Therapists in Florence, MA

Photo of Sara Schieffelin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Sara Schieffelin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
Therapy can be a powerful vehicle for transformation, ultimately about personal growth and self-care. Through compassionate conversation, I guide clients to access their strengths, resources, and wisdom to achieve greater well-being. For the past 15 years, I have worked in outreach, community mental health, school, and private practice settings across the US and internationally.
Therapy can be a powerful vehicle for transformation, ultimately about personal growth and self-care. Through compassionate conversation, I guide clients to access their strengths, resources, and wisdom to achieve greater well-being. For the past 15 years, I have worked in outreach, community mental health, school, and private practice settings across the US and internationally.
(413) 240-3646 View (413) 240-3646
Photo of Allie DiTucci, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Allie DiTucci
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSS, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
I come to private practice with a background in trauma, attachment, development, and identity, including an ongoing affiliation with the Cutchins Children’s Clinic. As a therapist, I partner with you to make sense of your story. Through this work, we often discover together that what’s happening for you in the present makes perfect sense given what you’ve lived through so far and the forces that have shaped you. With this understanding, you can more easily access softness toward yourself and others, and even find other ways of being.
I come to private practice with a background in trauma, attachment, development, and identity, including an ongoing affiliation with the Cutchins Children’s Clinic. As a therapist, I partner with you to make sense of your story. Through this work, we often discover together that what’s happening for you in the present makes perfect sense given what you’ve lived through so far and the forces that have shaped you. With this understanding, you can more easily access softness toward yourself and others, and even find other ways of being.
(413) 423-0897 View (413) 423-0897
Photo of Corinne B. Guest, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Corinne B. Guest
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
I’m a white, cis, queer, fat femme bilingual (English/Spanish) clinical social worker licensed in Massachusetts (LICSW). I have been in private practice in Western Mass for 3 years, since relocating from Philly, where I worked in immigrant mental health for 8 years. My areas of clinical interest include: queer and trans identities; issues surrounding sex and sexuality; fat liberation/body positivity; migration experiences and transnational families; gender-based violence; ambiguous loss and complex grief; trauma; attachment, family relationships and alternative family structures.
I’m a white, cis, queer, fat femme bilingual (English/Spanish) clinical social worker licensed in Massachusetts (LICSW). I have been in private practice in Western Mass for 3 years, since relocating from Philly, where I worked in immigrant mental health for 8 years. My areas of clinical interest include: queer and trans identities; issues surrounding sex and sexuality; fat liberation/body positivity; migration experiences and transnational families; gender-based violence; ambiguous loss and complex grief; trauma; attachment, family relationships and alternative family structures.
(413) 216-9122 View (413) 216-9122
Photo of Sarah Lusardi, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Sarah Lusardi
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
Do you feel anxious or depressed? When we are struggling with emotions that feel overwhelming or consuming, it can leave us feeling alone and that there is little relief in sight. The reality is that a lot of people are challenged by emotions that are confusing or feel they can’t manage. This can be brought on by life transitions, parenting stressors, relationship changes or frankly, just life in general! Looking for support is a solid first step.
Do you feel anxious or depressed? When we are struggling with emotions that feel overwhelming or consuming, it can leave us feeling alone and that there is little relief in sight. The reality is that a lot of people are challenged by emotions that are confusing or feel they can’t manage. This can be brought on by life transitions, parenting stressors, relationship changes or frankly, just life in general! Looking for support is a solid first step.
(413) 324-5767 View (413) 324-5767
Photo of Patrick Rathbun, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Patrick Rathbun
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
As Pema Chodron writes: "things are always in transition, if we could only realize it." Life's fluctuations are not easy, but I believe acceptance and self-kindness are essential to growth. Our ebbs and flows make things like our self-esteem hard to stabilize, but therapy can give us a truer evaluation of our worth.
As Pema Chodron writes: "things are always in transition, if we could only realize it." Life's fluctuations are not easy, but I believe acceptance and self-kindness are essential to growth. Our ebbs and flows make things like our self-esteem hard to stabilize, but therapy can give us a truer evaluation of our worth.
(413) 553-1380 View (413) 553-1380
Photo of Anne Roughton, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Anne Roughton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, MA 01062
Do you find yourself focusing too much on other people's wants and needs while ignoring your own? Over time, living this way can leave you feeling used up, deeply stuck and way off track. So if you're someone others often rely on for support, it might be time to find your own person to talk with. And it's perfectly okay if you have a sense that things need to change, but aren't sure where to start. I have experience and a special interest in helping people like you alleviate their anxiety, relationship problems and burnout.
Do you find yourself focusing too much on other people's wants and needs while ignoring your own? Over time, living this way can leave you feeling used up, deeply stuck and way off track. So if you're someone others often rely on for support, it might be time to find your own person to talk with. And it's perfectly okay if you have a sense that things need to change, but aren't sure where to start. I have experience and a special interest in helping people like you alleviate their anxiety, relationship problems and burnout.
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Photo of Abby Moore, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Abby Moore
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I take an affirming, collaborative, strengths based, trauma informed approach to therapy. My lens is grounded in the understanding that life experiences and ways of navigating distress are dependent on one’s identities, internal and external environments, and social and cultural ecosystems. I utilize a breadth of relationally informed psychodynamic approaches to support clients. Although my therapeutic style is eclectic, integrative, and flexible, it is rooted in a psychodynamic theoretical orientation with a trauma informed lens, grounded in attachment theories and framed by social justice.
I take an affirming, collaborative, strengths based, trauma informed approach to therapy. My lens is grounded in the understanding that life experiences and ways of navigating distress are dependent on one’s identities, internal and external environments, and social and cultural ecosystems. I utilize a breadth of relationally informed psychodynamic approaches to support clients. Although my therapeutic style is eclectic, integrative, and flexible, it is rooted in a psychodynamic theoretical orientation with a trauma informed lens, grounded in attachment theories and framed by social justice.
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Photo of Marcia Post, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Marcia Post
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
Waitlist for new clients
We all need support in dealing with life's challenges but sometimes just asking for help can feel overwhelming. Finding the right therapist can be a daunting task: Whom can I trust? Will I be understood? Will I feel safe and respected? I understand these concerns. I work to create a warm, compassionate therapeutic environment. My clients tell me that they appreciate my down-to earth presence; my sense of humor, and my gentle yet honest feedback. My work blends psycho-dynamic, cognitive behavioral, internal family systems, and relational-cultural theories in ways that are specific to your unique goals.
We all need support in dealing with life's challenges but sometimes just asking for help can feel overwhelming. Finding the right therapist can be a daunting task: Whom can I trust? Will I be understood? Will I feel safe and respected? I understand these concerns. I work to create a warm, compassionate therapeutic environment. My clients tell me that they appreciate my down-to earth presence; my sense of humor, and my gentle yet honest feedback. My work blends psycho-dynamic, cognitive behavioral, internal family systems, and relational-cultural theories in ways that are specific to your unique goals.
(617) 917-2037 View (617) 917-2037
Photo of Whole Child And Parent: Family Coaching And Therapy ~Julie B. Rosenshein, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Whole Child And Parent: Family Coaching And Therapy ~Julie B. Rosenshein
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
I have been working with parents, children and families for over 25 years. I specialize in elementary school age children. My book: “Parenting the Highly Sensitive Child” has been a resource for many parents. I offer tools and strategies for children struggling with emotional regulation, anger issues, ADHD, anxiety, oppositional defiant/challenging behaviors, learning difficulties and social skills. I help families regain a sense of balance by helping to resolve conflict and enhance communication....bringing enjoyment to your family once again.
I have been working with parents, children and families for over 25 years. I specialize in elementary school age children. My book: “Parenting the Highly Sensitive Child” has been a resource for many parents. I offer tools and strategies for children struggling with emotional regulation, anger issues, ADHD, anxiety, oppositional defiant/challenging behaviors, learning difficulties and social skills. I help families regain a sense of balance by helping to resolve conflict and enhance communication....bringing enjoyment to your family once again.
(413) 307-3651 View (413) 307-3651
Photo of Mary Lutkus, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Mary Lutkus
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
I believe we are spiritual beings having a human experience - and it can be HARD! I would like to offer you a safe, non-judgmental, compassionate space to process your feelings & find meaning in the midst of the struggle. Within the chaos & fear many of us live in, we lose touch with our inner power & our connection to one another & the planet. When anxiety, depression & other emotions show up, they need to be honored & listened to. Based upon your belief system, I would like to help support & guide you out of the darkness & back to your life's purpose - back to a valued and full life.
I believe we are spiritual beings having a human experience - and it can be HARD! I would like to offer you a safe, non-judgmental, compassionate space to process your feelings & find meaning in the midst of the struggle. Within the chaos & fear many of us live in, we lose touch with our inner power & our connection to one another & the planet. When anxiety, depression & other emotions show up, they need to be honored & listened to. Based upon your belief system, I would like to help support & guide you out of the darkness & back to your life's purpose - back to a valued and full life.
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Photo of Paul Stephen Foster-Moore, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Paul Stephen Foster-Moore
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
Not accepting new clients
My ideal client is a person who has gotten so stuck with emotional or medical challenges that these interfere with their ability to self-soothe, focus, make and execute constructive plans, get along with others or experience intimacy and connection with a mate or other fellow human beings. My ideal client wants to feel wanted and needed and yet may engage in unacknowledged self-defeating behaviors at home, at work or out in the larger social world worthy of inspection and “remodeling.” My ideal client is willing to make a commitment to a process of self-examination resulting in new efforts to make important changes in their life.
My ideal client is a person who has gotten so stuck with emotional or medical challenges that these interfere with their ability to self-soothe, focus, make and execute constructive plans, get along with others or experience intimacy and connection with a mate or other fellow human beings. My ideal client wants to feel wanted and needed and yet may engage in unacknowledged self-defeating behaviors at home, at work or out in the larger social world worthy of inspection and “remodeling.” My ideal client is willing to make a commitment to a process of self-examination resulting in new efforts to make important changes in their life.
(413) 666-1343 View (413) 666-1343
Photo of Linda Tumbarello, Counselor in Florence, MA
Linda Tumbarello
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
For over 35 years I have specialized in body-mind healing and working with trauma. My therapeutic work supports each person to feel whole, regardless of emotional issues, difficult or traumatic life experiences, and physical injuries or illness. Many clients have worked with me to get free from emotional and physical pain and restrictions that have been in the way of their feeling at home in their body and themselves for many years. Some clients are working with me to get through the anxiety and depression that they are experiencing right now. Together we can find the best way to get the support, empowerment and tools you need now.
For over 35 years I have specialized in body-mind healing and working with trauma. My therapeutic work supports each person to feel whole, regardless of emotional issues, difficult or traumatic life experiences, and physical injuries or illness. Many clients have worked with me to get free from emotional and physical pain and restrictions that have been in the way of their feeling at home in their body and themselves for many years. Some clients are working with me to get through the anxiety and depression that they are experiencing right now. Together we can find the best way to get the support, empowerment and tools you need now.
(413) 461-3761 View (413) 461-3761
Photo of Amy Waldman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Amy Waldman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
Waitlist for new clients
We all seek a sense of meaning and gratification in our personal and work lives, to be seen and appreciated as we are, and to feel well, alive and whole. I have over 25 years of experience working with adults and teens seeking relief from fear, anxiety, stress, anger, sadness, trauma and isolation & wanting more joy and a sense of wellbeing in their lives. I also have expertise working with people experiencing burnout, and work-related stress. I welcome working with individuals from all backgrounds, races, cultures, and gender identities, and I love working with people from the LGBTQ+ community, activists, artists and change makers.
We all seek a sense of meaning and gratification in our personal and work lives, to be seen and appreciated as we are, and to feel well, alive and whole. I have over 25 years of experience working with adults and teens seeking relief from fear, anxiety, stress, anger, sadness, trauma and isolation & wanting more joy and a sense of wellbeing in their lives. I also have expertise working with people experiencing burnout, and work-related stress. I welcome working with individuals from all backgrounds, races, cultures, and gender identities, and I love working with people from the LGBTQ+ community, activists, artists and change makers.
(413) 216-4745 View (413) 216-4745
Photo of J Christopher Waisman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
J Christopher Waisman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
During our lives, we can find ourselves in painful, often repetitive situations without understanding why. I provide a safe, thoughtful space in order to help expand both your understanding of problems, and your potential for change. I believe that we all have the talents, strengths and skills necessary to make meaningful changes in our lives, and I employ extensive therapeutic experience, professional knowledge, empathic curiosity, and playfulness in the treatment of individuals ages 11 and older, couples, and families. I look forward to helping you identify and achieve your life goals.
During our lives, we can find ourselves in painful, often repetitive situations without understanding why. I provide a safe, thoughtful space in order to help expand both your understanding of problems, and your potential for change. I believe that we all have the talents, strengths and skills necessary to make meaningful changes in our lives, and I employ extensive therapeutic experience, professional knowledge, empathic curiosity, and playfulness in the treatment of individuals ages 11 and older, couples, and families. I look forward to helping you identify and achieve your life goals.
(413) 206-2157 View (413) 206-2157
Photo of Nicole Stevens, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Nicole Stevens
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Please note I am not accepting new clients. I work with adults who are going through difficult transitions in life (changed relationships, parenting, career moves, grief, postpartum depression and anxiety, menopause). I offer cognitive behavioral strategies, am solution focused, and provide a comfortable confidential space for my clients.
Please note I am not accepting new clients. I work with adults who are going through difficult transitions in life (changed relationships, parenting, career moves, grief, postpartum depression and anxiety, menopause). I offer cognitive behavioral strategies, am solution focused, and provide a comfortable confidential space for my clients.
(413) 285-3274 View (413) 285-3274
Photo of Thomas Harrigan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Thomas Harrigan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
As an experienced clinician I have developed deep respect and broad appreciation for the complexities of life and relationships, context and environment, mind, body and spirit. The primary focus of my work has been treating the social/behavioral and mental health consequences arising from persistent unresolved issues, trauma and life transitions for individuals, couples and families. I will carefully consider your needs and concerns within your unique personal context and collaborate with you on a pragmatic and sustainable plan for resolution and an improved sense of well-being.
As an experienced clinician I have developed deep respect and broad appreciation for the complexities of life and relationships, context and environment, mind, body and spirit. The primary focus of my work has been treating the social/behavioral and mental health consequences arising from persistent unresolved issues, trauma and life transitions for individuals, couples and families. I will carefully consider your needs and concerns within your unique personal context and collaborate with you on a pragmatic and sustainable plan for resolution and an improved sense of well-being.
(413) 216-4260 View (413) 216-4260
Photo of Jenifer Zajac, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Jenifer Zajac
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062
Feeling stuck in a broken relationship and wondering if the two of you can make it work is difficult to manage on your own. I use principles of PACT therapy, developed by Dr. Stan Tatkin, to help move your relationship towards secure functioning and to help you find solutions. However, maybe you have already separated and are finding it daunting to share the responsibilities of parenting your child in two completely different households. If you share children, it's likely going to require special skills to meet the child's best interests. I assist parents to rebuild communication in order to promote the child's well-being.
Feeling stuck in a broken relationship and wondering if the two of you can make it work is difficult to manage on your own. I use principles of PACT therapy, developed by Dr. Stan Tatkin, to help move your relationship towards secure functioning and to help you find solutions. However, maybe you have already separated and are finding it daunting to share the responsibilities of parenting your child in two completely different households. If you share children, it's likely going to require special skills to meet the child's best interests. I assist parents to rebuild communication in order to promote the child's well-being.
(413) 923-6154 View (413) 923-6154
Photo of Catherine French, Psychologist in Florence, MA
Catherine French
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Florence, MA 01062  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
In life it is easy to become stuck in pockets of emotional distress and fall into patterns of behavior that block growth. I provide an empathetic and nurturing space in which to discover strengths and overcome challenges. I meet clients where they are and create a solid connection. I help them to confront their fears, work through their blockages, and grow into their best selves, indirectly lessening their pain.
In life it is easy to become stuck in pockets of emotional distress and fall into patterns of behavior that block growth. I provide an empathetic and nurturing space in which to discover strengths and overcome challenges. I meet clients where they are and create a solid connection. I help them to confront their fears, work through their blockages, and grow into their best selves, indirectly lessening their pain.
(413) 251-1399 View (413) 251-1399
Photo of Leah Berkowitz-Gosselin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Florence, MA
Leah Berkowitz-Gosselin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Florence, MA 01062
Not accepting new clients
*No current openings at this time* NOTE: TELEHEALTH ONLY. Welcome! I have been in practice in diverse community settings for nearly 20 years, largely with survivors of abuse and intimate partner/domestic violence and with individuals who have experienced homicide death or other traumatic loss. I work frequently with young adults who have experienced abuse in childhood, struggling within relationships or in life transitions. Traumatic experiences can lead to feelings of hopelessness, depression, anxiety and complex physical symptoms.
*No current openings at this time* NOTE: TELEHEALTH ONLY. Welcome! I have been in practice in diverse community settings for nearly 20 years, largely with survivors of abuse and intimate partner/domestic violence and with individuals who have experienced homicide death or other traumatic loss. I work frequently with young adults who have experienced abuse in childhood, struggling within relationships or in life transitions. Traumatic experiences can lead to feelings of hopelessness, depression, anxiety and complex physical symptoms.
(413) 251-6807 View (413) 251-6807
Photo of Laura Seftel, Counselor in Florence, MA
Laura Seftel
Counselor, ATR-BC, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, MA 01062
As an experienced mental health counselor and art therapist, I offer the opportunity to understand and express yourself on both the verbal and non-verbal level. Integrating your personal imagery into supportive psychotherapy, we gently explore and resolve issues in creative and sometimes unexpected ways. This approach is effective in addressing life's challenges, including depression, anxiety, grief, trauma, life transitions, and creative blocks. Envision responding to challenges with more resilience, intention and clarity, and a greater connection to self.
As an experienced mental health counselor and art therapist, I offer the opportunity to understand and express yourself on both the verbal and non-verbal level. Integrating your personal imagery into supportive psychotherapy, we gently explore and resolve issues in creative and sometimes unexpected ways. This approach is effective in addressing life's challenges, including depression, anxiety, grief, trauma, life transitions, and creative blocks. Envision responding to challenges with more resilience, intention and clarity, and a greater connection to self.
(413) 423-4715 View (413) 423-4715

See more therapy options for Florence

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Florence, MA

30+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Florence, MA who prioritize treating:

91% Depression
89% Anxiety
83% Relationship Issues
83% Self Esteem
77% Grief
77% Trauma and PTSD
77% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

97% BlueCross and BlueShield
52% Health New England (HNE)
38% Optum

How Therapists in Florence, MA see their clients

72% In Person and Online
28% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
22% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Florence?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.