Counselling in SW2

Photo of Christian Murphy, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Christian Murphy
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
I like to offer a safe, calm and supportive space to people who are facing difficulty in their lives. Do you have a sense of feeling confused, stuck or disappointed in relationships? Perhaps you want to talk about a disturbing loss or new circumstances. You might be facing change as you take on an unfamiliar role or pursue a new goal. Some people come to see me suffering from a lack of meaning or enjoyment in their lives. I've worked with people who don’t yet know what the matter is – or who feel like everything has gone wrong.
I like to offer a safe, calm and supportive space to people who are facing difficulty in their lives. Do you have a sense of feeling confused, stuck or disappointed in relationships? Perhaps you want to talk about a disturbing loss or new circumstances. You might be facing change as you take on an unfamiliar role or pursue a new goal. Some people come to see me suffering from a lack of meaning or enjoyment in their lives. I've worked with people who don’t yet know what the matter is – or who feel like everything has gone wrong.
020 3984 9182 View 020 3984 9182
Photo of Kimberley Guest, Psychologist in SW2, England
Kimberley Guest
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
I am a clinical psychologist with over eight years of experience working in mental health services in the NHS and third sector. I have worked with people with severe anxiety disorders including OCD, social anxiety, BDD, and emetophobia. I have experience of working with individuals who struggle to maintain all kinds of relationships and who want to explore their patterns of relating. I have worked with mothers in the perinatal period, and parents who are working hard to support their children experiencing difficulties.
I am a clinical psychologist with over eight years of experience working in mental health services in the NHS and third sector. I have worked with people with severe anxiety disorders including OCD, social anxiety, BDD, and emetophobia. I have experience of working with individuals who struggle to maintain all kinds of relationships and who want to explore their patterns of relating. I have worked with mothers in the perinatal period, and parents who are working hard to support their children experiencing difficulties.
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Photo of Chris Relevitch, Counsellor in SW2, England
Chris Relevitch
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SW2  (Online Only)
If you want to confront something problematic in your life I am here to listen to and support you through whatever it may be. I have many years experience as a practising therapist and have worked with a variety of issues including relationships, self-discovery, shame, anger, regret, anxiety, depression, loss and bereavement and work stress amongst many others. I offer an open, caring space for you to take the time you need to achieve your goals.
If you want to confront something problematic in your life I am here to listen to and support you through whatever it may be. I have many years experience as a practising therapist and have worked with a variety of issues including relationships, self-discovery, shame, anger, regret, anxiety, depression, loss and bereavement and work stress amongst many others. I offer an open, caring space for you to take the time you need to achieve your goals.
020 3826 8969 View 020 3826 8969
Photo of Laura Starkie, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Laura Starkie
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
If you are feeling low, anxious or stuck and unable to change things yourself, or repeating difficult or destructive patterns of behaviour, working with and talking with someone not involved in your life can really help. If you are struggling to cope with how life is at the moment or with something from the past, then getting support from me is the first step to feeling supported and heard and looking at how we can work together to help you make changes in behaviour, relationships, communication and ways of thinking and processing what you are facing. Your emotional and mental well-being matters and you don't have to struggle alone.
If you are feeling low, anxious or stuck and unable to change things yourself, or repeating difficult or destructive patterns of behaviour, working with and talking with someone not involved in your life can really help. If you are struggling to cope with how life is at the moment or with something from the past, then getting support from me is the first step to feeling supported and heard and looking at how we can work together to help you make changes in behaviour, relationships, communication and ways of thinking and processing what you are facing. Your emotional and mental well-being matters and you don't have to struggle alone.
020 4524 3022 View 020 4524 3022
Photo of Sarah Hutton, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Sarah Hutton
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified
The relationship we have with ourselves and others is at the core of our every day. I hold a safe and empathetic space enabling us to explore and navigate those relationships together, where we can get to the root of challenges you may be facing, and difficult feelings can be accepted. This is a journey we will walk together at your own pace, where change, although often uncomfortable, can be embraced. I am experienced in working with clients with a range of needs, including those navigating anxiety, depression and grief; self-esteem and attachment issues; identity and relationship difficulties; childhood and adult abuse.
The relationship we have with ourselves and others is at the core of our every day. I hold a safe and empathetic space enabling us to explore and navigate those relationships together, where we can get to the root of challenges you may be facing, and difficult feelings can be accepted. This is a journey we will walk together at your own pace, where change, although often uncomfortable, can be embraced. I am experienced in working with clients with a range of needs, including those navigating anxiety, depression and grief; self-esteem and attachment issues; identity and relationship difficulties; childhood and adult abuse.
020 3974 2400 View 020 3974 2400
Body and Mind Centre
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
The Body & Mind Centre offer brief and open-ended weekly low-cost counselling for all. We are committed to offering everyone a safe, confidential space to speak to counsellors (trainees and qualified) who are experienced and able to support you in the way you need. Our counsellors work across a range of therapeutic approaches so will be able to work in a way that best suits your needs. Body and Mind Centre counsellors can help with issues including, but not limited to: Anxiety – Cultural Issues – Depression – Emotional Difficulties – Family Issues – Health Anxiety – Low Self-Esteem – Personality Disorders – Relationships
The Body & Mind Centre offer brief and open-ended weekly low-cost counselling for all. We are committed to offering everyone a safe, confidential space to speak to counsellors (trainees and qualified) who are experienced and able to support you in the way you need. Our counsellors work across a range of therapeutic approaches so will be able to work in a way that best suits your needs. Body and Mind Centre counsellors can help with issues including, but not limited to: Anxiety – Cultural Issues – Depression – Emotional Difficulties – Family Issues – Health Anxiety – Low Self-Esteem – Personality Disorders – Relationships
020 3835 2341 View 020 3835 2341
Photo of Christopher David Harris, Psychologist in SW2, England
Christopher David Harris
Psychologist, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
London SW2  (Online Only)
I have a friendly and down to earth approach, focused on developing a positive and trusting relationship with you. Our therapeutic relationship is paramount to working effectively and I strive to provide compassionate and holistic care.
I have a friendly and down to earth approach, focused on developing a positive and trusting relationship with you. Our therapeutic relationship is paramount to working effectively and I strive to provide compassionate and holistic care.
020 3376 8023 View 020 3376 8023
Photo of Paula A. Arriazu, Psychologist in SW2, England
Paula A. Arriazu
Psychologist, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
London SW2  (Online Only)
Hi there! I am a Trauma specialist working across the lifespan. I support people that have experiences of trauma, anxiety & low mood and/or that are facing challenges relating to self-esteem, sexuality, gender identity, oppression and prejudice. I offer an open and trusting space that is co-produced, trauma informed and psychosocially minded with the aim of supporting people to rebuild a sense of safety and empowerement that allows them to address and process the difficulties they are facing. Together, we will explore what might be the best use of the therapeutic space-to ensure that it is helpful and addressing need.
Hi there! I am a Trauma specialist working across the lifespan. I support people that have experiences of trauma, anxiety & low mood and/or that are facing challenges relating to self-esteem, sexuality, gender identity, oppression and prejudice. I offer an open and trusting space that is co-produced, trauma informed and psychosocially minded with the aim of supporting people to rebuild a sense of safety and empowerement that allows them to address and process the difficulties they are facing. Together, we will explore what might be the best use of the therapeutic space-to ensure that it is helpful and addressing need.
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Photo of Eleonora Beninato, Counsellor in SW2, England
Eleonora Beninato
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
I believe that every client is unique, so I like to tailor the sessions to you and your needs. I know how dauting it can be to trust and open up to a new person, therefore I offer a warm, confidential and safe space where you can unpack your thoughts and issues, encouraging you to gain a better understanding of your inner thoughts and concerns without the fear of being judged. Sometimes, but not always, we might look at the past and see how it has impacted and influenced your present. I believe that with the right support everyone has the ability to move towards the best version of themselves.
I believe that every client is unique, so I like to tailor the sessions to you and your needs. I know how dauting it can be to trust and open up to a new person, therefore I offer a warm, confidential and safe space where you can unpack your thoughts and issues, encouraging you to gain a better understanding of your inner thoughts and concerns without the fear of being judged. Sometimes, but not always, we might look at the past and see how it has impacted and influenced your present. I believe that with the right support everyone has the ability to move towards the best version of themselves.
020 3984 8861 View 020 3984 8861
Photo of Elisa Fontana, Counsellor in SW2, England
Elisa Elisa Fontana
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
As a person-centred therapist, you will find in me a space holder for your experience. The knowledge will come from both of us: your knowledge about your personal story and my knowledge about the human mind will meet in the safe therapeutic space, untangling what needs attention and care. Training in Psychology, Play Therapy, mindfulness and embodied practices, allows me to create space for different modalities: we might talk, or use images, stories, dreams and objects to access parts of us that aren’t so easily accessible to conscious thought.
As a person-centred therapist, you will find in me a space holder for your experience. The knowledge will come from both of us: your knowledge about your personal story and my knowledge about the human mind will meet in the safe therapeutic space, untangling what needs attention and care. Training in Psychology, Play Therapy, mindfulness and embodied practices, allows me to create space for different modalities: we might talk, or use images, stories, dreams and objects to access parts of us that aren’t so easily accessible to conscious thought.
020 4538 9109 View 020 4538 9109
Photo of Philippa Decker, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Philippa Decker
Psychotherapist, MHGI
Verified
You may find it difficult, sometimes impossible, to control feelings of panic, anger, unworthiness or despair. If everyday life sometimes overwhelms you, for whatever reason, whether it's a result of trauma, difficult life changes, or unhelpful ideas about who you are, change is possible and can be quicker than you would think! If you are looking to gain perspective, learn ways of coping, feel more in control and hopeful about your ability to cope, I can help.
You may find it difficult, sometimes impossible, to control feelings of panic, anger, unworthiness or despair. If everyday life sometimes overwhelms you, for whatever reason, whether it's a result of trauma, difficult life changes, or unhelpful ideas about who you are, change is possible and can be quicker than you would think! If you are looking to gain perspective, learn ways of coping, feel more in control and hopeful about your ability to cope, I can help.
020 3872 0667 View 020 3872 0667
Photo of Sarvin Afarinesh, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Sarvin Afarinesh
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified
I offer an exclusive service of 3 sessions where I use my experience, knowledge and intuition to accurately identify your areas of struggle, the root cause reasons for them and what specifically to practice to move forward in your journey of self discovery, healing and purpose. Much of what we go through is part of a few dominant themes that we are working with in our lives. I help you connect the dots. I have practiced for 10 years as an Integrative (Holistic) Psychotherapist, studied humans through Psychology for 19 years and currently practice my skill of Intuitive channeling. I combine creativity, education and intuition
I offer an exclusive service of 3 sessions where I use my experience, knowledge and intuition to accurately identify your areas of struggle, the root cause reasons for them and what specifically to practice to move forward in your journey of self discovery, healing and purpose. Much of what we go through is part of a few dominant themes that we are working with in our lives. I help you connect the dots. I have practiced for 10 years as an Integrative (Holistic) Psychotherapist, studied humans through Psychology for 19 years and currently practice my skill of Intuitive channeling. I combine creativity, education and intuition
07517 420946 View 07517 420946
Photo of Sue Sichel, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Sue Sichel
Psychotherapist, MA, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified
I am a fully qualified and experienced psychotherapist and supervisor. My approach is to offer empathetic understanding and non-judgemental listening in a safe space. Everyone is unique and therefore I draw on many different methods to suit each person's needs. My aim is to connect my client with their own inner resources through authenticity and self-empowerment. I offer an integrative arts approach, based on the needs of the client, drawing upon psychodynamic, attachment and trauma therapy to enhance the therapeutic process.
I am a fully qualified and experienced psychotherapist and supervisor. My approach is to offer empathetic understanding and non-judgemental listening in a safe space. Everyone is unique and therefore I draw on many different methods to suit each person's needs. My aim is to connect my client with their own inner resources through authenticity and self-empowerment. I offer an integrative arts approach, based on the needs of the client, drawing upon psychodynamic, attachment and trauma therapy to enhance the therapeutic process.
020 3828 7159 View 020 3828 7159
Photo of Margaret Prince, Counsellor in SW2, England
Margaret Prince
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
I provide a one-to-one, face-to-face counselling and personal development service. The setting is a safe, comfortable, quiet and confidential place where you can explore and gain a deeper understanding of the issues you bring to counselling. I will support you in finding a new way of of working that has prevented you from leading the life you desire. I provide a holistic serviice that is bespoke to your needs by using an integrative approach, drawing from psychodynamic, person-centred and humanistic theories of counselling.
I provide a one-to-one, face-to-face counselling and personal development service. The setting is a safe, comfortable, quiet and confidential place where you can explore and gain a deeper understanding of the issues you bring to counselling. I will support you in finding a new way of of working that has prevented you from leading the life you desire. I provide a holistic serviice that is bespoke to your needs by using an integrative approach, drawing from psychodynamic, person-centred and humanistic theories of counselling.
020 3984 7942 View 020 3984 7942
Photo of Joyce Ghiraw, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Joyce Ghiraw
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified
I provide a safe, empathic and insightful space for you to pause and be. Supporting you to voice your inner struggles and to work through them with effect. I work with a range of issues, including relationships, self-esteem, childhood trauma, existential dread and anxiety. It energises me to see clients become happier and healthier selves. Deeply rooted in their own potential. I am a Gestalt therapist, certified in ACT-CBT and a member of the UK Council of Psychotherapy. I am also working towards an advanced degree in Gestalt Psychotherapy. My work is also influenced by my passion for symbolism and Jungian analysis.
I provide a safe, empathic and insightful space for you to pause and be. Supporting you to voice your inner struggles and to work through them with effect. I work with a range of issues, including relationships, self-esteem, childhood trauma, existential dread and anxiety. It energises me to see clients become happier and healthier selves. Deeply rooted in their own potential. I am a Gestalt therapist, certified in ACT-CBT and a member of the UK Council of Psychotherapy. I am also working towards an advanced degree in Gestalt Psychotherapy. My work is also influenced by my passion for symbolism and Jungian analysis.
020 3872 2644 View 020 3872 2644
Photo of Janus Solutions: Day Programme in SW2, England
Janus Solutions: Day Programme
MSc
Verified
Janus is a company that specialises in drug and alcohol treatment that steers away from the language of addiction, sickness, illness, dependency and disease. Janus believes that this terminology can become disempowering, at times leaving the client feeling at a loss as to how to move forward. Janus uses it's own unique approach called: The Resonance Factor, that focuses on the relationship someone constructs with their substance/s of choice. Janus believes that in the same way someone can construct a relationship with substances - he or she can deconstruct that relationship. Our service is about creating change in the individual. It is designed for individuals that wish to stop using substances; wish to rebuild relationships; wish to re-engage with life - be it work, study and physical and emotional well-being. Janus will work with you to accomplish your goals, but you, the client, have to be at the forefront of your own treatment.
Janus is a company that specialises in drug and alcohol treatment that steers away from the language of addiction, sickness, illness, dependency and disease. Janus believes that this terminology can become disempowering, at times leaving the client feeling at a loss as to how to move forward. Janus uses it's own unique approach called: The Resonance Factor, that focuses on the relationship someone constructs with their substance/s of choice. Janus believes that in the same way someone can construct a relationship with substances - he or she can deconstruct that relationship. Our service is about creating change in the individual. It is designed for individuals that wish to stop using substances; wish to rebuild relationships; wish to re-engage with life - be it work, study and physical and emotional well-being. Janus will work with you to accomplish your goals, but you, the client, have to be at the forefront of your own treatment.
020 8629 1349 View 020 8629 1349
Elizabeth Hughes
Psychotherapist, PhD, MBACP Accred
Verified
I work with a commitment to social justice and human rights and I keep in mind the inequalities and power relations that constitute each person’s place in the world in disparate ways. I am feminist, queer-positive, trans and gender-affirming. I understand how pathologizing normative and reductive belief systems can be and how those with privilege (gendered, racialised, economic or otherwise) can abuse their power in subtle and manipulative ways. I also recognise the difficulties of waiting for treatment in the mental health care system – particularly to people with disabilities or otherwise marginalised and oppressed.
I work with a commitment to social justice and human rights and I keep in mind the inequalities and power relations that constitute each person’s place in the world in disparate ways. I am feminist, queer-positive, trans and gender-affirming. I understand how pathologizing normative and reductive belief systems can be and how those with privilege (gendered, racialised, economic or otherwise) can abuse their power in subtle and manipulative ways. I also recognise the difficulties of waiting for treatment in the mental health care system – particularly to people with disabilities or otherwise marginalised and oppressed.
020 3910 6793 View 020 3910 6793
Photo of Peter Connolly, Psychotherapist in SW2, England
Peter Connolly
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
We all experience times when our usual ways of being in the world no longer seem to work for us. We can feel stuck or overwhelmed. Counselling can help us see things with fresh perspectives, opening up new possibilities to live a more authentic life with more satisfying connections with ourselves and others. I believe that with the right support, we have an amazing capacity to find our own answers and to be the source of our own healing. I aim to offer a safe, welcoming and non-judgemental space for you to work through whatever it is that may be holding you back from living the life you really want to be living.
We all experience times when our usual ways of being in the world no longer seem to work for us. We can feel stuck or overwhelmed. Counselling can help us see things with fresh perspectives, opening up new possibilities to live a more authentic life with more satisfying connections with ourselves and others. I believe that with the right support, we have an amazing capacity to find our own answers and to be the source of our own healing. I aim to offer a safe, welcoming and non-judgemental space for you to work through whatever it is that may be holding you back from living the life you really want to be living.
020 4538 1778 View 020 4538 1778
Photo of Monika Anna Dec, Counsellor in SW2, England
Monika Anna Dec
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Do you feel overwhelmed, anxious, maybe depressed, frustrated or under pressure? Is the current pandemic time additionally affecting you? You may not understand why you’ve been feeling the way you feel. You might be lonely, misunderstood and unable to find any solace or solution to your difficulties. You probably know you would benefit from professional help and talking about and explore aspects of your live that may be causing you difficulty will be helpful. Whether you're going through a significant life change or are facing a challenging situation at work or personal life, therapy can help you to overcome those difficulties.
Do you feel overwhelmed, anxious, maybe depressed, frustrated or under pressure? Is the current pandemic time additionally affecting you? You may not understand why you’ve been feeling the way you feel. You might be lonely, misunderstood and unable to find any solace or solution to your difficulties. You probably know you would benefit from professional help and talking about and explore aspects of your live that may be causing you difficulty will be helpful. Whether you're going through a significant life change or are facing a challenging situation at work or personal life, therapy can help you to overcome those difficulties.
020 4538 1944 View 020 4538 1944
Photo of Michael Relevitch, Counsellor in SW2, England
Michael Relevitch
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
We can all feel stuck or overwhelmed by situations we find ourselves in and feel a need to talk. I provide a safe and confidential space where we can explore different perspectives on the challenges you are facing. I have experience working with clients of all ages in the areas of bereavement and loss, anxiety, depression, sexuality, self-esteem and many other issues.
We can all feel stuck or overwhelmed by situations we find ourselves in and feel a need to talk. I provide a safe and confidential space where we can explore different perspectives on the challenges you are facing. I have experience working with clients of all ages in the areas of bereavement and loss, anxiety, depression, sexuality, self-esteem and many other issues.
020 4538 3025 View 020 4538 3025

See more therapy options for SW2

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in SW2

100+

Average cost per session

£70

Counsellors in SW2 who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
89% Depression
87% Self Esteem
83% Relationship Issues
81% Stress
65% Coping Skills
64% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

69% AXA PPP
67% Aviva
56% Vitality

How Counsellors in SW2 see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

72% Female
28% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in SW2?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.