Photo of Lynda Goudie, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Lynda Goudie
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Hi, my name is Lynda and I have a masters (MSc) in Counselling. I also have an MA Hons Degree in English, my passion for stories on the page have also become a passion for individuals who each have their own unique story. Counselling is 50 minutes of time for you, to be heard, supported and understood. Together we can explore problems from the past, anxieties for the future and how these issues are affecting the present. You may have a specific problem or dilemma that is all about now but whatever you bring, can be explored together in a non-judgemental, empathetic and kind way.
Hi, my name is Lynda and I have a masters (MSc) in Counselling. I also have an MA Hons Degree in English, my passion for stories on the page have also become a passion for individuals who each have their own unique story. Counselling is 50 minutes of time for you, to be heard, supported and understood. Together we can explore problems from the past, anxieties for the future and how these issues are affecting the present. You may have a specific problem or dilemma that is all about now but whatever you bring, can be explored together in a non-judgemental, empathetic and kind way.
01382 933111 View 01382 933111
Photo of Shirley Anne Henderson, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Shirley Anne Henderson
Psychotherapist, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Dundee DD5  (Online Only)
Hello, I'm Shirley and I am an accredited BABCP Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist. I deliver CBT online and by telephone as this is convenient for you to be in your home/suitable location, at a time that suits you, without travelling to appointments. CBT is a problem-specific and pragmatic approach which helps you identify your specific issues and then we can work together to give you tools and strategies that help you make changes in your life. CBT helps you understand the importance of thinking and how it affects how you feel and what you do. I will help you stay in control and manage your own recovery on a long-term basis.
Hello, I'm Shirley and I am an accredited BABCP Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist. I deliver CBT online and by telephone as this is convenient for you to be in your home/suitable location, at a time that suits you, without travelling to appointments. CBT is a problem-specific and pragmatic approach which helps you identify your specific issues and then we can work together to give you tools and strategies that help you make changes in your life. CBT helps you understand the importance of thinking and how it affects how you feel and what you do. I will help you stay in control and manage your own recovery on a long-term basis.
01382 919512 View 01382 919512
Photo of Ruth Juster, MBACP, Counsellor
Ruth Juster
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
If you’re searching this website for a counsellor or psychotherapist then there’s probably something that’s troubling you. Finding the right person to trust with your vulnerabilities is important and often scary. I am highly motivated by the joy of seeing my clients getting the breakthroughs they are looking for and freedom from what holds them back or hurts them. I focus on empowering my clients and ensuring they remain in control of the pace and outcomes they want to achieve. My clients often tell me they appreciate my warm, empathetic, compassionate, and non-judgemental style.
If you’re searching this website for a counsellor or psychotherapist then there’s probably something that’s troubling you. Finding the right person to trust with your vulnerabilities is important and often scary. I am highly motivated by the joy of seeing my clients getting the breakthroughs they are looking for and freedom from what holds them back or hurts them. I focus on empowering my clients and ensuring they remain in control of the pace and outcomes they want to achieve. My clients often tell me they appreciate my warm, empathetic, compassionate, and non-judgemental style.
01382 919580 View 01382 919580
Photo of Pauline Devaney Emdr, MBACP Snr. Accred, Counsellor
Pauline Devaney Emdr
Counsellor, MBACP Snr. Accred
Verified Verified
Dundee DD5  (Online Only)
A warm welcome, I am accredited Integrative Counsellor & EMDR practitioner, trained in Flash Technique (recent advances in processing distress/trauma). I apply myself to the needs of the individual in a way that is appropriate therapeutically. I have 20+ years experience and specialise in trauma. The therapeutic relationship will be at the heart of the therapeutic process, deepening your insight and understanding to reduce symptoms and empower you to attain a richer life. EMDR is an evidence-based powerful therapy best known for treating PTSD also successful with anxiety, depression, pain and more. EMDR is recognised by NICE & WHO
A warm welcome, I am accredited Integrative Counsellor & EMDR practitioner, trained in Flash Technique (recent advances in processing distress/trauma). I apply myself to the needs of the individual in a way that is appropriate therapeutically. I have 20+ years experience and specialise in trauma. The therapeutic relationship will be at the heart of the therapeutic process, deepening your insight and understanding to reduce symptoms and empower you to attain a richer life. EMDR is an evidence-based powerful therapy best known for treating PTSD also successful with anxiety, depression, pain and more. EMDR is recognised by NICE & WHO
01382 919574 View 01382 919574
Photo of Melissa Paton - Melissa Paton - Anxiety and Self Esteem Specialist, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Melissa Paton - Anxiety and Self Esteem Specialist
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Dundee DD5  (Online Only)
Are you feeling stressed or anxious? Is this having an impact on your self esteem, confidence, relationships and functioning? If you've lost your way I can help you regain structure and routine in your life and find ways to cope with your situation. I will help get to the root of your problem so you can understand yourself and gain back some control in your life, breaking free from that vicious cycle. My mission is to help you reach your goals and find ways to make lasting change. I will work with you at your pace to formulate a unique plan to get you back on track, feel empowered and live a meaningful and fulfilled life.
Are you feeling stressed or anxious? Is this having an impact on your self esteem, confidence, relationships and functioning? If you've lost your way I can help you regain structure and routine in your life and find ways to cope with your situation. I will help get to the root of your problem so you can understand yourself and gain back some control in your life, breaking free from that vicious cycle. My mission is to help you reach your goals and find ways to make lasting change. I will work with you at your pace to formulate a unique plan to get you back on track, feel empowered and live a meaningful and fulfilled life.
01382 919496 View 01382 919496
Photo of Martine Kilgour, MSc, MBABCP, Psychotherapist
Martine Kilgour
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
Hello, thank you for visiting my page. Seeking help for any mental health issue is never easy and finding someone that you feel you can work with and trust is often even harder. I have worked with many mental health conditions over the years, both in the NHS and private practice. Mental health is often a subject that is not taught within UK schools. We unfortunately have tricky brains and rarely learn how they work and what we can do to manage them in a much more helpful way. My passion is about helping people learn skills to successfully manage their mental health and improve their quality of life and that of their families.
Hello, thank you for visiting my page. Seeking help for any mental health issue is never easy and finding someone that you feel you can work with and trust is often even harder. I have worked with many mental health conditions over the years, both in the NHS and private practice. Mental health is often a subject that is not taught within UK schools. We unfortunately have tricky brains and rarely learn how they work and what we can do to manage them in a much more helpful way. My passion is about helping people learn skills to successfully manage their mental health and improve their quality of life and that of their families.
01382 933305 View 01382 933305
Photo of Lillian Margaret Brown - Streams Counselling, MCOSCA, Counsellor
Streams Counselling
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
Hi, my name is Lillian. I offer counselling in Angus and the Dundee area for face-to-face & online sessions so please get in touch to see if I can support you. I offer a confidential non-judgemental service, working with you through situations you find yourself in, empathically exploring your concerns and difficulties to seek the best way forward for you personally. I have worked with hundreds of people, all unique, and I hope to help each one of you embrace your life with more self-understanding, with healing from past and present wounds, and to discover skills and resources to empower you to change and manage your life positively.
Hi, my name is Lillian. I offer counselling in Angus and the Dundee area for face-to-face & online sessions so please get in touch to see if I can support you. I offer a confidential non-judgemental service, working with you through situations you find yourself in, empathically exploring your concerns and difficulties to seek the best way forward for you personally. I have worked with hundreds of people, all unique, and I hope to help each one of you embrace your life with more self-understanding, with healing from past and present wounds, and to discover skills and resources to empower you to change and manage your life positively.
01261 450039 View 01261 450039
Photo of Dr Samantha Baradhi, PsychD, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Samantha Baradhi
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Dr Samantha Baradhi (CPsychol) is a Chartered and HCPC Registered Psychologist and COSRT Accredited Psychosexual Therapist offering psychological therapy and psychosexual therapy to adults, couples and young people above 14 years. As a counselling psychologist her approach is relational and attachment focused. A thorough psychological assessment, a humanistic stance and in-depth formulation underpin the therapy relationship, whilst an integration of therapeutic models allows Samantha to work with each individual's specific needs and goals. She has been established here at The Broughty Practice, Dundee since 2006.
Dr Samantha Baradhi (CPsychol) is a Chartered and HCPC Registered Psychologist and COSRT Accredited Psychosexual Therapist offering psychological therapy and psychosexual therapy to adults, couples and young people above 14 years. As a counselling psychologist her approach is relational and attachment focused. A thorough psychological assessment, a humanistic stance and in-depth formulation underpin the therapy relationship, whilst an integration of therapeutic models allows Samantha to work with each individual's specific needs and goals. She has been established here at The Broughty Practice, Dundee since 2006.
01382 933250 View 01382 933250
Photo of Paul Matthew, MSc, MBACP Accred, Psychotherapist
Paul Matthew
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Hi I'm Paul and I'm a Pluralistic Counsellor and Psychotherapist. I am experienced and flexible to work with any presenting issue. I can offer short or longer term therapy and work with you to find the best route for you. I have experience in Anxiety, Cancer and Long term illness, Depression, low mood, Feeling Sad, Uni Students, Relational issues, Bereavement, older Teenagers, Work related stress and redundancy, I can also work with anger, trauma and any other presenting issue.
Hi I'm Paul and I'm a Pluralistic Counsellor and Psychotherapist. I am experienced and flexible to work with any presenting issue. I can offer short or longer term therapy and work with you to find the best route for you. I have experience in Anxiety, Cancer and Long term illness, Depression, low mood, Feeling Sad, Uni Students, Relational issues, Bereavement, older Teenagers, Work related stress and redundancy, I can also work with anger, trauma and any other presenting issue.
01382 919373 View 01382 919373
Photo of Alison MacLeod, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Alison MacLeod
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Life can be a challenge, especially now. As your therapist, I can offer you a secure and trusted space to bring your needs and concerns. I believe that therapy should lead to a “step change” where my clients become able to make an immediate difference to the way they think and their relationships with others. I work to build trust and empathy and strive to understand the world from your perspective. I can help you to understand that small changes to the way you see things can have a major impact on how you feel.
Life can be a challenge, especially now. As your therapist, I can offer you a secure and trusted space to bring your needs and concerns. I believe that therapy should lead to a “step change” where my clients become able to make an immediate difference to the way they think and their relationships with others. I work to build trust and empathy and strive to understand the world from your perspective. I can help you to understand that small changes to the way you see things can have a major impact on how you feel.
View
Photo of Paula Marie Kenneth - Authentic counselling- EMDR practitioner, MSc, MBACP, Counsellor
Authentic counselling- EMDR practitioner
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Welcome to Authentic Counselling. I am a pluralistic counsellor based in Carnoustie, Angus. As a pluralistic counsellor I hold the view that different things work for different people at different points in their life and that no client's experience is the same. I utilise methods and techniques from a number of different modalities in order to best meet the counselling needs/preferences of the clients whom engage with my service. Recently completed children matters course allowing me to work therapeutically with children from the age of 4. Completed couples counselling course in 2022 building on my experience and range of methods.
Welcome to Authentic Counselling. I am a pluralistic counsellor based in Carnoustie, Angus. As a pluralistic counsellor I hold the view that different things work for different people at different points in their life and that no client's experience is the same. I utilise methods and techniques from a number of different modalities in order to best meet the counselling needs/preferences of the clients whom engage with my service. Recently completed children matters course allowing me to work therapeutically with children from the age of 4. Completed couples counselling course in 2022 building on my experience and range of methods.
01241 468693 View 01241 468693
Photo of Lynda Jane Lawrence - Beingwell, MBACP, Counsellor
Beingwell
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Hello, My name is Lynda and I am the counsellor within Beingwell, a holistic wellbeing centre in Dundee. Counselling can benefit everyone and aims to address people's life problems in a safe environment where you will be listened to without fear of criticism or judgement. Our relationship is really important to me and I would want to work in a flexible and collaborative way to ensure that you feel comfortable and empowered in our sessions together. I offer short or long term counselling to be decided together.
Hello, My name is Lynda and I am the counsellor within Beingwell, a holistic wellbeing centre in Dundee. Counselling can benefit everyone and aims to address people's life problems in a safe environment where you will be listened to without fear of criticism or judgement. Our relationship is really important to me and I would want to work in a flexible and collaborative way to ensure that you feel comfortable and empowered in our sessions together. I offer short or long term counselling to be decided together.
01382 933266 View 01382 933266
Photo of Joyce Cherry, MBACP, Counsellor
Joyce Cherry
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Where to begin? How do you choose the right person to work with you? If you want to work with someone who has their own lived experiences, someone who will not only listen without judgement, but will respect your choice to take it at your own speed, then,let's talk. I work with Adults, Children and Young People,using a variety of approaches which are trauma based, also support issues with Anxiety/Depression. I have experience working with Neurodivergent clients. Helping you to make changes in your life whatever the issue. I know it's hard,but you've taken the first step,let me walk with you now and see what we can do together.
Where to begin? How do you choose the right person to work with you? If you want to work with someone who has their own lived experiences, someone who will not only listen without judgement, but will respect your choice to take it at your own speed, then,let's talk. I work with Adults, Children and Young People,using a variety of approaches which are trauma based, also support issues with Anxiety/Depression. I have experience working with Neurodivergent clients. Helping you to make changes in your life whatever the issue. I know it's hard,but you've taken the first step,let me walk with you now and see what we can do together.
01382 919594 View 01382 919594
Photo of Dr Csilla Gulyas, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Csilla Gulyas
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I put emphasis on ensuring that we can jointly develop a shared understanding of your experiences and difficulties with the aim of empowering you to take actions to reach your desired goals. I provide a range of evidence-based psychological therapies for those over the age of 16 from various backgrounds. Difficulties I work with include (but are not limited to): depression, anxiety, stress, loss, body image issues, panic, OCD, anger, trauma, life changes, sexual difficulties, health anxiety, low self-esteem and relationship difficulties. I also offer input towards personal development and self-reflection.
I put emphasis on ensuring that we can jointly develop a shared understanding of your experiences and difficulties with the aim of empowering you to take actions to reach your desired goals. I provide a range of evidence-based psychological therapies for those over the age of 16 from various backgrounds. Difficulties I work with include (but are not limited to): depression, anxiety, stress, loss, body image issues, panic, OCD, anger, trauma, life changes, sexual difficulties, health anxiety, low self-esteem and relationship difficulties. I also offer input towards personal development and self-reflection.
01382 919559 View 01382 919559
Photo of Louise Loughran, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Louise Loughran
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
I offer specialist Autism Assessment services to teenagers and young adults. I have over 15 years' experience working with Autistic young people and I am dedicated to delivering a high quality, personalised experience. My team share the values of professionalism, compassion and commitment to the young people and families we see.
I offer specialist Autism Assessment services to teenagers and young adults. I have over 15 years' experience working with Autistic young people and I am dedicated to delivering a high quality, personalised experience. My team share the values of professionalism, compassion and commitment to the young people and families we see.
View
Photo of Kat Jennifer Marshall - Kat Marshall Therapy Services
Kat Marshall Therapy Services
Verified Verified
Waitlist for new clients
I believe that all people can reach their full potential when they have the tools, knowledge and awareness to empower themselves. Together, we can find new ways to manage your current situation, challenge unhelpful thinking, and experiment with behaviour change. My role is to help you explore these difficult thoughts and feelings to find strategies for coping that work for you. I am a Cognitive-Behavioural Therapist, which is a collaborative and effective treatment method for a wide range of issues. I work with adults of all ages, backgrounds and identities. I champion equality and inclusion in my practice and am gender-affirming.
I believe that all people can reach their full potential when they have the tools, knowledge and awareness to empower themselves. Together, we can find new ways to manage your current situation, challenge unhelpful thinking, and experiment with behaviour change. My role is to help you explore these difficult thoughts and feelings to find strategies for coping that work for you. I am a Cognitive-Behavioural Therapist, which is a collaborative and effective treatment method for a wide range of issues. I work with adults of all ages, backgrounds and identities. I champion equality and inclusion in my practice and am gender-affirming.
View
Photo of Jennifer Broadley - Online Therapy - Uk, MHGI, Psychotherapist
Jennifer Broadley - Online Therapy - Uk
Psychotherapist, MHGI
Verified Verified
For sure, life can get complicated. Health, finances, relationships, career, family, fitness and unexpected change – more than ever before upsets in these areas can impact our ability to think clearly and move confidently through our day. Clients come to see me when they want fast, effective new outcomes for depression, anxiety, trauma, bereavement and relationship re-thinks.
For sure, life can get complicated. Health, finances, relationships, career, family, fitness and unexpected change – more than ever before upsets in these areas can impact our ability to think clearly and move confidently through our day. Clients come to see me when they want fast, effective new outcomes for depression, anxiety, trauma, bereavement and relationship re-thinks.
07798 792763 View 07798 792763
Photo of Dr Robina Boehnke - Dr Robina Boehnke, HCPC - Couns. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Robina Boehnke
Psychologist, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Hello and welcome! I am glad that you have found your way here. Life is difficult and whilst we can often cope well with the challenges life throws at us, sometimes we find ourselves stuck and unable to get ourselves unstuck regardless of how hard we try. This is where therapy comes in. You may feel depressed, anxious, stressed, or low and may have trouble enjoying the good things in life. I offer you a compassionate, trustworthy, and non-judgmental space where you can explore, develop, learn, and grow. Please have a look at my website for more detailed information.
Hello and welcome! I am glad that you have found your way here. Life is difficult and whilst we can often cope well with the challenges life throws at us, sometimes we find ourselves stuck and unable to get ourselves unstuck regardless of how hard we try. This is where therapy comes in. You may feel depressed, anxious, stressed, or low and may have trouble enjoying the good things in life. I offer you a compassionate, trustworthy, and non-judgmental space where you can explore, develop, learn, and grow. Please have a look at my website for more detailed information.
07526 043595 View 07526 043595
Photo of Aaron Kelly, MSc, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Aaron Kelly
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
Dundee DD5  (Online Only)
Life is ten percent what you experience and ninety percent how you respond to it. Starting counselling can be a bit scary, but living with unresolved problems is probably much worse. I believe that conditions such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and codependency signal that something is preventing us from thriving. Embarking on the journey of counselling can feel daunting, especially when grappling with conditions like Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and the complexities of family issues and trauma. Yet living with unresolved challenges can often feel challenging.
Life is ten percent what you experience and ninety percent how you respond to it. Starting counselling can be a bit scary, but living with unresolved problems is probably much worse. I believe that conditions such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and codependency signal that something is preventing us from thriving. Embarking on the journey of counselling can feel daunting, especially when grappling with conditions like Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and the complexities of family issues and trauma. Yet living with unresolved challenges can often feel challenging.
01764 910438 View 01764 910438

See more therapy options for DD5

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in DD5

10+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in DD5 who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
89% Depression
84% Self Esteem
84% Stress
68% Relationship Issues
68% Emotional Disturbance
68% Peer Relationships

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% Bupa
60% Aviva
40% AXA PPP

How Counsellors in DD5 see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

89% Female
11% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in DD5?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.