Counselling in London

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Photo of Dr Jennifer Black, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Jennifer Black
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London SE1  (Online Only)
Are you feeling anxious, overwhelmed or a bit lost? Perhaps you’ve recently had something difficult happen in your life, or maybe you’ve been struggling for a while now and have decided to seek support. Do you want a space to be listened to, understand what is going on and how to change things? I can offer my experience and expertise, drawing on the best evidence to support you and give you the tools & techniques you need to feel better. I can help you to get a better understanding of what is going on, what’s working for you and what isn’t and come up with an idea of how we can move things forward with a personalised therapy plan.
Are you feeling anxious, overwhelmed or a bit lost? Perhaps you’ve recently had something difficult happen in your life, or maybe you’ve been struggling for a while now and have decided to seek support. Do you want a space to be listened to, understand what is going on and how to change things? I can offer my experience and expertise, drawing on the best evidence to support you and give you the tools & techniques you need to feel better. I can help you to get a better understanding of what is going on, what’s working for you and what isn’t and come up with an idea of how we can move things forward with a personalised therapy plan.
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Photo of Marc Mason, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Marc Mason
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
London WC1V
Together we will work with whatever you bring to therapy. This may be an issue that is clear and well defined. You might want change in your relationship or in your work, or you may want support dealing with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem or shame, for example. But it might also be something much vaguer, it may be a general interest in exploring aspects of your life or way of relating to the world, or it might be a sense of confusion, stuckness, dissatisfaction or unfinished business.
Together we will work with whatever you bring to therapy. This may be an issue that is clear and well defined. You might want change in your relationship or in your work, or you may want support dealing with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem or shame, for example. But it might also be something much vaguer, it may be a general interest in exploring aspects of your life or way of relating to the world, or it might be a sense of confusion, stuckness, dissatisfaction or unfinished business.
020 4538 6090 View 020 4538 6090
Photo of Dr Sanjivan Parhar, PsychD, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Sanjivan Parhar
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London SW15
As a Counselling Psychologist, my training has allowed me to develop an integrative approach in my practice. I value the uniqueness of each individual and I have a strong focus on the therapeutic relationship. I believe in helping clients to access and process their difficult emotions. Together we will work towards meeting your emotional needs and resolving inter-relationtional dynamics. Through this, change is possible and resilience in mental health will be achieved.
As a Counselling Psychologist, my training has allowed me to develop an integrative approach in my practice. I value the uniqueness of each individual and I have a strong focus on the therapeutic relationship. I believe in helping clients to access and process their difficult emotions. Together we will work towards meeting your emotional needs and resolving inter-relationtional dynamics. Through this, change is possible and resilience in mental health will be achieved.
020 3835 3759 View 020 3835 3759
Photo of Charlotte Scholey, MA, UKCP Trainee, Psychotherapist
Charlotte Scholey
Psychotherapist, MA, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
London SE15
I believe the therapeutic journey is something that we create together. There is not a "one size that fits all" or one method that works for every person. It is important that the therapy is tailored and beneficial to you as an individual. It can be really challenging to even reach out or look for support, I offer a free consultation call with all enquiries, please feel free to drop me an email to organise yours.
I believe the therapeutic journey is something that we create together. There is not a "one size that fits all" or one method that works for every person. It is important that the therapy is tailored and beneficial to you as an individual. It can be really challenging to even reach out or look for support, I offer a free consultation call with all enquiries, please feel free to drop me an email to organise yours.
020 3818 1053 View 020 3818 1053
Photo of Jenny Noero, MSc, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Jenny Noero
Psychologist, MSc, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London W1U  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
As a Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Counselling Psychoogist, I specialise in couples therapy, EMDR and an integrative approach . If you are looking for an experienced therapist then I offer over 30 years of professional experience with 22 years in the NHS. I can help if you are a couple experiencing relationship breakdown, emotionally heightened interactions, or a particular problem impacting on your relationship. I provide EMDR to individuals with PTSD or longer term trauma, anxiety and loss. In addition, as a Clinical Neuropsychologist I can help with health or neurological conditions within the context of our therapy.
As a Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Counselling Psychoogist, I specialise in couples therapy, EMDR and an integrative approach . If you are looking for an experienced therapist then I offer over 30 years of professional experience with 22 years in the NHS. I can help if you are a couple experiencing relationship breakdown, emotionally heightened interactions, or a particular problem impacting on your relationship. I provide EMDR to individuals with PTSD or longer term trauma, anxiety and loss. In addition, as a Clinical Neuropsychologist I can help with health or neurological conditions within the context of our therapy.
020 3893 2758 View 020 3893 2758
Photo of Farah Chowdhury, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Farah Chowdhury
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
London W1H
I provide a space for you to be seen and heard. One where you can explore, be curious, learn more about yourself and importantly, a space for you to just be. Sometimes we all need a warm and safe space to connect with what’s going on, who we are and our hopes and dreams for the future. I hope we can do this together, in a way that feels right to you.
I provide a space for you to be seen and heard. One where you can explore, be curious, learn more about yourself and importantly, a space for you to just be. Sometimes we all need a warm and safe space to connect with what’s going on, who we are and our hopes and dreams for the future. I hope we can do this together, in a way that feels right to you.
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Photo of Sophie Elizabeth Haggard, DCounsPsych, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Sophie Elizabeth Haggard
Psychotherapist, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SW6
These are tough times for coupledom. The modern companionate model of marriage is based on the idea that each partner look to the other to supply all their needs, and this new type of partnership has to last longer than ever before. Not surprisingly, perhaps, many long-term relationships flounder under the weight of such high expectations and when this happens couples feel bitter and blame each-other.
These are tough times for coupledom. The modern companionate model of marriage is based on the idea that each partner look to the other to supply all their needs, and this new type of partnership has to last longer than ever before. Not surprisingly, perhaps, many long-term relationships flounder under the weight of such high expectations and when this happens couples feel bitter and blame each-other.
020 3917 1490 View 020 3917 1490
Photo of Debra Drukarz, MBACP, Counsellor
Debra Drukarz
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London N3
Life can sometimes seem overwhelming, presenting challenges resulting in us feeling isolated and alone, trying to handle difficult thoughts and feelings. I offer the opportunity to be professionally supported, in a safe non-judgemental space, in which we together can think, make sense of your feelings and gain better understanding. This therapeutic relationship, one where you are really listened to and heard, will provide you with support and relief. Help you develop greater self-awareness, improving your coping strategies and gaining a sense of calm and wellbeing, resulting in lasting positive change.
Life can sometimes seem overwhelming, presenting challenges resulting in us feeling isolated and alone, trying to handle difficult thoughts and feelings. I offer the opportunity to be professionally supported, in a safe non-judgemental space, in which we together can think, make sense of your feelings and gain better understanding. This therapeutic relationship, one where you are really listened to and heard, will provide you with support and relief. Help you develop greater self-awareness, improving your coping strategies and gaining a sense of calm and wellbeing, resulting in lasting positive change.
020 3856 3970 View 020 3856 3970
Photo of Claire Ratcliffe - Claire Ratcliffe Psychotherapy & Couples Therapy, MSc, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Claire Ratcliffe Psychotherapy & Couples Therapy
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London E1
There are many reasons why people choose to come to therapy.  For some, it can be a sense of discomfort, an internal struggle, or perhaps an external trigger has pushed you towards seeking support. Therapy can be an empowering process, supporting you to reconnect with yourself, to notice and take care of your needs, bringing you self awareness, healing & a deeper sense of security. I work to provide clients with a safe & attuned therapeutic experience. This gives you the space to look at old patterns of behaviour that are no longer serving you, supporting you to make healthier changes, moving you forward into a place of authenticity
There are many reasons why people choose to come to therapy.  For some, it can be a sense of discomfort, an internal struggle, or perhaps an external trigger has pushed you towards seeking support. Therapy can be an empowering process, supporting you to reconnect with yourself, to notice and take care of your needs, bringing you self awareness, healing & a deeper sense of security. I work to provide clients with a safe & attuned therapeutic experience. This gives you the space to look at old patterns of behaviour that are no longer serving you, supporting you to make healthier changes, moving you forward into a place of authenticity
0161 524 6615 View 0161 524 6615
Photo of Dr Tanya McDonnaugh, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Tanya McDonnaugh
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London W4
My name is Dr Tanya McDonnaugh and I am an HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist (DClinPsy). Being human can be a wonderful experience, full of joy and connection, but it can also be overwhelming, bewildering, and exhausting. I am experienced at assessing, and treating most psychological, emotional, behavioural and relationship difficulties, big and small. You might be struggling with a specific problem like anxiety or low mood, or maybe you just have a sense that you aren't functioning at your best. Perhaps you have noticed difficulties in relationships, with your self-esteem, or in your ability to manage your emotions.
My name is Dr Tanya McDonnaugh and I am an HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist (DClinPsy). Being human can be a wonderful experience, full of joy and connection, but it can also be overwhelming, bewildering, and exhausting. I am experienced at assessing, and treating most psychological, emotional, behavioural and relationship difficulties, big and small. You might be struggling with a specific problem like anxiety or low mood, or maybe you just have a sense that you aren't functioning at your best. Perhaps you have noticed difficulties in relationships, with your self-esteem, or in your ability to manage your emotions.
07498 205173 View 07498 205173
Photo of Meg Gabbitas, BACP, Counsellor
Meg Gabbitas
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
London SE18
Are you struggling with feeling anxious or low? Do you need someone to talk to in a safe and confidential space? I am a compassionate and friendly counsellor who believes that everyone deserves to feel heard and understood. Together, we can work to identify the root cause of your issues and find a way forward. During sessions you will feel listened to and empowered to make the positive changes that you want. I have worked with clients from a variety of backgrounds, and I understand how identity and culture can shape us. During sessions I'll combine techniques and approaches to work in a way which suits your individual needs.
Are you struggling with feeling anxious or low? Do you need someone to talk to in a safe and confidential space? I am a compassionate and friendly counsellor who believes that everyone deserves to feel heard and understood. Together, we can work to identify the root cause of your issues and find a way forward. During sessions you will feel listened to and empowered to make the positive changes that you want. I have worked with clients from a variety of backgrounds, and I understand how identity and culture can shape us. During sessions I'll combine techniques and approaches to work in a way which suits your individual needs.
020 3831 3853 View 020 3831 3853
Photo of Charlene Blake, MBACP, Counsellor
Charlene Blake
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE26
Not accepting new clients
Have you been feeling overwhelmed lately? Whether you are exhausted with your anxiety, feeling sad or you are experiencing relationship difficulties, counselling can help you process your thoughts and emotions and provide you with the chance to be truly heard. As a therapeutic counsellor I can support you by providing you with a safe confidential, non judgemental environment where we can work together and explore your inner thoughts and feelings. As I am a firm believer of "no one approach fits all" you can decide whether you want to focus on your present or venture into your past experiences for patterns and connections.
Have you been feeling overwhelmed lately? Whether you are exhausted with your anxiety, feeling sad or you are experiencing relationship difficulties, counselling can help you process your thoughts and emotions and provide you with the chance to be truly heard. As a therapeutic counsellor I can support you by providing you with a safe confidential, non judgemental environment where we can work together and explore your inner thoughts and feelings. As I am a firm believer of "no one approach fits all" you can decide whether you want to focus on your present or venture into your past experiences for patterns and connections.
07446 210734 View 07446 210734
Photo of Roy Graff, PNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Roy Graff
Counsellor, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
London SE1
I offer therapy following the Psychosynthesis modality, as a qualified counselor accredited by NCPS. My practice is informed by lived experience; a great deal of self-experimentation and exploration; a range of educational courses in radical honesty, non-violent communication and wheel of consent; and 7+ years of running workshops and facilitating groups. I have had a varied career in business development and marketing for 20+ years, living on different continents and collecting many life experiences. I have lived in Europe, the Middle East, North America and Asia.
I offer therapy following the Psychosynthesis modality, as a qualified counselor accredited by NCPS. My practice is informed by lived experience; a great deal of self-experimentation and exploration; a range of educational courses in radical honesty, non-violent communication and wheel of consent; and 7+ years of running workshops and facilitating groups. I have had a varied career in business development and marketing for 20+ years, living on different continents and collecting many life experiences. I have lived in Europe, the Middle East, North America and Asia.
020 4538 8658 View 020 4538 8658
Photo of Jonathan Richardson, MBACP, Counsellor
Jonathan Richardson
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
London N15
I know that it takes courage to reach out and find someone to talk to, It's normal to feel uncertain or anxious, the prospect of seeking change can be as difficult and frustrating as the situation you might be in now, be that a period of depression, an experience of anxiety, a creative block, or a personal crisis. I'm Jonathan, a transpersonal counsellor working online and in my consulting room in N15. While I take my work very seriously, I am not the stoic, Freudian type. I counsel using proven, effective methods to provide a gentle, safe, and fun approach to therapy.
I know that it takes courage to reach out and find someone to talk to, It's normal to feel uncertain or anxious, the prospect of seeking change can be as difficult and frustrating as the situation you might be in now, be that a period of depression, an experience of anxiety, a creative block, or a personal crisis. I'm Jonathan, a transpersonal counsellor working online and in my consulting room in N15. While I take my work very seriously, I am not the stoic, Freudian type. I counsel using proven, effective methods to provide a gentle, safe, and fun approach to therapy.
020 3987 4533 View 020 3987 4533
Photo of George Gardner, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
George Gardner
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London E2  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Hi and welcome. If starting or restarting therapy is something you have been thinking about doing for some time, congratulations on taking this step. You may be feeling low, distressed or anxious. Perhaps sleep or daily tasks are more difficult than they used to be. Maybe you're finding less fulfilment in things that used to bring you joy (or stopped doing them altogether) You could be unsure about what you want from life. Or you might be struggling to process something difficult that happened to you or someone you care about. Maybe you've lost a job, a relationship, a loved one. Whatever you are dealing with, therapy can help.
Hi and welcome. If starting or restarting therapy is something you have been thinking about doing for some time, congratulations on taking this step. You may be feeling low, distressed or anxious. Perhaps sleep or daily tasks are more difficult than they used to be. Maybe you're finding less fulfilment in things that used to bring you joy (or stopped doing them altogether) You could be unsure about what you want from life. Or you might be struggling to process something difficult that happened to you or someone you care about. Maybe you've lost a job, a relationship, a loved one. Whatever you are dealing with, therapy can help.
0191 743 0315 View 0191 743 0315
Photo of Anna Hovris - Therapy Central, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Therapy Central
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
London W1W
Anna is a passionate, creative and experienced Counselling Psychologist, who supports people with a variety of mental health, emotional and behavioural difficulties, those who experience loss of meaning in their lives, or who are seeking a greater sense of fulfilment. Anna works with a Team of qualified psychologists who have been a true inspiration to her.
Anna is a passionate, creative and experienced Counselling Psychologist, who supports people with a variety of mental health, emotional and behavioural difficulties, those who experience loss of meaning in their lives, or who are seeking a greater sense of fulfilment. Anna works with a Team of qualified psychologists who have been a true inspiration to her.
01702 904200 View 01702 904200
Photo of Daisy Williams, MBACP, Counsellor
Daisy Williams
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London N8
I am an experienced qualified therapist and a registered member of the BACP (British Association of Counsellors and Psychotherapists), who can support you at a time when you feel overwhelmed, upset or anxious.
I am an experienced qualified therapist and a registered member of the BACP (British Association of Counsellors and Psychotherapists), who can support you at a time when you feel overwhelmed, upset or anxious.
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Photo of Gavriel Rubin, MA
Gavriel Rubin
MA
Verified Verified
London NW11
As an HCPC registered Music Therapist with experience working in the NHS, I use music to aid individuals facing mental health challenges in reconnecting with themselves, overcoming obstacles, and discovering inner wisdom and self-love. Music Therapy, an evidence-based practice, enhances emotional, mental, and physical well-being through tailored therapeutic interventions. Focusing on the 'therapy' aspect of 'music therapy', we utilise music to foster a strong client-therapist relationship. Within a confidential and non-judgmental space, we explore concerns, relationships, challenges, and successes creatively and safely.
As an HCPC registered Music Therapist with experience working in the NHS, I use music to aid individuals facing mental health challenges in reconnecting with themselves, overcoming obstacles, and discovering inner wisdom and self-love. Music Therapy, an evidence-based practice, enhances emotional, mental, and physical well-being through tailored therapeutic interventions. Focusing on the 'therapy' aspect of 'music therapy', we utilise music to foster a strong client-therapist relationship. Within a confidential and non-judgmental space, we explore concerns, relationships, challenges, and successes creatively and safely.
020 3948 9786 View 020 3948 9786
Photo of Geeta Gajwani, MSc, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Geeta Gajwani
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
London W1W  (Online Only)
​Sometimes life can hurl difficulties our way and leaving us feeling conflicted, confused and depleted and at other times our thoughts and feelings may seem out of balance to the event that triggered them or do not seem to begin from anything specific at all. I work with you in a confidential space, where you can speak freely about what is troubling you, providing you with support and security, such that you no longer have to struggle on by yourself. My areas of expertise lie in treating anxiety, depression, traumata, loss and fertility concerns.
​Sometimes life can hurl difficulties our way and leaving us feeling conflicted, confused and depleted and at other times our thoughts and feelings may seem out of balance to the event that triggered them or do not seem to begin from anything specific at all. I work with you in a confidential space, where you can speak freely about what is troubling you, providing you with support and security, such that you no longer have to struggle on by yourself. My areas of expertise lie in treating anxiety, depression, traumata, loss and fertility concerns.
020 3962 0933 View 020 3962 0933
Photo of Salma Khanom, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Salma Khanom
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
London E14
" Knowing your own darkness is the best method for dealing with the darknesses of other people." C Jung - Life events, experiences and relationships can have an impact on how we feel within ourselves making it difficult to cope day to day. Therapy can help us understand these experiences, helping one gain insight and perspective. Gaining understanding can be powerful and prompt change. I work with my client to identify issues within their life that may contribute to distress or problems.
" Knowing your own darkness is the best method for dealing with the darknesses of other people." C Jung - Life events, experiences and relationships can have an impact on how we feel within ourselves making it difficult to cope day to day. Therapy can help us understand these experiences, helping one gain insight and perspective. Gaining understanding can be powerful and prompt change. I work with my client to identify issues within their life that may contribute to distress or problems.
020 3984 8379 View 020 3984 8379
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See more therapy options for London

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in London

3,000+

Average cost per session

£75

Counsellors in London who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
79% Stress
66% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Aviva
64% AXA PPP
57% Vitality

How Counsellors in London see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
24% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in London?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.