Counselling in London

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Photo of Marcia Gamsu, MA, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Marcia Gamsu
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
London NW11
I'm a down to earth, warm and proactive psychotherapist with over 15 years experience of therapy, working with both individuals and couples. I try to be very engaged when I work I work whilst at the same time giving you the space to think in your way and in your own time. I work with depression, anxiety, isolation, life dilemmas and relationship and sexual issues. You may decide to have a one off session, a short course of sessions or longer term therapy. Sessions are usually once a week or once every two weeks.
I'm a down to earth, warm and proactive psychotherapist with over 15 years experience of therapy, working with both individuals and couples. I try to be very engaged when I work I work whilst at the same time giving you the space to think in your way and in your own time. I work with depression, anxiety, isolation, life dilemmas and relationship and sexual issues. You may decide to have a one off session, a short course of sessions or longer term therapy. Sessions are usually once a week or once every two weeks.
07480 537452 View 07480 537452
Photo of Barbara Pizl, Psychotherapist
Barbara Pizl
Psychotherapist
Not Verified Not Verified
1 Endorsed
London N8
Has there been a lot of change in your life recently, that maybe feels overwhelming, making you feel exhausted and unsure about the future? Are you concerned about your mental health? Are there changes you would like to make, to live a more fulfilling life, but find it difficult to figure out how? My name is Barbara Pizl, and I am a Cognitive-Behavioural and Interpersonal Therapist. I specialise in depression, low self-esteem, anxiety disorders, PTSD and Trauma. I believe everyone deserves to live a fulfilling life, be truly themselves and look after their mental health.
Has there been a lot of change in your life recently, that maybe feels overwhelming, making you feel exhausted and unsure about the future? Are you concerned about your mental health? Are there changes you would like to make, to live a more fulfilling life, but find it difficult to figure out how? My name is Barbara Pizl, and I am a Cognitive-Behavioural and Interpersonal Therapist. I specialise in depression, low self-esteem, anxiety disorders, PTSD and Trauma. I believe everyone deserves to live a fulfilling life, be truly themselves and look after their mental health.
020 3376 6032 View 020 3376 6032
Photo of Diane Griffiths, MA, MBACP, Counsellor
Diane Griffiths
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
London EC4Y
You might be experiencing difficulty in relationships in general or in one relationship in particular, or finding work a challenge, or maybe you are unhappy about the quality or direction of your life. Perhaps you are feeling flat or low, stressed or anxious, or even quite desperate. Exploring and expressing your thoughts and feelings with a professional can help make sense of these difficult experiences, and allow space for solutions and opportunities to arise. I aim to offer you the best support I can for this process, with a respectful, sensitive, honest and empathic approach.
You might be experiencing difficulty in relationships in general or in one relationship in particular, or finding work a challenge, or maybe you are unhappy about the quality or direction of your life. Perhaps you are feeling flat or low, stressed or anxious, or even quite desperate. Exploring and expressing your thoughts and feelings with a professional can help make sense of these difficult experiences, and allow space for solutions and opportunities to arise. I aim to offer you the best support I can for this process, with a respectful, sensitive, honest and empathic approach.
020 3667 0982 View 020 3667 0982
Photo of Sally King, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Sally King
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London W1G
You may be experiencing anxiety or depression. This could be due to the impact of past experiences or trauma, or it could be that you are going through a period of change or transition. This may lead to feelings that can be punishing and confusing to cope with by yourself. I offer a non-judgmental and compassionate space where you can explore and express your feelings however difficult they may feel.
You may be experiencing anxiety or depression. This could be due to the impact of past experiences or trauma, or it could be that you are going through a period of change or transition. This may lead to feelings that can be punishing and confusing to cope with by yourself. I offer a non-judgmental and compassionate space where you can explore and express your feelings however difficult they may feel.
020 3818 5962 View 020 3818 5962
Photo of John Graham, MBACP, Counsellor
John Graham
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London EC1V
I am an integrative counsellor, and I am registered with the BACP. I provide an empathic, supportive space where you can feel safe to open up and feel seen and heard for who you are. I understand the pressures people can put upon themselves, which are unhelpful and can lead to damaging coping strategies. I will work with you to identify healthier ways of managing anxiety, low self-esteem and further underlying issues. I feel passionate in the potential of therapy to support you through difficult times in your life. Integrative counselling with John I have an integrative approach, meaning that I draw on several ways of working.
I am an integrative counsellor, and I am registered with the BACP. I provide an empathic, supportive space where you can feel safe to open up and feel seen and heard for who you are. I understand the pressures people can put upon themselves, which are unhelpful and can lead to damaging coping strategies. I will work with you to identify healthier ways of managing anxiety, low self-esteem and further underlying issues. I feel passionate in the potential of therapy to support you through difficult times in your life. Integrative counselling with John I have an integrative approach, meaning that I draw on several ways of working.
020 4538 7398 View 020 4538 7398
Photo of Aaron Hayes McGuinness, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Aaron Hayes McGuinness
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London SE22
When we are perhaps feeling a little stuck, in pain or in moments of crisis it can be difficult to know where to even start to make sense of what is going on for you. Knowing where to take those feelings and emotions can be a daunting task. It is my view that therapy can be a good place to start, and help you start to make sense of what you are experiencing and going through. If you are struggling with a specific issue or wish to gain a better understanding of yourself, I provide a space where you can talk openly free from judgement with an experienced and empathetic therapist.
When we are perhaps feeling a little stuck, in pain or in moments of crisis it can be difficult to know where to even start to make sense of what is going on for you. Knowing where to take those feelings and emotions can be a daunting task. It is my view that therapy can be a good place to start, and help you start to make sense of what you are experiencing and going through. If you are struggling with a specific issue or wish to gain a better understanding of yourself, I provide a space where you can talk openly free from judgement with an experienced and empathetic therapist.
020 4538 0959 View 020 4538 0959
Photo of undefined - Dr. Aziz Anzabi, PhD, ACC-AC, Counsellor
Dr. Aziz Anzabi
Counsellor, PhD, ACC-AC
Verified Verified
London NW11
I have spent several years working with couples therapy, bipolar, depression ,anxiety disorders, addiction, PMS ,infant loss and OCD .I'm committed to providing counselling with the most up-to-date techniques to build a healing and therapeutic relationship with clients. I will help my client to recover from stress, anxiety, trauma and loss. During the sessions I ensure that the relationship between me and the client is a safe and supportive, one in order to allow the client to freely express their problems. Each session will be fully effective in order to help my patients solve or overcome their problem.
I have spent several years working with couples therapy, bipolar, depression ,anxiety disorders, addiction, PMS ,infant loss and OCD .I'm committed to providing counselling with the most up-to-date techniques to build a healing and therapeutic relationship with clients. I will help my client to recover from stress, anxiety, trauma and loss. During the sessions I ensure that the relationship between me and the client is a safe and supportive, one in order to allow the client to freely express their problems. Each session will be fully effective in order to help my patients solve or overcome their problem.
07446 500016 View 07446 500016
Photo of Gareth Prosser, MSc, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Gareth Prosser
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London N16  (Online Only)
I am a Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist holding an accreditation with Pink Therapy as a Gender, Sexuality and Relationship Diversity (GSRD) therapist. I hold a diploma at the Contemporary Institute of Clinical Sexology (CICS) in Compulsive Sexual Behaviours, accredited by the College of Sexual and Relationship Therapists (COSRT). My core training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy was at the The Bowlby Centre in London, with a specialism in Attachment. My clinical approach incorporates different techniques and approaches relevant for the individual needs, mirroring the complexity of human experience and ever expanding self knowledge .
I am a Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist holding an accreditation with Pink Therapy as a Gender, Sexuality and Relationship Diversity (GSRD) therapist. I hold a diploma at the Contemporary Institute of Clinical Sexology (CICS) in Compulsive Sexual Behaviours, accredited by the College of Sexual and Relationship Therapists (COSRT). My core training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy was at the The Bowlby Centre in London, with a specialism in Attachment. My clinical approach incorporates different techniques and approaches relevant for the individual needs, mirroring the complexity of human experience and ever expanding self knowledge .
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Photo of Gail Sinitsky, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Gail Sinitsky
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
London N3
I am a counselling psychologist working with children, young people and families. I can support you with a range of challenges including trauma, anxiety, low mood, low self-esteem and relational difficulties. I have worked in this field for over 15 years, in CAMHS, schools and charities.
I am a counselling psychologist working with children, young people and families. I can support you with a range of challenges including trauma, anxiety, low mood, low self-esteem and relational difficulties. I have worked in this field for over 15 years, in CAMHS, schools and charities.
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Photo of Geri Walker, MBACP, Counsellor
Geri Walker
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
London E17
I am an empathic and intuitive psychotherapeutic counsellor. When working with you, I consider the impact of your past as well as what is happening in your life now. I work at your pace drawing on our therapeutic relationship to help you deepen your understanding of other relationships. By paying attention to the mind, emotion and body connection, I help you uncover what may not yet be obvious. Connecting with these deeper aspects of self can help you experience life more fully, uncover hidden potential and understand what is blocking you. My training was in Integrative Transpersonal Counselling and I am a trained yoga teacher.
I am an empathic and intuitive psychotherapeutic counsellor. When working with you, I consider the impact of your past as well as what is happening in your life now. I work at your pace drawing on our therapeutic relationship to help you deepen your understanding of other relationships. By paying attention to the mind, emotion and body connection, I help you uncover what may not yet be obvious. Connecting with these deeper aspects of self can help you experience life more fully, uncover hidden potential and understand what is blocking you. My training was in Integrative Transpersonal Counselling and I am a trained yoga teacher.
020 8051 4560 View 020 8051 4560
Photo of Dr Esther Cole, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Esther Cole
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London SW19
Are you feeling exhausted, stressed and overwhelmed? Are you in physical or emotional pain, working relentlessly in different areas of your life: at work, home or study, in relationships, caring or parental roles? Do you need to make sense of, and overcome trauma, feelings of sadness, low-self esteem or burnout? As a third generation British Jamaican Psychologist, managing long-term conditions whilst being a mother of three, I warmly welcome clients of all ages and walks of life, and have a passion for supporting people living alongside mental, physical or neurological difficulties and trauma.
Are you feeling exhausted, stressed and overwhelmed? Are you in physical or emotional pain, working relentlessly in different areas of your life: at work, home or study, in relationships, caring or parental roles? Do you need to make sense of, and overcome trauma, feelings of sadness, low-self esteem or burnout? As a third generation British Jamaican Psychologist, managing long-term conditions whilst being a mother of three, I warmly welcome clients of all ages and walks of life, and have a passion for supporting people living alongside mental, physical or neurological difficulties and trauma.
01798 305040 View 01798 305040
Photo of Beverley Blackman, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Beverley Blackman
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London W1K
I have been working in psychotherapy since 2003. My background encompasses both private mental health sectors and NHS Mental Health Trusts, working both 1:1 and in groups, and includes working in a cutting-edge therapeutic community. I have seen a diverse range of clients from many differing backgrounds and cultures, and with a wide range of presenting problems. I continue to enjoy working with a wide variety of clients and presentations, from personal development goals to mental health spectrum based work. I also work as a clinical supervisor, and head up Beverley Blackman Associates (please see website for more details).
I have been working in psychotherapy since 2003. My background encompasses both private mental health sectors and NHS Mental Health Trusts, working both 1:1 and in groups, and includes working in a cutting-edge therapeutic community. I have seen a diverse range of clients from many differing backgrounds and cultures, and with a wide range of presenting problems. I continue to enjoy working with a wide variety of clients and presentations, from personal development goals to mental health spectrum based work. I also work as a clinical supervisor, and head up Beverley Blackman Associates (please see website for more details).
020 3962 1159 View 020 3962 1159
Photo of Cedric Bouet-Willaumez, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Cedric Bouet-Willaumez
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London W1K
An established and experienced professional, I aim to help people get through life's challenges safely and usefully. I have worked with people from very different walks of life, and in very different settings (charities, the NHS and private practice since 2002).
An established and experienced professional, I aim to help people get through life's challenges safely and usefully. I have worked with people from very different walks of life, and in very different settings (charities, the NHS and private practice since 2002).
020 8103 3883 View 020 8103 3883
Photo of Carlie Pottington, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Carlie Pottington
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
London SW2  (Online Only)
People come to counselling for many reasons; they feel stuck, lonely, lack direction or engaging in unhealthy relationships to name but a few. Whatever your reason for seeking counselling it will be driven by a desire/need to change aspects of your life that no longer serve you. Taking the first step to reach out for support can feel scary and overwhelming yet demonstrates a huge amount of bravery. I believe we all want to be heard, seen and truly accepted for all of who we are. Counselling can be a safe place to allow yourself to experience this, to accept you are enough, as you are.
People come to counselling for many reasons; they feel stuck, lonely, lack direction or engaging in unhealthy relationships to name but a few. Whatever your reason for seeking counselling it will be driven by a desire/need to change aspects of your life that no longer serve you. Taking the first step to reach out for support can feel scary and overwhelming yet demonstrates a huge amount of bravery. I believe we all want to be heard, seen and truly accepted for all of who we are. Counselling can be a safe place to allow yourself to experience this, to accept you are enough, as you are.
020 3962 2318 View 020 3962 2318
Photo of Gaia Bertocci, MSc, CPsychol, Psychotherapist
Gaia Bertocci
Psychotherapist, MSc, CPsychol
Verified Verified
London SW5  (Online Only)
I’m a psychodynamic psychotherapist since 2002. I worked with narcissistic personality disorder, depression and anxiety, eating disorder, trauma and pre-menopausal and menopausal issues. My focus is always patient oriented, holistic and deeply respectful of the individual personality. After a free initial consultation to understand what your goals and expectations are from yourself and the therapy, I will propose you a plan to work towards the improvement of your actual conditions
I’m a psychodynamic psychotherapist since 2002. I worked with narcissistic personality disorder, depression and anxiety, eating disorder, trauma and pre-menopausal and menopausal issues. My focus is always patient oriented, holistic and deeply respectful of the individual personality. After a free initial consultation to understand what your goals and expectations are from yourself and the therapy, I will propose you a plan to work towards the improvement of your actual conditions
020 3889 5965 View 020 3889 5965
Photo of Gabriela Mendelsohn, MA
Gabriela Mendelsohn
MA
Verified Verified
London NW11  (Online Only)
We live in a fast paced, high stress generation. Self- care ranks low on our list until it becomes a necessity. my therapy sessions offer a safe, warm and caring space that not only encourages self- care and works through the various emotional and psychological struggles that many face today but it also encourages creativity, thinking out the box and being self- expressive. Something all adults have innately but don’t always tap into. Tapping into this latent side of ourselves already engages so much joy and healing. One doesn’t need prior art experience to come to art therapy.
We live in a fast paced, high stress generation. Self- care ranks low on our list until it becomes a necessity. my therapy sessions offer a safe, warm and caring space that not only encourages self- care and works through the various emotional and psychological struggles that many face today but it also encourages creativity, thinking out the box and being self- expressive. Something all adults have innately but don’t always tap into. Tapping into this latent side of ourselves already engages so much joy and healing. One doesn’t need prior art experience to come to art therapy.
020 3835 3199 x44 View 020 3835 3199 x44
Photo of Charlotte Lucas, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Charlotte Lucas
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
London W4
Hi, my name is Charlotte. I am a UKCP registered psychotherapist with an MSc in Transactional Analysis. I know that coming to therapy can often feel difficult and scary. The desire to want to change often comes out of finding yourself stuck in the same place. This can feel confusing and even overwhelming, so finding the right therapist for you is essential. Together, we will work on making sense of the mental blocks you’ve hit to unlock new ways of thinking through the past in order to awaken present. I am a warm, empathic and direct counsellor who can offer you a confidential space to explore yourself deeply and in your own time.
Hi, my name is Charlotte. I am a UKCP registered psychotherapist with an MSc in Transactional Analysis. I know that coming to therapy can often feel difficult and scary. The desire to want to change often comes out of finding yourself stuck in the same place. This can feel confusing and even overwhelming, so finding the right therapist for you is essential. Together, we will work on making sense of the mental blocks you’ve hit to unlock new ways of thinking through the past in order to awaken present. I am a warm, empathic and direct counsellor who can offer you a confidential space to explore yourself deeply and in your own time.
01748 902284 View 01748 902284
Photo of Annabel Crocker-Mellor, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Annabel Crocker-Mellor
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
London N1
As a Person-Centred therapist I recognise clients have the capacity to fulfil their potential when able to truly encounter themselves. I facilitate the therapeutic process by creating a compassionate environment that fosters sincere and intimate experiencing of your true self.
As a Person-Centred therapist I recognise clients have the capacity to fulfil their potential when able to truly encounter themselves. I facilitate the therapeutic process by creating a compassionate environment that fosters sincere and intimate experiencing of your true self.
020 3862 4761 View 020 3862 4761
Photo of Francesco Lodi, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Francesco Lodi
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
London N1
Hello and welcome. I am an experienced therapist who supports adults navigating anxious and stressful times. I have particular experience in helping you with issues around self-esteem and self-blame. It can be challenging to manage emotions, and a combination of factors can lead to poor mental health and feeling unheard or misunderstood. I will listen to you sincerely. Therapy can bring freedom from a critical inner voice. I have extensive experience supporting clients suffering from depression and helping them through periods of feeling lost, empty and numb. I am also a lecturer in Counselling Studies.
Hello and welcome. I am an experienced therapist who supports adults navigating anxious and stressful times. I have particular experience in helping you with issues around self-esteem and self-blame. It can be challenging to manage emotions, and a combination of factors can lead to poor mental health and feeling unheard or misunderstood. I will listen to you sincerely. Therapy can bring freedom from a critical inner voice. I have extensive experience supporting clients suffering from depression and helping them through periods of feeling lost, empty and numb. I am also a lecturer in Counselling Studies.
020 4538 2897 View 020 4538 2897
Photo of Dr Jeffrey McDonnell, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Jeffrey McDonnell
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
London W1G
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist (trained at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London) and researcher (University College London, at present), offering CBT, DBT, EMDR and schema therapy, online and in-person in Central London. I am HCPC registered and BPS-chartered. I have over 15-years experience working across a range of clinical and academic contexts, publishing peer-reviewed research into mental health and receiving specialist, post-qualification training in a variety of therapeutic approaches.
I am a Chartered Clinical Psychologist (trained at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London) and researcher (University College London, at present), offering CBT, DBT, EMDR and schema therapy, online and in-person in Central London. I am HCPC registered and BPS-chartered. I have over 15-years experience working across a range of clinical and academic contexts, publishing peer-reviewed research into mental health and receiving specialist, post-qualification training in a variety of therapeutic approaches.
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See more therapy options for London

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in London

3,000+

Average cost per session

£75

Counsellors in London who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
79% Stress
66% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Aviva
64% AXA PPP
57% Vitality

How Counsellors in London see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
24% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in London?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.