. Through a supportive, compassionate, and trusting relationship and environment, I hope to help you feel empowered to reclaim control and make positive changes in your life. You will learn to express, explore, understand, and accept underlying emotions, thoughts, and behaviors without judgment and with renewed compassion for yourself and others.
(443) 241-6193 View (443) 241-6193
Photo of Keri A Roberts, PhD, Psychologist
Keri A Roberts
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814
Waitlist for new clients
We all need healthy relationships and meaningful activities in order to have fulfilling lives. When we are struggling in one or both of these areas, psychotherapy can be immensely helpful. Our relationship can become a springboard for the positive changes you seek. While I primarily utilize talk therapy techniques, we may incorporate EMDR, breath work, or other methods. My style is active and collaborative; I will listen, and I will tell you what I think. We may focus on how childhood experiences have shaped current problems or emphasize what is happening now in your life.
We all need healthy relationships and meaningful activities in order to have fulfilling lives. When we are struggling in one or both of these areas, psychotherapy can be immensely helpful. Our relationship can become a springboard for the positive changes you seek. While I primarily utilize talk therapy techniques, we may incorporate EMDR, breath work, or other methods. My style is active and collaborative; I will listen, and I will tell you what I think. We may focus on how childhood experiences have shaped current problems or emphasize what is happening now in your life.
(301) 321-8013 View (301) 321-8013
Photo of Tamitha Davis-Rama, LCSW-C, LICSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Tamitha Davis-Rama
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, LICSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814  (Online Only)
Do you feel pulled in a million and one different directions? Are you struggling to keep up with your relationships, at work or with your health? Is it hard to be kind to yourself? If yes is the answerto any of those questions, I am excited to connect with you. I help women manage anxiety and avoid feeling defeated. I use a whole person approach, addressing the needs of your mind, body, spirit and community. I integrate talking and mindfulness to help you develop a stronger relationship with self. You are met with compassion and evidence-based techniques so you can face your challenges and the habits that are holding you back.
Do you feel pulled in a million and one different directions? Are you struggling to keep up with your relationships, at work or with your health? Is it hard to be kind to yourself? If yes is the answerto any of those questions, I am excited to connect with you. I help women manage anxiety and avoid feeling defeated. I use a whole person approach, addressing the needs of your mind, body, spirit and community. I integrate talking and mindfulness to help you develop a stronger relationship with self. You are met with compassion and evidence-based techniques so you can face your challenges and the habits that are holding you back.
(240) 905-4179 View (240) 905-4179
Madisen Moody
Resident in Counseling, LPC-R
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bethesda, MD 20814
What is Severe Mental Illness (SMI) and Forensic populations, you may ask? SMI includes Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Personality Disorders, and Bipolar Disorders, etc. Madisen also enjoys working with the forensically connected populations, specifically, those adjudicated Not Guilty by Reasonable Insanity (NGRI) and Unrestorably Incompetent to Stand Trial (URIST).
What is Severe Mental Illness (SMI) and Forensic populations, you may ask? SMI includes Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Personality Disorders, and Bipolar Disorders, etc. Madisen also enjoys working with the forensically connected populations, specifically, those adjudicated Not Guilty by Reasonable Insanity (NGRI) and Unrestorably Incompetent to Stand Trial (URIST).
Photo of Melissa Herendeen, LCSW-C, LGSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Melissa Herendeen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, LGSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bethesda, MD 20814
I work with adolescents and adults touched by adoption. Through an attachment and trauma-informed approach clients are able to find internal safety and better understanding of themselves and their experience as an adopted person, parent, or birth parent. Many clients come with complex layers of anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, relationship challenges, and ambiguous grief. Through the therapeutic relationship clients gain tools for internal validation, strategies to best manage their challenges, and opportunities to explore complex emotions in a safe environment.
I work with adolescents and adults touched by adoption. Through an attachment and trauma-informed approach clients are able to find internal safety and better understanding of themselves and their experience as an adopted person, parent, or birth parent. Many clients come with complex layers of anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, relationship challenges, and ambiguous grief. Through the therapeutic relationship clients gain tools for internal validation, strategies to best manage their challenges, and opportunities to explore complex emotions in a safe environment.
(240) 652-2309 View (240) 652-2309
Photo of Leslie Zirkin, PsyD, MT, Psychologist
Leslie Zirkin
Psychologist, PsyD, MT
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814
We all have areas of our lives in which we thrive and areas that cause us stress and worry. Recognizing our strengths and weaknesses and finding ways to maximize our potential are critical to developing a fuller, more satisfying life. I am an eclectic psychologist who uses multiple approaches as I work with my clients to uncover problematic behavior patterns in their lives. Once we understand what is causing the difficulties, we develop coping mechanisms and tools to incrementally work towards a more fulfilling life.
We all have areas of our lives in which we thrive and areas that cause us stress and worry. Recognizing our strengths and weaknesses and finding ways to maximize our potential are critical to developing a fuller, more satisfying life. I am an eclectic psychologist who uses multiple approaches as I work with my clients to uncover problematic behavior patterns in their lives. Once we understand what is causing the difficulties, we develop coping mechanisms and tools to incrementally work towards a more fulfilling life.
(301) 605-9221 View (301) 605-9221
Photo of Mark Zimmermann - Mark Zimmermann, LCSW, PLLC, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mark Zimmermann, LCSW, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814  (Online Only)
Psychotherapist, Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW-R), & addictions specialist providing therapeutic individual & group psychotherapy services & counseling serving diverse populations in the New York area. For me, psychotherapy is the practice of assisting patients to get at what they truly want out of life. Please note that for the duration of the current nationwide medical emergency, it will be possible to meet together for video teleconferencing or through telephone sessions.
Psychotherapist, Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW-R), & addictions specialist providing therapeutic individual & group psychotherapy services & counseling serving diverse populations in the New York area. For me, psychotherapy is the practice of assisting patients to get at what they truly want out of life. Please note that for the duration of the current nationwide medical emergency, it will be possible to meet together for video teleconferencing or through telephone sessions.
(917) 960-3685 View (917) 960-3685
Photo of Shane Wise, PhD, Psychological Associate
Shane Wise
Psychological Associate, PhD
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20814
I believe in the importance of providing high-quality and effective therapy to my clients. My work utilizes an integrative approach based on principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT). These tools have been shown to help people navigate distress and live happier, more fulfilled lives. I believe that my most important role as your therapist is to support and empower you. To that end, I take a a non-judgmental, flexible stance in treatment to help my clients address their needs and thrive as individuals.
I believe in the importance of providing high-quality and effective therapy to my clients. My work utilizes an integrative approach based on principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT). These tools have been shown to help people navigate distress and live happier, more fulfilled lives. I believe that my most important role as your therapist is to support and empower you. To that end, I take a a non-judgmental, flexible stance in treatment to help my clients address their needs and thrive as individuals.
(240) 589-5142 x15 View (240) 589-5142 x15
Photo of Jessica Gada, LPC, LCPC, LCPAT, ATR-BC, Counselor
Jessica Gada
Counselor, LPC, LCPC, LCPAT, ATR-BC
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Bethesda, MD 20814
Not accepting new clients
Are you a professional in the DC metro area, thriving in some areas of your life, but feeling "stuck" or "in the dark" in others? Are you grappling with a recent loss, a major decision or life transition, trauma, grief/loss, or symptoms related to anxiety or depression? Do you want more for your life, your career, your relationships? Sometimes the things that happen to us can lead to negative beliefs about our selves or the world, and these beliefs get in the way of living the lives we've always wanted. You are more than capable of untangling these beliefs. You are motivated and ready for change.
Are you a professional in the DC metro area, thriving in some areas of your life, but feeling "stuck" or "in the dark" in others? Are you grappling with a recent loss, a major decision or life transition, trauma, grief/loss, or symptoms related to anxiety or depression? Do you want more for your life, your career, your relationships? Sometimes the things that happen to us can lead to negative beliefs about our selves or the world, and these beliefs get in the way of living the lives we've always wanted. You are more than capable of untangling these beliefs. You are motivated and ready for change.
(240) 573-7656 View (240) 573-7656
Photo of Ethlynne Thomas, LCSW-C, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ethlynne Thomas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, LICSW
Verified Verified
Bethesda, MD 20816  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I am a licensed therapist in the state of Maryland and a graduate from the University of Maryland School of Social Work. I have worked in the field of mental health for over 11 years and I am committed to helping individuals overcome challenges related to anxiety, depression, relationships, and boundaries. My goal is to collaboratively work together to gain new perspectives by exploring core beliefs and the meaning behind actions. It is my intention to provide a nurturing and authentic relationship that promotes improved mental health and personal growth. I look forward to being part of your journey!
I am a licensed therapist in the state of Maryland and a graduate from the University of Maryland School of Social Work. I have worked in the field of mental health for over 11 years and I am committed to helping individuals overcome challenges related to anxiety, depression, relationships, and boundaries. My goal is to collaboratively work together to gain new perspectives by exploring core beliefs and the meaning behind actions. It is my intention to provide a nurturing and authentic relationship that promotes improved mental health and personal growth. I look forward to being part of your journey!
(301) 450-8412 View (301) 450-8412
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Bethesda, MD

1,000+

Average cost per session

$180

Therapists in Bethesda, MD who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
90% Depression
78% Relationship Issues
74% Self Esteem
67% Coping Skills
63% Trauma and PTSD
62% Stress

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

63% BlueCross and BlueShield
63% CareFirst
59% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Bethesda, MD see their clients

59% In Person and Online
41% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
17% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Bethesda?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.