Counselling in London

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Photo of undefined - Janus Solutions: Day Programme, MSc
Janus Solutions: Day Programme
MSc
Verified Verified
London SW2
Janus is a company that specialises in drug and alcohol treatment that steers away from the language of addiction, sickness, illness, dependency and disease. Janus believes that this terminology can become disempowering, at times leaving the client feeling at a loss as to how to move forward. Janus uses it's own unique approach called: The Resonance Factor, that focuses on the relationship someone constructs with their substance/s of choice. Janus believes that in the same way someone can construct a relationship with substances - he or she can deconstruct that relationship. Our service is about creating change in the individual. It is designed for individuals that wish to stop using substances; wish to rebuild relationships; wish to re-engage with life - be it work, study and physical and emotional well-being. Janus will work with you to accomplish your goals, but you, the client, have to be at the forefront of your own treatment.
Janus is a company that specialises in drug and alcohol treatment that steers away from the language of addiction, sickness, illness, dependency and disease. Janus believes that this terminology can become disempowering, at times leaving the client feeling at a loss as to how to move forward. Janus uses it's own unique approach called: The Resonance Factor, that focuses on the relationship someone constructs with their substance/s of choice. Janus believes that in the same way someone can construct a relationship with substances - he or she can deconstruct that relationship. Our service is about creating change in the individual. It is designed for individuals that wish to stop using substances; wish to rebuild relationships; wish to re-engage with life - be it work, study and physical and emotional well-being. Janus will work with you to accomplish your goals, but you, the client, have to be at the forefront of your own treatment.
020 8629 1349 View 020 8629 1349
Photo of Mustafa Omer, MSc, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Mustafa Omer
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London NW10  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
As a highly skilled and specialist Psychotherapist, I have a deep passion for helping individuals overcome the challenges they face and achieve their personal goals. With years of experience in the field, I possess a wealth of experience and expertise in various therapeutic approaches, which I use to develop tailored treatment plans that address the unique needs of each client.
As a highly skilled and specialist Psychotherapist, I have a deep passion for helping individuals overcome the challenges they face and achieve their personal goals. With years of experience in the field, I possess a wealth of experience and expertise in various therapeutic approaches, which I use to develop tailored treatment plans that address the unique needs of each client.
020 3535 6996 View 020 3535 6996
Photo of Bethania Dick, DCounsPsych, MBACP, Counsellor
Bethania Dick
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE26  (Online Only)
Perhaps you feel sad, angry, anxious, insecure, needy, confused or overwhelmed. You are tired of the same unhealthy cycles. You want to be free of them, understand why they occur and find a new perspective in life and relationships. Together we can get you to a better place. My work focuses on depth, insight and relationship and it is highly effective. Working with me means entering a personalised journey tailored to meet your unique needs, values and preferences and it prioritizes genuine healing, not mere symptom management/reduction. There is more beneath the surface and during the process of therapy we will uncover it.
Perhaps you feel sad, angry, anxious, insecure, needy, confused or overwhelmed. You are tired of the same unhealthy cycles. You want to be free of them, understand why they occur and find a new perspective in life and relationships. Together we can get you to a better place. My work focuses on depth, insight and relationship and it is highly effective. Working with me means entering a personalised journey tailored to meet your unique needs, values and preferences and it prioritizes genuine healing, not mere symptom management/reduction. There is more beneath the surface and during the process of therapy we will uncover it.
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Photo of undefined - H.O.T Relationship Coach®, MBACP, Counsellor
H.O.T Relationship Coach®
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE10
Hello, my name is Davina Dobbs I am your H.O.T Relationship Coach (Honest, Open & Transparent). To be honest with you I don't know what has brought you here. Maybe it was a breakup? You're looking for love? Fed up with love? Or ready for love? But, I want you to know I get you! I was once you now I am living a life of love! I help Single Women live a life of abundance, whilst winning in relationships and life, without compromising who they are. By moving you from PAIN to LOVE!
Hello, my name is Davina Dobbs I am your H.O.T Relationship Coach (Honest, Open & Transparent). To be honest with you I don't know what has brought you here. Maybe it was a breakup? You're looking for love? Fed up with love? Or ready for love? But, I want you to know I get you! I was once you now I am living a life of love! I help Single Women live a life of abundance, whilst winning in relationships and life, without compromising who they are. By moving you from PAIN to LOVE!
020 8016 2573 View 020 8016 2573
Photo of Dr Jessica Bird, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Jessica Bird
Psychologist, PhD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London EC3V
I am passionate about helping young people overcome distressing experiences and get back to living their life to the full. I am a qualified clinical psychologist, cognitive behavioural therapist, and EMDR therapist. I have worked for many years in the NHS and specialise in treating adolescents and young adults with mental health problems. My areas of expertise include the psychological treatment of psychosis, paranoia, trauma/PTSD, OCD, phobias, and sleep problems.
I am passionate about helping young people overcome distressing experiences and get back to living their life to the full. I am a qualified clinical psychologist, cognitive behavioural therapist, and EMDR therapist. I have worked for many years in the NHS and specialise in treating adolescents and young adults with mental health problems. My areas of expertise include the psychological treatment of psychosis, paranoia, trauma/PTSD, OCD, phobias, and sleep problems.
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Photo of Natasha Martin Intuitive Counsellor, MA, MBACP, Counsellor
Natasha Martin Intuitive Counsellor
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London E9
Hi, my name is Natasha I am an Intuitive Counsellor. I work in helping you connect within and to listen to your own intuition. By becoming aware of our own thoughts and behaviors, we start to understand how the mind works. Breathing and grounding into the present moment helps us too connect within and to start seeing the difference between our mind and our heart. Letting go of the conditioned mind and following our authentic self.
Hi, my name is Natasha I am an Intuitive Counsellor. I work in helping you connect within and to listen to your own intuition. By becoming aware of our own thoughts and behaviors, we start to understand how the mind works. Breathing and grounding into the present moment helps us too connect within and to start seeing the difference between our mind and our heart. Letting go of the conditioned mind and following our authentic self.
01548 802256 View 01548 802256
Photo of Denise Richards, MBACP, Counsellor
Denise Richards
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London N7  (Online Only)
Deciding to start counselling can be daunting, but with me, you'll be safe. I'll walk with you on your journey of self-discovery! While you explore the tangle of emotions, thoughts and feelings you may be experiencing, I'll support you in the safe place, the therapy room. Together we'll carefully uncover underlying, hidden memories and patterns of behaviour, enabling you to understand the impact these have had and may still be having on your life. It's a bit like peeling the layers off an onion! You may laugh, cry and experience a plethora of other emotions, but you won't be alone, I'll be peeling your onion with you!
Deciding to start counselling can be daunting, but with me, you'll be safe. I'll walk with you on your journey of self-discovery! While you explore the tangle of emotions, thoughts and feelings you may be experiencing, I'll support you in the safe place, the therapy room. Together we'll carefully uncover underlying, hidden memories and patterns of behaviour, enabling you to understand the impact these have had and may still be having on your life. It's a bit like peeling the layers off an onion! You may laugh, cry and experience a plethora of other emotions, but you won't be alone, I'll be peeling your onion with you!
020 3823 6680 View 020 3823 6680
Photo of Emma Taylor, MBACP, Counsellor
Emma Taylor
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
London E2
Finding a new therapist can be daunting, but you have already taken the first step. Life can sometimes feel overwhelming, leaving you feeling stuck, alone, or unsure of how to move forward. Whether you're grappling with anxiety or low self-esteem, navigating relationship issues, or seeking support through a major life transition, you don't have to face it alone. Together, we'll create a safe and supportive space where you can explore your thoughts, feelings, and experiences without judgement. My goal is to empower you to cultivate resilience, foster meaningful connections, and embark on a journey towards greater wellbeing.
Finding a new therapist can be daunting, but you have already taken the first step. Life can sometimes feel overwhelming, leaving you feeling stuck, alone, or unsure of how to move forward. Whether you're grappling with anxiety or low self-esteem, navigating relationship issues, or seeking support through a major life transition, you don't have to face it alone. Together, we'll create a safe and supportive space where you can explore your thoughts, feelings, and experiences without judgement. My goal is to empower you to cultivate resilience, foster meaningful connections, and embark on a journey towards greater wellbeing.
020 7123 9476 View 020 7123 9476
Photo of Dr Holly Milling: Sleep Specialist + Adult Adhd Assessments, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Holly Milling: Sleep Specialist + Adult Adhd Assessments
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London SE1  (Online Only)
Dr Holly Milling B.Sc., M.sc., DClin.Psy, PG.Dip. is a registered Clinical Psychologist, Accredited Cognitive Behavioural therapist, and Mindfulness teacher. She is a trusted and experienced Behavioural Sleep Medicine specialist with years of experience working with neurodiversity. You will receive compassionate & evidence-based treatment from Holly, all from the comfort of your own home or office (via our online clinic). It's easy to get started; simply book a free 15 minute consultation where you can discuss your needs with Holly and get booked in for assessment and support.
Dr Holly Milling B.Sc., M.sc., DClin.Psy, PG.Dip. is a registered Clinical Psychologist, Accredited Cognitive Behavioural therapist, and Mindfulness teacher. She is a trusted and experienced Behavioural Sleep Medicine specialist with years of experience working with neurodiversity. You will receive compassionate & evidence-based treatment from Holly, all from the comfort of your own home or office (via our online clinic). It's easy to get started; simply book a free 15 minute consultation where you can discuss your needs with Holly and get booked in for assessment and support.
020 4538 3439 View 020 4538 3439
Photo of Lirona Rosenthal, MA, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Lirona Rosenthal
Psychologist, MA, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London SE23  (Online Only)
I have 15 years of experience in private practice, Working as an integrative psychologist, combining therapy approaches to fit my client’s needs best. With a background in theater and sports, I am an active, creative and engaging therapist. ​Please check out my website for info about me: www.lironarosenthal.com
I have 15 years of experience in private practice, Working as an integrative psychologist, combining therapy approaches to fit my client’s needs best. With a background in theater and sports, I am an active, creative and engaging therapist. ​Please check out my website for info about me: www.lironarosenthal.com
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Photo of Charlotte Lloyd, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Charlotte Lloyd
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London W4
If you are struggling with feeling overwhelmed, unhappy, anxious or depressed, therapy may be able to help. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy attempts to understand how early relationships and patterns of behaviour can affect and lead to difficulties later in life. Perhaps an immediate crisis or longer term feelings of unhappiness have brought you here; both are valid and may benefit from therapy. I can offer a calm, confidential and supportive space to help you try and understand why you are feeling a certain way, and together we can work to resolve any deeper issues.
If you are struggling with feeling overwhelmed, unhappy, anxious or depressed, therapy may be able to help. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy attempts to understand how early relationships and patterns of behaviour can affect and lead to difficulties later in life. Perhaps an immediate crisis or longer term feelings of unhappiness have brought you here; both are valid and may benefit from therapy. I can offer a calm, confidential and supportive space to help you try and understand why you are feeling a certain way, and together we can work to resolve any deeper issues.
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Photo of Sabina Ilyas, MA, UKCP Trainee, Psychotherapist
Sabina Ilyas
Psychotherapist, MA, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
London N8
Not accepting new clients
I am senior student practitioner of Core Process Psychotherapy (CPP), which was the first mindfulness-based psychotherapy in the UK. At the heart of CPP is the belief that we all have an inherent capacity for wellness. However, this can become obscured by the conditions and challenges we encounter in life or inherit. I endeavour to bring compassionate awareness to each client's experience, so they can reconnect to themselves and their own capacity for healing. I believe we can all access an inherent source of wisdom and vitality and I want to support individuals in their journey to reconnect to this source.
I am senior student practitioner of Core Process Psychotherapy (CPP), which was the first mindfulness-based psychotherapy in the UK. At the heart of CPP is the belief that we all have an inherent capacity for wellness. However, this can become obscured by the conditions and challenges we encounter in life or inherit. I endeavour to bring compassionate awareness to each client's experience, so they can reconnect to themselves and their own capacity for healing. I believe we can all access an inherent source of wisdom and vitality and I want to support individuals in their journey to reconnect to this source.
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Photo of Elizabeth Noble, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Elizabeth Noble
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE15
I’m Elizabeth, a psychotherapeutic counsellor, supervisor and coach based at Caya Therapy in Peckham, South East London. Counselling is a consistent, supportive relationship where you can choose to share experiences, questions and conversations that are important to you. Counselling is dedicated time for you. It offers a chance for you to connect with a trustworthy person, who is focussed on you, and the things you want to attend to. I'm trained in the person-centred approach to counselling. This means that I believe human beings tend to do the best we can with the resources we have.
I’m Elizabeth, a psychotherapeutic counsellor, supervisor and coach based at Caya Therapy in Peckham, South East London. Counselling is a consistent, supportive relationship where you can choose to share experiences, questions and conversations that are important to you. Counselling is dedicated time for you. It offers a chance for you to connect with a trustworthy person, who is focussed on you, and the things you want to attend to. I'm trained in the person-centred approach to counselling. This means that I believe human beings tend to do the best we can with the resources we have.
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Photo of Limor Tevet, MA, MBACP, Counsellor
Limor Tevet
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE23
I believe that almost everyone can benefit from counselling. If you feel unhappy in your life, down and upset, or/and stressed, and you are ready to make a change in your life, counselling is for you; If you want to learn more about yourself, your behaviour, your patterns, and how to improve your life and your relationship with family, friends and work; If you want someone to listen and give you a safe, emphatic and non-judgemental space to reflect, to communicate your feelings and thoughts, while you are supported and guided during the process - counselling is for you!
I believe that almost everyone can benefit from counselling. If you feel unhappy in your life, down and upset, or/and stressed, and you are ready to make a change in your life, counselling is for you; If you want to learn more about yourself, your behaviour, your patterns, and how to improve your life and your relationship with family, friends and work; If you want someone to listen and give you a safe, emphatic and non-judgemental space to reflect, to communicate your feelings and thoughts, while you are supported and guided during the process - counselling is for you!
020 4538 6343 View 020 4538 6343
Photo of Joe Roberts, MBACP, Counsellor
Joe Roberts
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London SE13
Would you like to feel more confidence, purpose and resilience? Are you stuck or dissatisfied and want to move forward? Is there a sense of anxiety, overwhelm or perfectionism holding you back? Admitting we want things to change can be challenging. The fact you're reading this, however, means somewhere in you is the courage and creativity to imagine a different way. We can explore this together.
Would you like to feel more confidence, purpose and resilience? Are you stuck or dissatisfied and want to move forward? Is there a sense of anxiety, overwhelm or perfectionism holding you back? Admitting we want things to change can be challenging. The fact you're reading this, however, means somewhere in you is the courage and creativity to imagine a different way. We can explore this together.
020 3761 4396 View 020 3761 4396
Photo of Miranda Pleasence, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Miranda Pleasence
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London NW10
We seek therapy for many reasons. I welcome anything you wish to bring from anxiety, to trauma, grief, ptsd, shame and life crisis or indeed the difficulties you may have faced within this last year and a half. I offer a safe space to explore your current life struggles. I will walk by your side as you uncover a greater sense of ease, self understanding and indeed joy. We will find the repeating limiting themes you encounter and work to understand them and reintegrate the parts that suffered and froze along the way. I endeavour to provide a secure base for you to experience.
We seek therapy for many reasons. I welcome anything you wish to bring from anxiety, to trauma, grief, ptsd, shame and life crisis or indeed the difficulties you may have faced within this last year and a half. I offer a safe space to explore your current life struggles. I will walk by your side as you uncover a greater sense of ease, self understanding and indeed joy. We will find the repeating limiting themes you encounter and work to understand them and reintegrate the parts that suffered and froze along the way. I endeavour to provide a secure base for you to experience.
020 4538 6245 View 020 4538 6245
Photo of Gaile Viciule, MSc
Gaile Viciule
MSc
Verified Verified
London N7  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Health anxiety, stress and discomfort or uncertainty of living in your own body. Let's work together to guide and navigate you through the relationship you can have with your mind and body.
Health anxiety, stress and discomfort or uncertainty of living in your own body. Let's work together to guide and navigate you through the relationship you can have with your mind and body.
020 3984 7993 View 020 3984 7993
Richard Wilson
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
London E9
Please get in contact if you are having difficulty dealing with anxiety, panic attacks or depression, and are looking for help to understand what the meaning of these symptoms are. Perhaps you want to explore more specific questions, "who am I", "what do I want out of life" or "why do I always end up in the same situation". You may want help coming to terms with a crisis in your life, a bereavement, or a relationship difficulty that you are having, or maybe to explore uncomfortable feelings.
Please get in contact if you are having difficulty dealing with anxiety, panic attacks or depression, and are looking for help to understand what the meaning of these symptoms are. Perhaps you want to explore more specific questions, "who am I", "what do I want out of life" or "why do I always end up in the same situation". You may want help coming to terms with a crisis in your life, a bereavement, or a relationship difficulty that you are having, or maybe to explore uncomfortable feelings.
07824 701546 View 07824 701546
Photo of Jingni Ma, PhD, CPsychol, Psychologist
Jingni Ma
Psychologist, PhD, CPsychol
Verified Verified
London SW5  (Online Only)
If you find yourself grappling with intense stress, anxiety, or depression, and feel trapped in patterns that disrupt your well-being, I'm here to offer a safe and supportive environment. Together, we'll work towards easing emotional turmoil and striving for inner peace and equilibrium in your life. I'll assist you in reclaiming mastery over your thoughts and emotions, fostering resilience, and guiding you towards a more enriching and purposeful existence.
If you find yourself grappling with intense stress, anxiety, or depression, and feel trapped in patterns that disrupt your well-being, I'm here to offer a safe and supportive environment. Together, we'll work towards easing emotional turmoil and striving for inner peace and equilibrium in your life. I'll assist you in reclaiming mastery over your thoughts and emotions, fostering resilience, and guiding you towards a more enriching and purposeful existence.
01764 915682 View 01764 915682
Photo of Leela Walcott, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Leela Walcott
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
London NW5
I am a qualified integrative counsellor which means my approach offers a number of therapeutic orientations best suited to your particular needs. I offer a supportive and confidential space for you to feel safe to examine your thoughts, feelings and behaviour. I will collaborate with you to explore your goals and changes you may wish to see in your lives. Coupled with my professional skills sets, I believe my relationship with you is paramount, therefore I endeavour to form an empathetic and honest alliance.
I am a qualified integrative counsellor which means my approach offers a number of therapeutic orientations best suited to your particular needs. I offer a supportive and confidential space for you to feel safe to examine your thoughts, feelings and behaviour. I will collaborate with you to explore your goals and changes you may wish to see in your lives. Coupled with my professional skills sets, I believe my relationship with you is paramount, therefore I endeavour to form an empathetic and honest alliance.
020 3823 6240 View 020 3823 6240

See more therapy options for London

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in London

3,000+

Average cost per session

£75

Counsellors in London who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
79% Stress
66% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Aviva
65% AXA PPP
58% Vitality

How Counsellors in London see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
24% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in London?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.