Counselling in London

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Photo of Nicole Castellani, Psychotherapist in London, England
Nicole Castellani
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
London NW6
I am a counsellor and psychotherapist with over twenty years experience. I work integratively, which means I have the benefit of drawing on a range of tools according to the needs of my clients, including aspects from the psychodynamic, creative arts and transpersonal approaches. I work holistically, taking into account all the dimensions that makes us human. Stress and pain can cause us to shut down some of these parts, causing anxiety , depression and other symptoms. My work is about how we begin to understand and heal from this in order to reach our full potential.
I am a counsellor and psychotherapist with over twenty years experience. I work integratively, which means I have the benefit of drawing on a range of tools according to the needs of my clients, including aspects from the psychodynamic, creative arts and transpersonal approaches. I work holistically, taking into account all the dimensions that makes us human. Stress and pain can cause us to shut down some of these parts, causing anxiety , depression and other symptoms. My work is about how we begin to understand and heal from this in order to reach our full potential.
020 3917 4538 View 020 3917 4538
Photo of Tennur Katgi, Trauma and Anxiety Specialist, Psychotherapist in London, England
Tennur Katgi, Trauma and Anxiety Specialist
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified
London EC1R
I specialize in working with PTSD, complex PTSD and anxiety, and also individuals who had a difficult childhood or coming from dysfunctional families, now struggling with anxiety, relationship difficulties and eating problems. If you find yourself here, it's likely because life has been difficult. Perhaps you struggle to see a path toward improvement. You deserve to experience improvement and relief. Whether you've faced adversity since childhood or have been grappling with mental health issues for some time, whether you're new to therapy or seeking a more sustainable solution, I'm here to support you on your journey toward recovery
I specialize in working with PTSD, complex PTSD and anxiety, and also individuals who had a difficult childhood or coming from dysfunctional families, now struggling with anxiety, relationship difficulties and eating problems. If you find yourself here, it's likely because life has been difficult. Perhaps you struggle to see a path toward improvement. You deserve to experience improvement and relief. Whether you've faced adversity since childhood or have been grappling with mental health issues for some time, whether you're new to therapy or seeking a more sustainable solution, I'm here to support you on your journey toward recovery
020 8103 3872 View 020 8103 3872
Photo of Lorna French, Psychologist in London, England
Lorna French
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
1 Endorsed
London SE19
Many people come to therapy feeling low, anxious or lost, and I offer a space to explore those experiences and identify opportunities for doing things differently. I welcome people from all backgrounds and experiences, and usually start by working with you to understand who you are and what is important to you. I draw on a range of approaches (e.g. narrative therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, and compassion focused approaches), with a particular focus on values and identity. I am experienced in supporting adults of all ages with a range of issues, such as low mood, stress, anxiety and shame.
Many people come to therapy feeling low, anxious or lost, and I offer a space to explore those experiences and identify opportunities for doing things differently. I welcome people from all backgrounds and experiences, and usually start by working with you to understand who you are and what is important to you. I draw on a range of approaches (e.g. narrative therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, and compassion focused approaches), with a particular focus on values and identity. I am experienced in supporting adults of all ages with a range of issues, such as low mood, stress, anxiety and shame.
020 3835 4653 View 020 3835 4653
Photo of Annmarie Jean Moseley, Counsellor in London, England
Annmarie Jean Moseley
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London E4
You may be feeling uncertain about relationships with others or about how to cope with life events or a bereavement. You may be fearful about the future in today's uncertain world. Stress, depression and anxiety are commonly experienced when facing family conflict, work/life balance issues, loss of a job, illness or disability. It may feel impossible to manage these new or difficult issues and to find a way forward. I will always listen and support you with whatever you are going through. I am a registered and accredited counsellor. Please visit my website: www.annmariemoseleycounselling.com
You may be feeling uncertain about relationships with others or about how to cope with life events or a bereavement. You may be fearful about the future in today's uncertain world. Stress, depression and anxiety are commonly experienced when facing family conflict, work/life balance issues, loss of a job, illness or disability. It may feel impossible to manage these new or difficult issues and to find a way forward. I will always listen and support you with whatever you are going through. I am a registered and accredited counsellor. Please visit my website: www.annmariemoseleycounselling.com
020 4538 8028 View 020 4538 8028
Photo of Brigitte Haston, Psychotherapist in London, England
Brigitte Haston
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified
London SW6
Perhaps you are experiencing anxiety or depression, or you may have gone through a life event that has set you adrift. You may be in pain or you may be curious to look deeper within yourself and work out the jigsaw that is “you”. I believe that loss is central to many of our issues. It can be loss in the most extreme way through bereavement but it may also be loss in a more general way : the loss of our identity or purpose. I help my clients to adjust to change - indeed to see change as inevitable and to embrace the growth opportunities it presents.
Perhaps you are experiencing anxiety or depression, or you may have gone through a life event that has set you adrift. You may be in pain or you may be curious to look deeper within yourself and work out the jigsaw that is “you”. I believe that loss is central to many of our issues. It can be loss in the most extreme way through bereavement but it may also be loss in a more general way : the loss of our identity or purpose. I help my clients to adjust to change - indeed to see change as inevitable and to embrace the growth opportunities it presents.
01748 902502 View 01748 902502
Photo of Stefanie Moh, Counsellor in London, England
Stefanie Moh
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SE1  (Online Only)
I am an Integrative Counsellor, which means I may choose an approach from several different modalities depending on each client's needs. I provide a safe, confidential space where you can explore and give voice to your thoughts, experiences, and emotions without judgement. I am committed to helping clients to grow in self-awareness and to develop healthy and effective coping strategies to help to successfully navigate life's challenges. I offer both short-term and long-term counselling.
I am an Integrative Counsellor, which means I may choose an approach from several different modalities depending on each client's needs. I provide a safe, confidential space where you can explore and give voice to your thoughts, experiences, and emotions without judgement. I am committed to helping clients to grow in self-awareness and to develop healthy and effective coping strategies to help to successfully navigate life's challenges. I offer both short-term and long-term counselling.
020 3817 7969 View 020 3817 7969
Photo of Zaneta Masionis, Counsellor in London, England
Zaneta Masionis
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London N16
My main aim as a therapist is to provide a safe and non-judgemental environment in which you as a client feel safe to explore and build trust. I offer a welcoming, confidential space for you to talk and explore any problems or challenges in your life that may be causing you to experience psychological and emotional pain in a safe setting at a pace that works for you. It doesn’t matter how problematic your life is or what form, or size the problems or challenges in your life take, if they are causing you to be unhappy then I can help you.
My main aim as a therapist is to provide a safe and non-judgemental environment in which you as a client feel safe to explore and build trust. I offer a welcoming, confidential space for you to talk and explore any problems or challenges in your life that may be causing you to experience psychological and emotional pain in a safe setting at a pace that works for you. It doesn’t matter how problematic your life is or what form, or size the problems or challenges in your life take, if they are causing you to be unhappy then I can help you.
020 3984 9708 View 020 3984 9708
Photo of Gillian Wright, Psychologist in London, England
Gillian Wright
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
London EC2R
With substantial experience working in NHS mental health services since 2005, my contributions span both children's and adult services, providing me with valuable experience in collaborating with individuals, families, and interdisciplinary teams. I offer support for various mental health challenges, such as low self-esteem/confidence, depression, stress, and anxiety, including phobias, generalised anxiety, and panic disorders. I have specialist experience in working with people with physical health difficulties, anxiety presentations and working with neurodiveristy.
With substantial experience working in NHS mental health services since 2005, my contributions span both children's and adult services, providing me with valuable experience in collaborating with individuals, families, and interdisciplinary teams. I offer support for various mental health challenges, such as low self-esteem/confidence, depression, stress, and anxiety, including phobias, generalised anxiety, and panic disorders. I have specialist experience in working with people with physical health difficulties, anxiety presentations and working with neurodiveristy.
020 3835 4218 View 020 3835 4218
Photo of Maiya Thacker, Counsellor in London, England
Maiya Thacker
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SW9
I am understanding of different cultures, beliefs, and values. I feel race and sexuality in therapy is something that is important. I have studied and developed my tools in working with clients from the Global Majority and LGBTQ+ communities. I have over 5 years experience of working with drugs and alcohol in a unique yet successful approach.
I am understanding of different cultures, beliefs, and values. I feel race and sexuality in therapy is something that is important. I have studied and developed my tools in working with clients from the Global Majority and LGBTQ+ communities. I have over 5 years experience of working with drugs and alcohol in a unique yet successful approach.
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Photo of Obehi Alofoje, Psychologist in London, England
Obehi Alofoje
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified
London W1G  (Online Only)
I work with mostly high-achieving millennial professionals, managers & entrepreneurs who feel overwhelmed and exhausted with juggling work/business with their personal lives. This overwhelm is currently causing a feeling of ineffectiveness and a lack of accomplishment or progress in their career and/or business. They have noticed increased procrastination and less productivity in their business or work. This is beginning to affect their bottom-line - with missed deadlines, or unfinished tasks list. It’s also affecting their sleep, mood, and social life. They are increasingly approaching professional ‘burnout’ (chronic fatigue, anxiety, forgetfulness, overwhelm, and indecisiveness). They want practical solutions and techniques that are easy to implement within their current schedule without having to change their work or business lives dramatically. They want a work/life balance that allow them to still lead productive and meaningful impactful live. They value their mental health and need to get better at protecting it. They know that this is directly linked to their ability to perform at their very best, to produce better results in their career and business.
I work with mostly high-achieving millennial professionals, managers & entrepreneurs who feel overwhelmed and exhausted with juggling work/business with their personal lives. This overwhelm is currently causing a feeling of ineffectiveness and a lack of accomplishment or progress in their career and/or business. They have noticed increased procrastination and less productivity in their business or work. This is beginning to affect their bottom-line - with missed deadlines, or unfinished tasks list. It’s also affecting their sleep, mood, and social life. They are increasingly approaching professional ‘burnout’ (chronic fatigue, anxiety, forgetfulness, overwhelm, and indecisiveness). They want practical solutions and techniques that are easy to implement within their current schedule without having to change their work or business lives dramatically. They want a work/life balance that allow them to still lead productive and meaningful impactful live. They value their mental health and need to get better at protecting it. They know that this is directly linked to their ability to perform at their very best, to produce better results in their career and business.
020 3816 3687 View 020 3816 3687
Photo of Chiara Apicella, Psychotherapist in London, England
Chiara Apicella
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified
London EC1R
I am a UKCP accredited Relational Transactional Analysis Psychotherapist. My approach is relational, which is an efficacious and powerful model of working with individuals who struggle with psychological, emotional and relational distress. Relationships are at the very heart of what it is to be human and a specific pattern of relating might be the roots of psychological distress. In the first sessions, we can explore what are your difficulties and together according to your needs we can create a specific treatment plan.
I am a UKCP accredited Relational Transactional Analysis Psychotherapist. My approach is relational, which is an efficacious and powerful model of working with individuals who struggle with psychological, emotional and relational distress. Relationships are at the very heart of what it is to be human and a specific pattern of relating might be the roots of psychological distress. In the first sessions, we can explore what are your difficulties and together according to your needs we can create a specific treatment plan.
020 3984 7861 View 020 3984 7861
Photo of Mimi Leese, Psychotherapist in London, England
Mimi Leese
Psychotherapist, MHGI
Verified
London SW11  (Online Only)
For reasons you may or may not be aware of, you or someone you know may be experiencing feelings of stress, low-mood, anger, anxiety, sadness to name a few. Small or big, such emotions can be painful and burdensome. Within a few sessions I can help you feel better + support you through life’s inevitable challenges, leading to lasting change. Provided with a compassionate + confidential space to talk, a better understanding of our emotions and a tool kit that is forever yours to employ, clients often describe feeling a sense of ‘robust resilience', ‘personal growth’ and restored ‘pleasure in life’ following therapy.
For reasons you may or may not be aware of, you or someone you know may be experiencing feelings of stress, low-mood, anger, anxiety, sadness to name a few. Small or big, such emotions can be painful and burdensome. Within a few sessions I can help you feel better + support you through life’s inevitable challenges, leading to lasting change. Provided with a compassionate + confidential space to talk, a better understanding of our emotions and a tool kit that is forever yours to employ, clients often describe feeling a sense of ‘robust resilience', ‘personal growth’ and restored ‘pleasure in life’ following therapy.
07969 764510 View 07969 764510
Photo of Kirstie Ashdown, Psychotherapist in London, England
Kirstie Ashdown
Psychotherapist, BPC
Verified
London W1W
I am an experienced psychodynamic psychotherapist and counsellor. I offer a confidential and safe space where we can think about what is troubling you in a non-judgemental setting. People come to therapy for all sorts of reasons. Life can throw upsetting things at us and sometimes we find ourselves affected by events more than we expect. Psychodynamic therapy provides an opportunity to discover the unconscious processes that drive our responses and behaviours. Once these processes are acknowledged, we have the choice of changing how we react. This can help us to feel better about ourselves and live a more fulfilling life.
I am an experienced psychodynamic psychotherapist and counsellor. I offer a confidential and safe space where we can think about what is troubling you in a non-judgemental setting. People come to therapy for all sorts of reasons. Life can throw upsetting things at us and sometimes we find ourselves affected by events more than we expect. Psychodynamic therapy provides an opportunity to discover the unconscious processes that drive our responses and behaviours. Once these processes are acknowledged, we have the choice of changing how we react. This can help us to feel better about ourselves and live a more fulfilling life.
020 3962 0162 View 020 3962 0162
Photo of DMD COUNSELLING SERVICE, Counsellor in London, England
DMD COUNSELLING SERVICE
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SE25  (Online Only)
Sometimes life gets tough and we can feel we are not coping, this is when we really need someone to hear us. Things that have happened to us in the past can be holding us back in our everyday life now, leaving us with a feeling of being stuck. Exploring those events and your feelings surrounding them can help you move forwards. Clinical Supervision. I aim to create a safe and comfortable space for supervision where you feel able to reflectively explore your work with clients as well as any personal difficulties that may affect this.
Sometimes life gets tough and we can feel we are not coping, this is when we really need someone to hear us. Things that have happened to us in the past can be holding us back in our everyday life now, leaving us with a feeling of being stuck. Exploring those events and your feelings surrounding them can help you move forwards. Clinical Supervision. I aim to create a safe and comfortable space for supervision where you feel able to reflectively explore your work with clients as well as any personal difficulties that may affect this.
020 3376 6121 View 020 3376 6121
Photo of Cordy Griffiths, Counsellor in London, England
Cordy Griffiths
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London NW5
Sometimes life throws up challenges that are too hard to cope with alone and therapy provides a safe and confidential place to work through those challenges. Whether you're experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship problems or recurrent issues from your past, working with a trained therapist can help. There is no set formula for therapy but by talking through your problems in a non-judgemental space, you can gain more clarity on how you're feeling and why. With this new self-knowledge and insight, we can identify new ways of being that are more helpful to you now.
Sometimes life throws up challenges that are too hard to cope with alone and therapy provides a safe and confidential place to work through those challenges. Whether you're experiencing anxiety, depression, relationship problems or recurrent issues from your past, working with a trained therapist can help. There is no set formula for therapy but by talking through your problems in a non-judgemental space, you can gain more clarity on how you're feeling and why. With this new self-knowledge and insight, we can identify new ways of being that are more helpful to you now.
020 3910 1892 View 020 3910 1892
Photo of Milo Brandon - Anxiety Hypnosis, Psychotherapist in London, England
Milo Brandon - Anxiety Hypnosis
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified
London WC1H
Are anxiety and stress holding you back? Do you want to find out and get rid of the root cause of unwanted thoughts, emotions and behaviour. If the answer is yes, then hypnotherapy will enable you to achieve a deliberate, meditative state to manage anxiety, PTSD, worry, pain or stress-related health conditions, as well as helping you overcome unwelcome habits, low self-confidence and negative thinking. Are you solution-focused and capable of engaging your mind creatively? Do you now want to overcome what is holding you back in your mind, body, relationships and professional life. If the answer is yes, then hypnotherapy can help you.
Are anxiety and stress holding you back? Do you want to find out and get rid of the root cause of unwanted thoughts, emotions and behaviour. If the answer is yes, then hypnotherapy will enable you to achieve a deliberate, meditative state to manage anxiety, PTSD, worry, pain or stress-related health conditions, as well as helping you overcome unwelcome habits, low self-confidence and negative thinking. Are you solution-focused and capable of engaging your mind creatively? Do you now want to overcome what is holding you back in your mind, body, relationships and professional life. If the answer is yes, then hypnotherapy can help you.
020 8138 8872 View 020 8138 8872
Photo of William Conant, Counsellor in London, England
William Conant
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
London SW12
I have a wide variety of experience working with both individuals and couples in the private, charitable and NHS sectors. Helping to create an atmosphere that best enables clients to bring their issues into the counselling room and then assisting them in understanding and working through the issues in order to resolve them.
I have a wide variety of experience working with both individuals and couples in the private, charitable and NHS sectors. Helping to create an atmosphere that best enables clients to bring their issues into the counselling room and then assisting them in understanding and working through the issues in order to resolve them.
020 8138 8693 View 020 8138 8693
Photo of Sebastian Heid, Counsellor in London, England
Sebastian Heid
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
London E8
I work with adult individuals and couples from many different backgrounds They can be in the grip of depression or battling with anxiety attacks or the after effects of traumatic experiences. Often though they come to counselling because they can't shake this nagging feeling that something is going wrong in their life and they can't even put the finger on what exactly that is, but they worry that they are missing something and don't really live their lives to their full potential.
I work with adult individuals and couples from many different backgrounds They can be in the grip of depression or battling with anxiety attacks or the after effects of traumatic experiences. Often though they come to counselling because they can't shake this nagging feeling that something is going wrong in their life and they can't even put the finger on what exactly that is, but they worry that they are missing something and don't really live their lives to their full potential.
01926 569962 View 01926 569962
Photo of Dr Charlotte Priestley, Psychologist in London, England
Dr Charlotte Priestley
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified
London W1H
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist, with extensive experience supporting clients with a broad range of mental health difficulties both within the NHS and in the private sector. I specialise in the treatment of eating disorders, appearance-related concerns and body image problems (including Body Dysmorphic Disorder BDD).
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist, with extensive experience supporting clients with a broad range of mental health difficulties both within the NHS and in the private sector. I specialise in the treatment of eating disorders, appearance-related concerns and body image problems (including Body Dysmorphic Disorder BDD).
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Christine Warwicker
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified
London SE20
Thanks for stopping by. I am a mixed race therapist with over a decade of experience of working with individuals and couples. Many people struggles with relationship with the most important one being the relationship we have with ourselves. Sometimes we need some help to try and make sense of this complicated world we live in. I may be able to help by, for example, providing a calm space, reflecting back your world view or challenging some of the beliefs you may hold. I do this in a compassionate and nonjudgmental way.
Thanks for stopping by. I am a mixed race therapist with over a decade of experience of working with individuals and couples. Many people struggles with relationship with the most important one being the relationship we have with ourselves. Sometimes we need some help to try and make sense of this complicated world we live in. I may be able to help by, for example, providing a calm space, reflecting back your world view or challenging some of the beliefs you may hold. I do this in a compassionate and nonjudgmental way.
020 4538 3514 View 020 4538 3514

See more therapy options for London

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in London

3,000+

Average cost per session

£70

Counsellors in London who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
80% Stress
66% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

71% Aviva
67% AXA PPP
59% Vitality

How Counsellors in London see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
24% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in London?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.