Therapists in Silver Spring, MD

Photo of Ronnie Biemans, MA, LCPC
Ronnie Biemans
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910
My approach is particularly suited to those individuals who are struggling with emotional distress and anxiety, school difficulties and overwork. Students, caregivers, new parents, pregnant or postpartum women, infertile couples, parents of children with special needs, and those dealing with chronic illness have found my approach very helpful. Join with me to restore and renew your emotional health. Together we will explore your strengths and challenges and develop a plan just right for you, with strategies proven to ensure stress and anxiety reduction, mood regulation, improved sleep, fulfilling relationships and balanced living.
My approach is particularly suited to those individuals who are struggling with emotional distress and anxiety, school difficulties and overwork. Students, caregivers, new parents, pregnant or postpartum women, infertile couples, parents of children with special needs, and those dealing with chronic illness have found my approach very helpful. Join with me to restore and renew your emotional health. Together we will explore your strengths and challenges and develop a plan just right for you, with strategies proven to ensure stress and anxiety reduction, mood regulation, improved sleep, fulfilling relationships and balanced living.
(240) 772-5451 View (240) 772-5451
Photo of Liz Schroth, MA, LCPC, BCN, BCC
Liz Schroth
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MA, LCPC, BCN, BCC
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Are you going through a transition in your life? Feeling stuck and find it difficult to move forward? Many times, when things do not go as planned or the way we hope, it can feel stressful, confusing and sometimes overwhelming. I specialize in helping individuals, particularly young adults, teenagers, and school-age children, in navigating these challenging transitions (e.g., struggling in school, failure to progress in college, experiencing anxiety or depression, etc.). I work with people who need more than just “talking” with a therapist. My approach to therapy is unique.
Are you going through a transition in your life? Feeling stuck and find it difficult to move forward? Many times, when things do not go as planned or the way we hope, it can feel stressful, confusing and sometimes overwhelming. I specialize in helping individuals, particularly young adults, teenagers, and school-age children, in navigating these challenging transitions (e.g., struggling in school, failure to progress in college, experiencing anxiety or depression, etc.). I work with people who need more than just “talking” with a therapist. My approach to therapy is unique.
(301) 960-3911 View (301) 960-3911
Photo of Mary Alice Reilly, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mary Alice Reilly
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Welcome! As you consider your options for therapy, know that I am already rooting for you to get what you need. If you choose to work with me, I will bring a warm and empathetic therapeutic style to our time together, prioritizing connection and insight to facilitate growth, healing, and resilience. My primary focus will be supporting you to reduce suffering, develop effective skills and resources, and enhance your ability to adapt and thrive through life’s challenges.
Welcome! As you consider your options for therapy, know that I am already rooting for you to get what you need. If you choose to work with me, I will bring a warm and empathetic therapeutic style to our time together, prioritizing connection and insight to facilitate growth, healing, and resilience. My primary focus will be supporting you to reduce suffering, develop effective skills and resources, and enhance your ability to adapt and thrive through life’s challenges.
(240) 734-2433 View (240) 734-2433
Shalom Shapiro
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20904  (Online Only)
I am a licensed psychologist in Maryland and have broad experience helping individuals with both cognitive- and emotional concerns. At GY Counseling, I am prepared to help patients address a range of issues, including anxiety, depression, stress, ADHD, relationships, feelings of ineffectiveness and underachievement, and sleep. The treatment process begins with an initial session that focuses on clarifying the patient's goals and establishing a treatment plan. Throughout the process, I emphasize the client-therapist relationship, a goal-oriented approach, listening and respect, and collaboration.
I am a licensed psychologist in Maryland and have broad experience helping individuals with both cognitive- and emotional concerns. At GY Counseling, I am prepared to help patients address a range of issues, including anxiety, depression, stress, ADHD, relationships, feelings of ineffectiveness and underachievement, and sleep. The treatment process begins with an initial session that focuses on clarifying the patient's goals and establishing a treatment plan. Throughout the process, I emphasize the client-therapist relationship, a goal-oriented approach, listening and respect, and collaboration.
(301) 281-4697 View (301) 281-4697
Photo of Naeem Thompson, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Naeem Thompson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20910  (Online Only)
In my years of practice as a therapist, I've had the privilege of working with a diverse range of clients, each with their unique stories and struggles. However, when envisioning an ideal client, it's not so much about perfection as it is about the qualities and characteristics that create a harmonious and productive therapeutic relationship.
In my years of practice as a therapist, I've had the privilege of working with a diverse range of clients, each with their unique stories and struggles. However, when envisioning an ideal client, it's not so much about perfection as it is about the qualities and characteristics that create a harmonious and productive therapeutic relationship.
(301) 381-5604 View (301) 381-5604
Photo of Pearl A Roman, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Pearl A Roman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20901  (Online Only)
It’s ok to experience anxiety and fear from time to time. It’s also ok to experience sadness, challenges with others, and overall unwanted emotions from time to time. What’s not ok is to live with these negative aspects of our lives and simply accept them as our “normal.”
It’s ok to experience anxiety and fear from time to time. It’s also ok to experience sadness, challenges with others, and overall unwanted emotions from time to time. What’s not ok is to live with these negative aspects of our lives and simply accept them as our “normal.”
(301) 409-5945 View (301) 409-5945
Photo of Dr. Maura Mulloy, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Maura Mulloy
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20904  (Online Only)
You are already taking an important step towards feeling better, just by reaching out for support. You might be struggling to manage anxiety or depression, feeling burnt-out by the demands of work and family life, and/or coping with a neurodivergent brain in a neurotypical world. You yearn to feel understood and appreciated for who you are, and to feel release from the self-judgment that weighs heavily in your mind and heart. You may be hoping for more resilient ways of handling stress, a better ability to set boundaries to protect your energy, or help with strengthening your motivation for positive change.
You are already taking an important step towards feeling better, just by reaching out for support. You might be struggling to manage anxiety or depression, feeling burnt-out by the demands of work and family life, and/or coping with a neurodivergent brain in a neurotypical world. You yearn to feel understood and appreciated for who you are, and to feel release from the self-judgment that weighs heavily in your mind and heart. You may be hoping for more resilient ways of handling stress, a better ability to set boundaries to protect your energy, or help with strengthening your motivation for positive change.
(301) 786-3994 View (301) 786-3994
Photo of undefined - David L Hill & Associates, LCSW-C, SAP, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
David L Hill & Associates
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, SAP, LICSW
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20904  (Online Only)
Are you struggling with addiction, grief and loss, trauma, anxiety and depression? Do you feel alone? Do you feel stuck in your life? Are you looking for help navigating life, looking for help escaping the past trauma holding you back? Problems show up and people try their best to cope. I can help you navigate your thoughts and feelings.
Are you struggling with addiction, grief and loss, trauma, anxiety and depression? Do you feel alone? Do you feel stuck in your life? Are you looking for help navigating life, looking for help escaping the past trauma holding you back? Problems show up and people try their best to cope. I can help you navigate your thoughts and feelings.
(301) 888-6130 View (301) 888-6130
Photo of Nelly Valero-Wills, LCPC
Nelly Valero-Wills
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Welcome to my practice! I am a bilingual psychotherapist with over 20 years of experience working in the Clinical field. I offer psychotherapy to people whose goals are to improve their mental well being, strengthen their interpersonal relationships, and achieve their aspirations in life. I combine different schools of psychotherapy to offer the most pertinent tools for clients to learn how to deal with diverse mental health conditions: anxiety, depression, sexual trauma, PTSD, complicated grief, relational challenges, self harm, among others. I am bilingual (Spanish) and also multicultural.
Welcome to my practice! I am a bilingual psychotherapist with over 20 years of experience working in the Clinical field. I offer psychotherapy to people whose goals are to improve their mental well being, strengthen their interpersonal relationships, and achieve their aspirations in life. I combine different schools of psychotherapy to offer the most pertinent tools for clients to learn how to deal with diverse mental health conditions: anxiety, depression, sexual trauma, PTSD, complicated grief, relational challenges, self harm, among others. I am bilingual (Spanish) and also multicultural.
(301) 433-7767 View (301) 433-7767
Photo of Katherine Richardson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Katherine Richardson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Not accepting new clients
Do you feel you are not fulfilling your potential in life and love? Are there things you want to change about yourself, your situation, your partner? I use a multidimensional understanding of a person to quickly identify core issues. All people have strengths and gifts of which they are often unaware. Together we can uncover these strengths, develop new capacities and chart a course for the future. I'm an interactive, engaged therapist. I use a variety of techniques from cognitive, somatic and depth psychology, to promote self-awareness and emotional growth.
Do you feel you are not fulfilling your potential in life and love? Are there things you want to change about yourself, your situation, your partner? I use a multidimensional understanding of a person to quickly identify core issues. All people have strengths and gifts of which they are often unaware. Together we can uncover these strengths, develop new capacities and chart a course for the future. I'm an interactive, engaged therapist. I use a variety of techniques from cognitive, somatic and depth psychology, to promote self-awareness and emotional growth.
(240) 392-1505 View (240) 392-1505
Photo of Dr. Todd DeRose, PhD
Dr. Todd DeRose
PhD
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20902
A myriad of reasons can lead someone to therapy. What if you aren't necessarily struggling, but you just want to know yourself better? Maybe you're an intellectually curious person who's tried to make sense of things for a while, but you aren't necessarily ill. Therapists can be unsure how to work with this as they're often pathology-based. Philosophy, which ponders the deeper "whys" of things, can help--but it can be overwhelming without a guide. We, as a team, can examine where you are and where you want to go.
A myriad of reasons can lead someone to therapy. What if you aren't necessarily struggling, but you just want to know yourself better? Maybe you're an intellectually curious person who's tried to make sense of things for a while, but you aren't necessarily ill. Therapists can be unsure how to work with this as they're often pathology-based. Philosophy, which ponders the deeper "whys" of things, can help--but it can be overwhelming without a guide. We, as a team, can examine where you are and where you want to go.
(301) 205-5921 View (301) 205-5921
Photo of Stacia Turner, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Stacia Turner
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910
I am a clinical graduate intern counselor under the supervision of Crystal Joseph, (LCPC, LPC, ACS). I have training and experience working with pregnant and postpartum individuals, neurodivergent people of color, college students, and those experiencing grief. I provide thoughtful insights and creative problem-solving strategies. My counseling approach is social justice oriented. If you're ready to take a new approach to learning about yourself and reimagining how to address your issues and challenges, I am eager to connect with you.
I am a clinical graduate intern counselor under the supervision of Crystal Joseph, (LCPC, LPC, ACS). I have training and experience working with pregnant and postpartum individuals, neurodivergent people of color, college students, and those experiencing grief. I provide thoughtful insights and creative problem-solving strategies. My counseling approach is social justice oriented. If you're ready to take a new approach to learning about yourself and reimagining how to address your issues and challenges, I am eager to connect with you.
(240) 698-3536 View (240) 698-3536
Photo of Laurie Ann Persh, LCPC, CCMHC, LMFT, EAS-C
Laurie Ann Persh
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC, CCMHC, LMFT, EAS-C
Verified Verified
Silver Spring, MD 20904
Not accepting new clients
Sometimes it helps just to have a caring nonjudgmental person to talk to and bounce ideas off. Sometimes, people need a gentle push along with clear steps to take to make things better. After over 35 years working with clients from children to adult, public and private settings, I have learned what differences to respect and what common themes and needs to honor for all human beings. Throughout my career as a counselor/psychotherapist, my strength continues to be my ability to understand human nature. I share with my clients knowledge, respect, and guidance. It is a two way learning process.
Sometimes it helps just to have a caring nonjudgmental person to talk to and bounce ideas off. Sometimes, people need a gentle push along with clear steps to take to make things better. After over 35 years working with clients from children to adult, public and private settings, I have learned what differences to respect and what common themes and needs to honor for all human beings. Throughout my career as a counselor/psychotherapist, my strength continues to be my ability to understand human nature. I share with my clients knowledge, respect, and guidance. It is a two way learning process.
(301) 710-0341 View (301) 710-0341
Photo of Lj Pelham, Marriage & Family Therapist Intern
Lj Pelham
Marriage & Family Therapist Intern
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Life's journey can present us with unexpected challenges, leaving us feeling adrift at times. Whether you're grappling with personal hurdles, exploring questions of faith, or navigating the complexities of aging, rest assured that you're not alone. As a therapist, I offer a supportive space where you can explore, heal, and grow. Drawing from my experiences as a stepmom and mediator, I understand the intricacies of family dynamics and relationship struggles. Together, we'll acknowledge your experiences, validate your feelings, and embark on a journey towards deeper connections, self-acceptance, and lasting love.
Life's journey can present us with unexpected challenges, leaving us feeling adrift at times. Whether you're grappling with personal hurdles, exploring questions of faith, or navigating the complexities of aging, rest assured that you're not alone. As a therapist, I offer a supportive space where you can explore, heal, and grow. Drawing from my experiences as a stepmom and mediator, I understand the intricacies of family dynamics and relationship struggles. Together, we'll acknowledge your experiences, validate your feelings, and embark on a journey towards deeper connections, self-acceptance, and lasting love.
(240) 213-2783 View (240) 213-2783
Photo of undefined - Sarah Fairchild - Healing Hearts Therapy, LICSW, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sarah Fairchild - Healing Hearts Therapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910  (Online Only)
Welcome to Healing Hearts Therapy. Whether you need support navigating relationship challenges, processing grief, managing anxiety/depression, or exploring ways to move forward from past trauma, I am here to walk with you on your healing journey. At the center of my trauma-informed work is a deep belief that all of my clients possess inner wisdom, courage, and the potential to heal. I utilize a blend of modalities including Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Relational Therapy, Internal Family Systems, Mindfulness, and EMDR. I am licensed in both DC and Maryland.
Welcome to Healing Hearts Therapy. Whether you need support navigating relationship challenges, processing grief, managing anxiety/depression, or exploring ways to move forward from past trauma, I am here to walk with you on your healing journey. At the center of my trauma-informed work is a deep belief that all of my clients possess inner wisdom, courage, and the potential to heal. I utilize a blend of modalities including Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Relational Therapy, Internal Family Systems, Mindfulness, and EMDR. I am licensed in both DC and Maryland.
(240) 253-6276 View (240) 253-6276
Photo of undefined - Restore Tranquility, LLC
Restore Tranquility, LLC
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910
I work with people who are overwhelmed with life, worried about the future and stretched thin. Many tend to feel stuck in their careers or personal relationships at a time when they should be enjoying the life they have built. There are so many things that can interfere with our ability to live the happy, healthy, meaningful lives we most want to live. Do you struggle to make sustainable changes in your life?
I work with people who are overwhelmed with life, worried about the future and stretched thin. Many tend to feel stuck in their careers or personal relationships at a time when they should be enjoying the life they have built. There are so many things that can interfere with our ability to live the happy, healthy, meaningful lives we most want to live. Do you struggle to make sustainable changes in your life?
(301) 605-9135 View (301) 605-9135
Photo of Jennifer Fang Brehm, MS, LCMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jennifer Fang Brehm
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LCMFT
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20901
As humans, we experience pain, loss, or difficulties in our lives as individuals and in our family relationships. We make our best efforts to cope, adapt or resolve these trying experiences on our own. But sometimes, we get stuck or they are too great to endure alone. I believe the therapeutic relationship is a safe place, free of judgement, invested in exploring, healing, and growing. Together, we can work on the interpersonal, emotional, psychological, and spiritual issues that hinder you and your relationships from reaching full potential.
As humans, we experience pain, loss, or difficulties in our lives as individuals and in our family relationships. We make our best efforts to cope, adapt or resolve these trying experiences on our own. But sometimes, we get stuck or they are too great to endure alone. I believe the therapeutic relationship is a safe place, free of judgement, invested in exploring, healing, and growing. Together, we can work on the interpersonal, emotional, psychological, and spiritual issues that hinder you and your relationships from reaching full potential.
(301) 804-2241 View (301) 804-2241
Photo of undefined - Holistic Psychotherapy by Santa, LLC., LICSW, SEP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Holistic Psychotherapy by Santa, LLC.
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, SEP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20906
No matter how you are feeling, know that there is someone out here to support you, don't lose hope. I believe that we all have the innate ability to be well, regardless of race, sexual orientation or gender identification. Traumatic and challenging experiences in our lifes, can affect our nervous system, rendering us vulnerable, confused and at times stuck/frozen in fight and or flight responses to life. It would be an honor to assist you at recognizing and reclaiming your strength and true potential through gentle, mindful and regulated interventions that provide balance and peace.
No matter how you are feeling, know that there is someone out here to support you, don't lose hope. I believe that we all have the innate ability to be well, regardless of race, sexual orientation or gender identification. Traumatic and challenging experiences in our lifes, can affect our nervous system, rendering us vulnerable, confused and at times stuck/frozen in fight and or flight responses to life. It would be an honor to assist you at recognizing and reclaiming your strength and true potential through gentle, mindful and regulated interventions that provide balance and peace.
(202) 499-6292 View (202) 499-6292
Photo of Ayushi Tibrewala, LGPC, Counselor
Ayushi Tibrewala
Counselor, LGPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Are you struggling with a big change in your life? Do you feel like you can't bring your authentic self into the world? Do you feel stressed, disconnected, or ashamed? Then you've come to the right place! We'll collaborate on a plan to build skills and generate insight so that you can foster authentic connections with yourself and others. I work with individuals adults.
Are you struggling with a big change in your life? Do you feel like you can't bring your authentic self into the world? Do you feel stressed, disconnected, or ashamed? Then you've come to the right place! We'll collaborate on a plan to build skills and generate insight so that you can foster authentic connections with yourself and others. I work with individuals adults.
(240) 377-0042 View (240) 377-0042
Photo of Kelli A Cronin, LCSW-C, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kelli A Cronin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Silver Spring, MD 20910  (Online Only)
My intention is for you to feel safe bringing all parts of yourself into our sessions. All of you - all feelings, all identities - are welcome. Only in a relationship of relative safety & non-judgement can growth happen. I maintain that YOU are the expert on you and as such I take a client-centered, collaborative, and relational approach to therapy. I will use our relationship, my experience, and YOUR insight & self-knowing, as well as appropriate tools & techniques. I will ask about your goals, challenges, strengths, and what has worked for you in the past. Your care will be as individual as you are.
My intention is for you to feel safe bringing all parts of yourself into our sessions. All of you - all feelings, all identities - are welcome. Only in a relationship of relative safety & non-judgement can growth happen. I maintain that YOU are the expert on you and as such I take a client-centered, collaborative, and relational approach to therapy. I will use our relationship, my experience, and YOUR insight & self-knowing, as well as appropriate tools & techniques. I will ask about your goals, challenges, strengths, and what has worked for you in the past. Your care will be as individual as you are.
(301) 835-1089 View (301) 835-1089

See more therapy options for Silver Spring

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Silver Spring, MD

900+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in Silver Spring, MD who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
77% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
69% Coping Skills
67% Trauma and PTSD
65% Stress

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

73% CareFirst
70% BlueCross and BlueShield
64% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Silver Spring, MD see their clients

54% In Person and Online
46% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Silver Spring?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.