Photo of Dawn Aruoma, MA, ACC Reg, Counsellor
Dawn Aruoma
Counsellor, MA, ACC Reg
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
We provide counselling in the following areas: Anxiety, depression, conflict resolution, bereavement, self-esteem issues, marriage counselling, spiritual formation, interpersonal forgiveness, and adolescents counselling. Our Biblical counsellor accepts the Scriptures as the word of God; it is therefore fitting to resolve the human condition. We gather information, make a Biblical interpretation, and give a Biblical answer along with hope. We work holistically with individual's brokenness, suffering, inner struggles and pain. Prayer, Christian meditation, gratitude journaling informs our Biblical counselling practice.
We provide counselling in the following areas: Anxiety, depression, conflict resolution, bereavement, self-esteem issues, marriage counselling, spiritual formation, interpersonal forgiveness, and adolescents counselling. Our Biblical counsellor accepts the Scriptures as the word of God; it is therefore fitting to resolve the human condition. We gather information, make a Biblical interpretation, and give a Biblical answer along with hope. We work holistically with individual's brokenness, suffering, inner struggles and pain. Prayer, Christian meditation, gratitude journaling informs our Biblical counselling practice.
07480 802691 View 07480 802691
Photo of undefined - Reflections Counselling, MBACP, Counsellor
Reflections Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
The ideal client is someone who wants help, they may not understand exactly why but know that change is needed. They may need help with relationships, problems of everyday living or traumas and crises. They may experience depression, anxiety, low self-esteem or childhood issues.
The ideal client is someone who wants help, they may not understand exactly why but know that change is needed. They may need help with relationships, problems of everyday living or traumas and crises. They may experience depression, anxiety, low self-esteem or childhood issues.
01708 989032 View 01708 989032
Photo of Dr Denika Campbell-Lee, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Denika Campbell-Lee
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Barking IG11  (Online Only)
Do you feel misunderstood, either by others or even yourself? Are you struggling with your mood? Do you find yourself tearful, anxious, confused or angry? Do you have days where you are able to function with your struggles and days you find it too hard to function? Hi I'm Denika and I would love to help! We'll think about everything that makes you, you! Including cultural and social aspects which are not typically considered in traditional therapeutic models. There's many versions of you, and together we can discover the version you want to be most present. I also offer private Autism assessments (starting from £1900).
Do you feel misunderstood, either by others or even yourself? Are you struggling with your mood? Do you find yourself tearful, anxious, confused or angry? Do you have days where you are able to function with your struggles and days you find it too hard to function? Hi I'm Denika and I would love to help! We'll think about everything that makes you, you! Including cultural and social aspects which are not typically considered in traditional therapeutic models. There's many versions of you, and together we can discover the version you want to be most present. I also offer private Autism assessments (starting from £1900).
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Photo of Bianca Regine Ramos, DCounsPsych, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Bianca Regine Ramos
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
Hello, thanks for looking at my profile. My name is Bianca, I am a fully qualified counsellor and psychotherapist, based in Barking, East London, specialized in Anxiety, Stress, Depression and relationship issues. I work in a warm, supportive and holistic way, in a safe and confidential space, to explore whatever difficulties you may be currently experiencing in your life, and to help you find solutions. A holistic view means that I am interested in engaging and developing the whole person. You can think of this as different levels, physical, emotional, mental and spiritual.
Hello, thanks for looking at my profile. My name is Bianca, I am a fully qualified counsellor and psychotherapist, based in Barking, East London, specialized in Anxiety, Stress, Depression and relationship issues. I work in a warm, supportive and holistic way, in a safe and confidential space, to explore whatever difficulties you may be currently experiencing in your life, and to help you find solutions. A holistic view means that I am interested in engaging and developing the whole person. You can think of this as different levels, physical, emotional, mental and spiritual.
020 4538 1393 View 020 4538 1393
Photo of Esther Emanuel, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Esther Emanuel
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
Whatever your reason is for seeking therapy, I am here to help. I am a Clinical Hypnotherapist, Psychotherapist, NLP Master Practitioner and Time Line Therapist. I have been a therapist for 25+ years and I assist my clients in overcoming a range of issues. I am open to self and third-party referrals and, I am also a private mental healthcare provider-practitioner for BUPA, Aviva, Cigna, WPA - to mention a few. My main focus and therefore my specialism is often in the treatment of Stress, Anxiety and Depression - but tend to work with of relational issues too. I work both face-to-face and by telephone. I also run therapy groups.
Whatever your reason is for seeking therapy, I am here to help. I am a Clinical Hypnotherapist, Psychotherapist, NLP Master Practitioner and Time Line Therapist. I have been a therapist for 25+ years and I assist my clients in overcoming a range of issues. I am open to self and third-party referrals and, I am also a private mental healthcare provider-practitioner for BUPA, Aviva, Cigna, WPA - to mention a few. My main focus and therefore my specialism is often in the treatment of Stress, Anxiety and Depression - but tend to work with of relational issues too. I work both face-to-face and by telephone. I also run therapy groups.
020 3917 4304 View 020 3917 4304
Photo of undefined - ukassurance Counselling Service, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
ukassurance Counselling Service
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barking IG11
My therapy/counselling offers hope to anybody who wants to change life-long problems and move on in the following areas; Feelings of depression, anxiety disorders, Low self-esteem, OCD, IBS, Insomnia, GAD, Concerns about your relationships at home or work, Feelings of loneliness, Physical problems with no clear physical cause, Finding there is no meaning in life; Suffering from trauma, or abuse whether past or present; Addictions (sexual, drugs, and alcohol, ). I also provide marriage and pre-marital counselling using prepared Enrich programme.
My therapy/counselling offers hope to anybody who wants to change life-long problems and move on in the following areas; Feelings of depression, anxiety disorders, Low self-esteem, OCD, IBS, Insomnia, GAD, Concerns about your relationships at home or work, Feelings of loneliness, Physical problems with no clear physical cause, Finding there is no meaning in life; Suffering from trauma, or abuse whether past or present; Addictions (sexual, drugs, and alcohol, ). I also provide marriage and pre-marital counselling using prepared Enrich programme.
020 3835 3203 View 020 3835 3203
Photo of Nishat Ahmed Senior Cbt Therapist Emdr Therapist, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Nishat Ahmed Senior Cbt Therapist Emdr Therapist
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
“A good therapist is someone who joins you in your deepest darkness with a flashlight to help you find your way out”.—————————————————————— CBT and EMDR for Depressive or Anxiety disorders. Incorporating techniques of Compassion Focused Therapy and Mindfulness for an integrative therapeutic experience. ———————————————————Problems and difficulties I work with: Generalised Anxiety, Social Anxiety, Depression, Low Self-Esteem, Panic, OCD, Health Anxiety, PTSD and trauma, Phobias, FND, Dissociative Disorders and more. —————————————————————-——- I am currently a senior clinician specialising in Neuropsychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital
“A good therapist is someone who joins you in your deepest darkness with a flashlight to help you find your way out”.—————————————————————— CBT and EMDR for Depressive or Anxiety disorders. Incorporating techniques of Compassion Focused Therapy and Mindfulness for an integrative therapeutic experience. ———————————————————Problems and difficulties I work with: Generalised Anxiety, Social Anxiety, Depression, Low Self-Esteem, Panic, OCD, Health Anxiety, PTSD and trauma, Phobias, FND, Dissociative Disorders and more. —————————————————————-——- I am currently a senior clinician specialising in Neuropsychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital
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Photo of Rita Edah, MA, MBACP Accred, Counsellor
Rita Edah
Counsellor, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
Not accepting new clients
Do you suffer with anxiety, depression, guilt or shame? Do you feel isolated because of a breakdown in family relationships, separation or divorce, betrayal or estrangement? Are you suffering from post traumatic stress? Perhaps major life changes have left you feeling lost, stuck, confused, distressed or ashamed?
Do you suffer with anxiety, depression, guilt or shame? Do you feel isolated because of a breakdown in family relationships, separation or divorce, betrayal or estrangement? Are you suffering from post traumatic stress? Perhaps major life changes have left you feeling lost, stuck, confused, distressed or ashamed?
020 3319 5093 View 020 3319 5093
Photo of Shahanara Begum, MBACP, Counsellor
Shahanara Begum
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
Are you someone who is feeling stuck or alone, struggling with depression or anxiety? Sometimes we go through low points in life and need some support to get through it. I offer a non-judgemental and a confidential space for all my clients. I work with my clients to heal from traumatic/painful experiences. I help clients to learn to value themselves, increase their self-worth and being their authentic selves. Whether your goal is to overcome depression/anxiety, or feel like you've lost direction in life, I will endeavour to assist you to reach your goal. I am in my late 40's and have also been through my own healing journey.
Are you someone who is feeling stuck or alone, struggling with depression or anxiety? Sometimes we go through low points in life and need some support to get through it. I offer a non-judgemental and a confidential space for all my clients. I work with my clients to heal from traumatic/painful experiences. I help clients to learn to value themselves, increase their self-worth and being their authentic selves. Whether your goal is to overcome depression/anxiety, or feel like you've lost direction in life, I will endeavour to assist you to reach your goal. I am in my late 40's and have also been through my own healing journey.
07479 272344 View 07479 272344
Photo of Nomsa Sandra Wayland, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Nomsa Sandra Wayland
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
I am an integrative therapist who values the inner strength it takes one to be vulnerable whilst sharing their lived experience. My focus is to try and walk in one's world. Therefore I value every person I speak to with respect for who they are and how they have got to where they are. I refrain from judging you and provide a source of complete acceptance and support. You will lead the conversation, and I will not attempt to steer you in any direction; instead, I offer a safe, confidential, non-judgemental environment for you to explore and talk about any difficulties you may be experiencing.
I am an integrative therapist who values the inner strength it takes one to be vulnerable whilst sharing their lived experience. My focus is to try and walk in one's world. Therefore I value every person I speak to with respect for who they are and how they have got to where they are. I refrain from judging you and provide a source of complete acceptance and support. You will lead the conversation, and I will not attempt to steer you in any direction; instead, I offer a safe, confidential, non-judgemental environment for you to explore and talk about any difficulties you may be experiencing.
01702 908353 View 01702 908353
Photo of Jamil Ahmed, MA, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Jamil Ahmed
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
As we are thrown into the thick of life, it is our response to these circumstances which reveal who we are and where we may want to go. As life is anything but a linear process - we may often stumble or get stuck along the way. We may even describe the stumbling blocks as anxiety, depression, numbness or even shame. Some of our work could involve examining those stumbling blocks and challenging your ideas, choices and reasoning processes. I encourage you to remain open to all aspects and stimulate you to consider ones often overlooked.
As we are thrown into the thick of life, it is our response to these circumstances which reveal who we are and where we may want to go. As life is anything but a linear process - we may often stumble or get stuck along the way. We may even describe the stumbling blocks as anxiety, depression, numbness or even shame. Some of our work could involve examining those stumbling blocks and challenging your ideas, choices and reasoning processes. I encourage you to remain open to all aspects and stimulate you to consider ones often overlooked.
020 4538 9011 View 020 4538 9011
Photo of Shirley Banton, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Shirley Banton
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
Are you feeling overwhelmed? Do you struggle making decisions? Or perhaps you have noticed a lack in motivation. If so, you have come to the right place. It's easy to forget how vulnerable the mind can be to the challenges of everyday life. At times like this the presence of a sympathetic ear is welcomed. I can offer you online, telephone and face to face counselling/therapy sessions. My name is Shirley Banton I am a qualified Psychotherapist who offers a gentle, reassuring service for those who are experiencing emotional difficulties. If you're ready to get more clarity or want to take action call me now or visit my website.
Are you feeling overwhelmed? Do you struggle making decisions? Or perhaps you have noticed a lack in motivation. If so, you have come to the right place. It's easy to forget how vulnerable the mind can be to the challenges of everyday life. At times like this the presence of a sympathetic ear is welcomed. I can offer you online, telephone and face to face counselling/therapy sessions. My name is Shirley Banton I am a qualified Psychotherapist who offers a gentle, reassuring service for those who are experiencing emotional difficulties. If you're ready to get more clarity or want to take action call me now or visit my website.
01708 963860 View 01708 963860
Photo of Rebecca Chowdhury - My Existence (Online), MBACP, Counsellor
Rebecca Chowdhury - My Existence (Online)
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Barking IG11  (Online Only)
Hello! I am an integrative counsellor and psychotherapist who has great experience in working with people who are looking to have a positive impact on their well-being. I work with a range of different difficulties some of which are, anxiety, depression, childhood trauma, emotional dysregulation and cultural issues.
Hello! I am an integrative counsellor and psychotherapist who has great experience in working with people who are looking to have a positive impact on their well-being. I work with a range of different difficulties some of which are, anxiety, depression, childhood trauma, emotional dysregulation and cultural issues.
020 3667 1762 View 020 3667 1762
Photo of Shivani Sidapra, MBACP, Counsellor
Shivani Sidapra
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
Whether you are experiencing anxiety, depression, divorce, breakup, family issues or loss, counselling can be incredibly helpful and healing. We all require some support at a stage in our lives, and feeling overwhelmed, stuck, or lost is nothing to feel ashamed of, but can leave you wanting and searching for more. Helping to raise awareness of your experience in the present, I can facilitate and support your process towards developing a new unique perspective. I believe by incorporating the cognitive, physical and emotional experience, we can reach a deeper, more meaningful understanding of ourselves.
Whether you are experiencing anxiety, depression, divorce, breakup, family issues or loss, counselling can be incredibly helpful and healing. We all require some support at a stage in our lives, and feeling overwhelmed, stuck, or lost is nothing to feel ashamed of, but can leave you wanting and searching for more. Helping to raise awareness of your experience in the present, I can facilitate and support your process towards developing a new unique perspective. I believe by incorporating the cognitive, physical and emotional experience, we can reach a deeper, more meaningful understanding of ourselves.
07449 014906 View 07449 014906
Photo of Dr Nifemi Ajala, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Nifemi Ajala
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
It can be overwhelming navigating life’s obstacles while trying to keep on top of it all. You may be in a place where you don't feel like yourself, feeling lower than usual, anxious and maybe a little stuck. As a qualified Clinical Psychologist with many years of experience, I offer a safe, non-judgemental and warm space for you to feel heard, valued and understood. I work with all aspects of your identity such as your gender, culture and religion as I believe these unique factors shape who you are. I use a person-centred approach to identify the issues you may be facing and support you to reconnect with your strengths and values.
It can be overwhelming navigating life’s obstacles while trying to keep on top of it all. You may be in a place where you don't feel like yourself, feeling lower than usual, anxious and maybe a little stuck. As a qualified Clinical Psychologist with many years of experience, I offer a safe, non-judgemental and warm space for you to feel heard, valued and understood. I work with all aspects of your identity such as your gender, culture and religion as I believe these unique factors shape who you are. I use a person-centred approach to identify the issues you may be facing and support you to reconnect with your strengths and values.
020 3985 7609 View 020 3985 7609
Photo of undefined - Pro Comfort Counselling - Marian Claudiu Ciuhan, MSc, GMBPsS, Psychologist
Pro Comfort Counselling - Marian Claudiu Ciuhan
Psychologist, MSc, GMBPsS
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
Step into a realm where family complexities and relationship intricacies find understanding and transformation. In the face of challenges like family conflicts, ADHD, and substance abuse, envision a guide specializing in Family and Couples Therapy—someone attuned to your unique journey. I am that guide, offering more than expertise; I offer a compassionate partnership. As a psychologist skilled in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Emotionally Focused Therapy, and Play Therapy, I invite you to embark on a transformative journey. Your narrative of fulfillment and resilience, meticulously crafted for your family's needs, awaits.
Step into a realm where family complexities and relationship intricacies find understanding and transformation. In the face of challenges like family conflicts, ADHD, and substance abuse, envision a guide specializing in Family and Couples Therapy—someone attuned to your unique journey. I am that guide, offering more than expertise; I offer a compassionate partnership. As a psychologist skilled in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Emotionally Focused Therapy, and Play Therapy, I invite you to embark on a transformative journey. Your narrative of fulfillment and resilience, meticulously crafted for your family's needs, awaits.
07480 789942 View 07480 789942
Photo of Nathan Owusu, MSc
Nathan Owusu
MSc
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
I create a safe and non-judgemental environment for my clients to have a space to talk about their issues. Having many years of experience working with a variety of clients that present having complex needs such as emotional regulation, relationships, , I understand the importance of demonstrating a person centered approach. I help the individual to understand what the issues are, articulate how it is effecting them and find useful psychological strategies to support them through everyday life.
I create a safe and non-judgemental environment for my clients to have a space to talk about their issues. Having many years of experience working with a variety of clients that present having complex needs such as emotional regulation, relationships, , I understand the importance of demonstrating a person centered approach. I help the individual to understand what the issues are, articulate how it is effecting them and find useful psychological strategies to support them through everyday life.
01708 983024 View 01708 983024
Photo of Sally Barnes, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Sally Barnes
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
You may feel that something is not quite right in your life or have a feeling of not being good enough. I offer a space where we can look at these things together. I can be by your side as you grapple with uncomfortable feelings, self-acceptance, social anxiety or difficult relationships. My life experience also makes me well placed to help people going through life changes and struggling with loss.
You may feel that something is not quite right in your life or have a feeling of not being good enough. I offer a space where we can look at these things together. I can be by your side as you grapple with uncomfortable feelings, self-acceptance, social anxiety or difficult relationships. My life experience also makes me well placed to help people going through life changes and struggling with loss.
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Photo of Molly Lawrence-Adekola, MSc, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Molly Lawrence-Adekola
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Barking IG11
I am an integrative Counsellor and Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist with over 10 years clinical experience of working in the NHS, voluntary organisations and private practice. I have extensive training in a range of different approaches ; this gives me a choice of ways of helping you and adapting my approach to best meet your individual needs. I have worked effectively with a broad range of clients from various background with their issues and treatment of different psychological disorders and help people identify the causes of problem; reduce symptoms ; advance self-understanding ; improve relationships and live more fully.
I am an integrative Counsellor and Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist with over 10 years clinical experience of working in the NHS, voluntary organisations and private practice. I have extensive training in a range of different approaches ; this gives me a choice of ways of helping you and adapting my approach to best meet your individual needs. I have worked effectively with a broad range of clients from various background with their issues and treatment of different psychological disorders and help people identify the causes of problem; reduce symptoms ; advance self-understanding ; improve relationships and live more fully.
01634 949992 View 01634 949992

See more therapy options for IG11

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in IG11

10+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in IG11 who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
95% Self Esteem
89% Relationship Issues
84% Coping Skills
84% Stress
68% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

86% AXA PPP
71% Cigna and Evernorth
71% Aviva

How Counsellors in IG11 see their clients

90% In Person and Online
10% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
22% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in IG11?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.