Counselling in London

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Photo of Claudio Vieira, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Claudio Vieira
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London SE6  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I am a Senior Clinical Psychologist and Doctoral Researcher, with over 10 years of experience, specialising in personality and emotional difficulties. My clinical approach is based on a relational model where the therapeutic relationship and creating a safe and containing environment are key to our work. We will work at your pace and explore your therapeutic goals and what to expect from our sessions. There might also be an opportunity to explore your early life experiences and how they might have shaped the way you now relate to yourself and others.
I am a Senior Clinical Psychologist and Doctoral Researcher, with over 10 years of experience, specialising in personality and emotional difficulties. My clinical approach is based on a relational model where the therapeutic relationship and creating a safe and containing environment are key to our work. We will work at your pace and explore your therapeutic goals and what to expect from our sessions. There might also be an opportunity to explore your early life experiences and how they might have shaped the way you now relate to yourself and others.
020 8167 7925 View 020 8167 7925
Photo of Soraya Amina Bedja, MBACP, Counsellor
Soraya Amina Bedja
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE13
Whatever reason brings you here, life is a challenge and therapy can help. With a passion for my work I am dedicated to helping individuals and couples of all ages and backgrounds. I am a 'Person-Centred Relational Therapist' and 'Imago Trained Couple’s Therapist'. I have been practising for over 15 years and specialise in childhood and complex trauma, anxiety, depression, stress, sexual orientation, sexual trauma, bereavement and loss. My work with both couples and individuals involves creating a warm, empathetic, safe space where each person can explore and validate their experience in the relationship with the self and others.
Whatever reason brings you here, life is a challenge and therapy can help. With a passion for my work I am dedicated to helping individuals and couples of all ages and backgrounds. I am a 'Person-Centred Relational Therapist' and 'Imago Trained Couple’s Therapist'. I have been practising for over 15 years and specialise in childhood and complex trauma, anxiety, depression, stress, sexual orientation, sexual trauma, bereavement and loss. My work with both couples and individuals involves creating a warm, empathetic, safe space where each person can explore and validate their experience in the relationship with the self and others.
020 4538 1763 View 020 4538 1763
Jason Goldsmith
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SE1
Therapy is a process where clients come to think and talk about their lives so that they develop greater insight and understanding of themselves.
Therapy is a process where clients come to think and talk about their lives so that they develop greater insight and understanding of themselves.
020 3962 1546 View 020 3962 1546
Photo of Michelle Qureshi, DCounsPsych, BACP, Counsellor
Michelle Qureshi
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, BACP
Verified Verified
London SW16
At times you may experience a low mood, lack of optimism for your future, stress and anxiety, a traumatic event, a breakdown in relationship, a stressful work environment, low self esteem and confidence. I am here to help you through this process to discover a healthier and more fulfilled you. We will work with what triggers you to feel these emotions, coping strategies combined with life coaching. This will be an exciting time to work on yourself and reach your goals. Sometimes talking the first step to commit to counselling can feel daunting, I will ensure you feel comfortable, understood and relaxed in your sessions.
At times you may experience a low mood, lack of optimism for your future, stress and anxiety, a traumatic event, a breakdown in relationship, a stressful work environment, low self esteem and confidence. I am here to help you through this process to discover a healthier and more fulfilled you. We will work with what triggers you to feel these emotions, coping strategies combined with life coaching. This will be an exciting time to work on yourself and reach your goals. Sometimes talking the first step to commit to counselling can feel daunting, I will ensure you feel comfortable, understood and relaxed in your sessions.
020 8103 5920 View 020 8103 5920
Photo of Maya Roopun, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Maya Roopun
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
London E8  (Online Only)
I am a Chartered Counselling Psychologist. With a warm, empathetic, and compassionate approach, I aim to work with you collaboratively. Making space for your unique complexities. I hope to facilitate understanding, process unresolved emotions, manage difficulties, and assist you to move towards a calmer, more content, more authentic, and happier life. I work integratively drawing from evidence based models and beyond, depending on your own individual needs. My work draws predominantly from psychodynamic, relational, existential, ACT, Mindfulness, and humanistic therapies.
I am a Chartered Counselling Psychologist. With a warm, empathetic, and compassionate approach, I aim to work with you collaboratively. Making space for your unique complexities. I hope to facilitate understanding, process unresolved emotions, manage difficulties, and assist you to move towards a calmer, more content, more authentic, and happier life. I work integratively drawing from evidence based models and beyond, depending on your own individual needs. My work draws predominantly from psychodynamic, relational, existential, ACT, Mindfulness, and humanistic therapies.
020 3826 8606 View 020 3826 8606
Photo of Gaylin Tudhope, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Gaylin Tudhope
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London W1G
I have spent many years working with people with PTSD, anxiety and stress.I uusally have a broad range of clients who come from all walks of life , who need help regaining balance in their lives and being able to perform and function as optimally as they can.THis includes working in a systemic way and helping you get the most out of your life be it work, family, relationship wise or personally..Our lives are a constant set of transitions and moving situations. How do we manage this? How do we respond? How do we thrive? How do we win? My life development sessions are designed specifically for you
I have spent many years working with people with PTSD, anxiety and stress.I uusally have a broad range of clients who come from all walks of life , who need help regaining balance in their lives and being able to perform and function as optimally as they can.THis includes working in a systemic way and helping you get the most out of your life be it work, family, relationship wise or personally..Our lives are a constant set of transitions and moving situations. How do we manage this? How do we respond? How do we thrive? How do we win? My life development sessions are designed specifically for you
020 3974 2013 View 020 3974 2013
Photo of Hannah Rowley, DCounsPsych, MBACP, Counsellor
Hannah Rowley
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SW16
I have a warm down to earth approach and I treat my client’s confidentiality with complete discretion, providing a safe environment to talk without judgement. I can assist you in moving towards greater ease and wellbeing at your own pace, working with you so we can understand your challenges together. I work on both a short and long term basis. I truly believe psychotherapy has the power to bring meaningful change to people’s lives.
I have a warm down to earth approach and I treat my client’s confidentiality with complete discretion, providing a safe environment to talk without judgement. I can assist you in moving towards greater ease and wellbeing at your own pace, working with you so we can understand your challenges together. I work on both a short and long term basis. I truly believe psychotherapy has the power to bring meaningful change to people’s lives.
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Photo of Zehavit Milo, MBACP, Counsellor
Zehavit Milo
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London NW11  (Online Only)
I am an integrative therapist working with clients of various ages and cultural backgrounds, who have felt depressed and lonely, experienced different levels of anxiety, had relationship issues, suffered from trauma and loss, and searched for meaning and identity. I have a unique understanding of ADHD, as I have supported young adults and adults with ADHD with issues related to conflict resolution, motivation, impulsivity and self-esteem. I also have experience with helping those recovering from toxic and or narcissistic abuse in parental/romantic relationships.
I am an integrative therapist working with clients of various ages and cultural backgrounds, who have felt depressed and lonely, experienced different levels of anxiety, had relationship issues, suffered from trauma and loss, and searched for meaning and identity. I have a unique understanding of ADHD, as I have supported young adults and adults with ADHD with issues related to conflict resolution, motivation, impulsivity and self-esteem. I also have experience with helping those recovering from toxic and or narcissistic abuse in parental/romantic relationships.
020 8175 1589 View 020 8175 1589
Photo of Andrew Kitching, MA, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Andrew Kitching
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London SW1W
I am an experienced psychotherapist working from my consulting rooms in Belgravia, London, and work with adult clients from varying backgrounds. In my previous career as a senior executive in newspaper and media organisations in the US and UK, I worked with highly creative individuals and business people alike. This specialist knowledge of the creative and business worlds informs my psychotherapy work as well as familiarity with mid-life/career transitioning, divorce/separation, drink/drug dependency, boarding school syndrome and the attendant depression, stress and anxiety this can evoke.
I am an experienced psychotherapist working from my consulting rooms in Belgravia, London, and work with adult clients from varying backgrounds. In my previous career as a senior executive in newspaper and media organisations in the US and UK, I worked with highly creative individuals and business people alike. This specialist knowledge of the creative and business worlds informs my psychotherapy work as well as familiarity with mid-life/career transitioning, divorce/separation, drink/drug dependency, boarding school syndrome and the attendant depression, stress and anxiety this can evoke.
020 4538 3605 View 020 4538 3605
Photo of Vanja Rossberg, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Vanja Rossberg
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London SE1
I am a Couple and Family Psychotherapist with more than 15 years experience of working with individuals, couples and families who have seen their emotional stability and relationships being impacted by life experiences, like physical or mental health struggles, trauma, loss, challenging transitions between life cycle stages, separation, relationship conflict or adverse childhood experiences. I facilitate work that gives the opportunity to develop a better understanding of what is going on for you, a clearer idea of how you would like things to be, exploring and experimenting with ways to achieve this.
I am a Couple and Family Psychotherapist with more than 15 years experience of working with individuals, couples and families who have seen their emotional stability and relationships being impacted by life experiences, like physical or mental health struggles, trauma, loss, challenging transitions between life cycle stages, separation, relationship conflict or adverse childhood experiences. I facilitate work that gives the opportunity to develop a better understanding of what is going on for you, a clearer idea of how you would like things to be, exploring and experimenting with ways to achieve this.
020 3835 6242 View 020 3835 6242
Photo of Benoit Bertrand-Delfau, MA, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Benoit Bertrand-Delfau
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London W1T
Welcome! My name is Benoit and I work with adults who may experience issues around codependency, problematic use of alcohol or substances, childhood trauma, gender identity and sexuality. Psychotherapy with me will offer you a trusted space and time that you may not find elsewhere in your life to explore who you are, how you are in the world, and the way forward.
Welcome! My name is Benoit and I work with adults who may experience issues around codependency, problematic use of alcohol or substances, childhood trauma, gender identity and sexuality. Psychotherapy with me will offer you a trusted space and time that you may not find elsewhere in your life to explore who you are, how you are in the world, and the way forward.
020 7870 6243 View 020 7870 6243
Photo of Jeremy Steven Slaughter, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Jeremy Steven Slaughter
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London W2
As my ideal client, you're a professional, facing tricky obstacles at work or at home, who knows that you've got to grow to live better. You know about personal development, but are unconvinced by the usual solutions. You want to know how all your problems fit together, and develop a step by step programme for personal change, that addresses the difficulties you face in priority order. You don't see yourself as "mentallly ill"; rather, you're stuck in a difficult place on the journey of life. You're looking for the support, knowledge and skills to get to a better place, a map and a straightforward guide on the path to wellbeing.
As my ideal client, you're a professional, facing tricky obstacles at work or at home, who knows that you've got to grow to live better. You know about personal development, but are unconvinced by the usual solutions. You want to know how all your problems fit together, and develop a step by step programme for personal change, that addresses the difficulties you face in priority order. You don't see yourself as "mentallly ill"; rather, you're stuck in a difficult place on the journey of life. You're looking for the support, knowledge and skills to get to a better place, a map and a straightforward guide on the path to wellbeing.
020 3105 2251 View 020 3105 2251
Photo of Marilyn Allen - Dr Marilyn Allen, PhD, MBACP, Counsellor
Dr Marilyn Allen
Counsellor, PhD, MBACP
Verified Verified
London W1G
Therapeutic Counselling using the Arts, encompasses therapy and developmental psychology which enables me to work with and support clients to develop skills, to understand their personal circumstances better. Such skills are then internalised over time which helps their situation to be more manageable. l offer a safe, non-judgemental and confidential environment to support our work, which brings skills of heightened empathy, observational skills and counter-transference into the clinical work, & broadens the experience for the client. I strongly believe in the importance of the therapeutic relationship and its impact on our work.
Therapeutic Counselling using the Arts, encompasses therapy and developmental psychology which enables me to work with and support clients to develop skills, to understand their personal circumstances better. Such skills are then internalised over time which helps their situation to be more manageable. l offer a safe, non-judgemental and confidential environment to support our work, which brings skills of heightened empathy, observational skills and counter-transference into the clinical work, & broadens the experience for the client. I strongly believe in the importance of the therapeutic relationship and its impact on our work.
020 3962 2187 View 020 3962 2187
Photo of Dr Harrie Bunker-Smith, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Harrie Bunker-Smith
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
London SW18  (Online Only)
I’m a Clinical Psychologist offering a warm and supportive space for those times when it feels like something needs to change and we could really use a hand. Perhaps on paper it looks like we have it all figured out but underneath we don’t feel happy. Or, we have goals we want to achieve but self-doubt, worry or other barriers leave us feeling paralysed. Sometimes the distress call is from our bodies – we are burnt out, stressed or struggling with a health condition. And sometimes events from the past feel like they are consuming our present, or we find ourselves repeating patterns we don't feel work but seem hard to escape.
I’m a Clinical Psychologist offering a warm and supportive space for those times when it feels like something needs to change and we could really use a hand. Perhaps on paper it looks like we have it all figured out but underneath we don’t feel happy. Or, we have goals we want to achieve but self-doubt, worry or other barriers leave us feeling paralysed. Sometimes the distress call is from our bodies – we are burnt out, stressed or struggling with a health condition. And sometimes events from the past feel like they are consuming our present, or we find ourselves repeating patterns we don't feel work but seem hard to escape.
01883 770542 View 01883 770542
Photo of Christopher Wilson, BACP, Counsellor
Christopher Wilson
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
London SE20  (Online Only)
I am a qualified Counsellor and Psychotherapist with diverse experience working in various agency settings. Let me assist in alleviating your stress and anxiety and enable you to live a fuller and richer life personally and professionally. Through working with clients, I have utilised various counselling approaches tailored to meet each client's unique needs. By providing a safe and empathetic space, I aim to explore historic trauma that is holding you back from reaching your fullest potential. Together, we can delve into early experiences that may still impact you today.
I am a qualified Counsellor and Psychotherapist with diverse experience working in various agency settings. Let me assist in alleviating your stress and anxiety and enable you to live a fuller and richer life personally and professionally. Through working with clients, I have utilised various counselling approaches tailored to meet each client's unique needs. By providing a safe and empathetic space, I aim to explore historic trauma that is holding you back from reaching your fullest potential. Together, we can delve into early experiences that may still impact you today.
020 4538 0441 View 020 4538 0441
Photo of Zuzana Skrinarova, BPC, Psychotherapist
Zuzana Skrinarova
Psychotherapist, BPC
Verified Verified
London EC4N
I am a psychodynamic psychotherapist working with adults with a wide range of psychological and emotional issues. My experience includes working with depression, anxiety, addiction, and eating disorders. I provide a safe and confidential space where we can explore your concerns or difficulties. Together we can think what might be lurking underneath, unexpressed. These can be feelings of disappointment, mistrust, exclusion, anger, grief, confusion, or a general unease, low self-esteem, or low mood. At times you may feel stuck or dissatisfied and not know exactly why.
I am a psychodynamic psychotherapist working with adults with a wide range of psychological and emotional issues. My experience includes working with depression, anxiety, addiction, and eating disorders. I provide a safe and confidential space where we can explore your concerns or difficulties. Together we can think what might be lurking underneath, unexpressed. These can be feelings of disappointment, mistrust, exclusion, anger, grief, confusion, or a general unease, low self-esteem, or low mood. At times you may feel stuck or dissatisfied and not know exactly why.
020 8138 9192 View 020 8138 9192
Photo of Nemisi Chidyausiku - First Intervention Therapy [FIT]
First Intervention Therapy [FIT]
Verified Verified
London SE23
We specialise in meeting client need especially clients experiencing mental health problems. We offer Mental Health Assessments at £1150 per assessment and this includes formulation and report writing; ADHD and/or ASC/ASD Assessments for a working diagnosis at £1300 each. Perhaps you or your child has been on the waiting list for long, then we here to help you. We provide community package to help young people with mental health problems within community settings and call us to discuss further if you need our help or advise. We also provide DBT & CBT and Problem Solving Therapy but we have to make an assessment first.
We specialise in meeting client need especially clients experiencing mental health problems. We offer Mental Health Assessments at £1150 per assessment and this includes formulation and report writing; ADHD and/or ASC/ASD Assessments for a working diagnosis at £1300 each. Perhaps you or your child has been on the waiting list for long, then we here to help you. We provide community package to help young people with mental health problems within community settings and call us to discuss further if you need our help or advise. We also provide DBT & CBT and Problem Solving Therapy but we have to make an assessment first.
020 8159 9730 View 020 8159 9730
Photo of Timur Moon, MA, BACP, Psychotherapist
Timur Moon
Psychotherapist, MA, BACP
Verified Verified
London W1W
Working in the NHS and privately, I’ve spent many hours with people who struggle with problems that distress them. Some have suffered from an enduring sense of flatness or emptiness in their lives, while others struggle with states of heightened anxiety. Some seek help due to recurring problems in their relationships: issues with sex and intimacy, or low self-esteem, or anger, or anxiety. Many are troubled by aspects of the past that remain unresolved. By speaking in confidence to an experienced listener, we can address things we may have preferred not to talk about, or even think about, but which weighed on our minds all the same.
Working in the NHS and privately, I’ve spent many hours with people who struggle with problems that distress them. Some have suffered from an enduring sense of flatness or emptiness in their lives, while others struggle with states of heightened anxiety. Some seek help due to recurring problems in their relationships: issues with sex and intimacy, or low self-esteem, or anger, or anxiety. Many are troubled by aspects of the past that remain unresolved. By speaking in confidence to an experienced listener, we can address things we may have preferred not to talk about, or even think about, but which weighed on our minds all the same.
020 3929 3862 View 020 3929 3862
James Douglas Clague
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
London E1
My name is Douglas Clague and I have been a practising psychotherapist in Pimlico for the past 5 years. I am committed to providing counselling and psychotherapy in a safe, confidential and non-judgemental environment. Having worked in Private practice, the NHS and institutions such as UCL I have a wide and varied experience and have worked with person of all ages with a large array of presenting problems. I work with individuals on an open-ended basis or for an agreed time period, with the aim of enabling you to enhance your life and to live it more fully.
My name is Douglas Clague and I have been a practising psychotherapist in Pimlico for the past 5 years. I am committed to providing counselling and psychotherapy in a safe, confidential and non-judgemental environment. Having worked in Private practice, the NHS and institutions such as UCL I have a wide and varied experience and have worked with person of all ages with a large array of presenting problems. I work with individuals on an open-ended basis or for an agreed time period, with the aim of enabling you to enhance your life and to live it more fully.
020 3962 1836 View 020 3962 1836
Photo of Emonie Carter - Hale - Serenity Psychotherapy, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Serenity Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London EC1V
Welcome! My therapy approach comes from perspectives of holistic, systemic, and trauma-informed. In Systemic Therapy I examine patterns of interactions and behaviours to determine why the issues are presenting themselves, and support you in making changes. The aim is to help the individual, couple or family gain a better understanding of self not only from an individual level but a relational perspective as well
Welcome! My therapy approach comes from perspectives of holistic, systemic, and trauma-informed. In Systemic Therapy I examine patterns of interactions and behaviours to determine why the issues are presenting themselves, and support you in making changes. The aim is to help the individual, couple or family gain a better understanding of self not only from an individual level but a relational perspective as well
020 3917 2288 View 020 3917 2288
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See more therapy options for London

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in London

3,000+

Average cost per session

£75

Counsellors in London who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
79% Stress
66% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Aviva
64% AXA PPP
57% Vitality

How Counsellors in London see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
24% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in London?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.