Photo of Christian John Liberati, Counsellor in BS4, England
Christian John Liberati
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Perhaps you feel lost, ungrounded, unable to understand your emotional way of being and always seem to be at conflict with yourself and others in your life. Perhaps you suffer from anxiety, stress, OCD, addictions, lack of self-worth. Perhaps you are grieving a loss of a loved one, relationship break-up or a job. In these times of stress and anxiety, one needs to find one’s inner core strength to be able to be fully grounded and able to fully move into life with clarity and focus. With my counselling skills and our teamwork, you can become the person you were born to be.
Perhaps you feel lost, ungrounded, unable to understand your emotional way of being and always seem to be at conflict with yourself and others in your life. Perhaps you suffer from anxiety, stress, OCD, addictions, lack of self-worth. Perhaps you are grieving a loss of a loved one, relationship break-up or a job. In these times of stress and anxiety, one needs to find one’s inner core strength to be able to be fully grounded and able to fully move into life with clarity and focus. With my counselling skills and our teamwork, you can become the person you were born to be.
01275 408887 View 01275 408887
Photo of Achalavira Rose, Psychotherapist in BS4, England
Achalavira Rose
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
People seek psychotherapy for a broad range of reasons. Often when other avenues have already been explored but perhaps you have been experiencing recurring and enduring patterns of behaviour and difficulty in some part of your life. Something needs to change.
People seek psychotherapy for a broad range of reasons. Often when other avenues have already been explored but perhaps you have been experiencing recurring and enduring patterns of behaviour and difficulty in some part of your life. Something needs to change.
0117 456 2710 View 0117 456 2710
Photo of Lucy Hensher, Counsellor in BS4, England
Lucy Hensher
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS4  (Online Only)
Hi, I'm Lucy. I'm an integrative counsellor which means I will tailor my practice to your young person (ages 9-21 years) to best meet their counselling needs. Is your child struggling with knowing where they fit in? I use a range of interventions and like to work creatively with my clients to help them find comfort to explore who they really are. I find working online gives clients the safety to be themselves in their own space. I have worked with young people for over ten years including as a secondary school teacher before I trained as a counsellor. I have two years of experience working with the LGBTQ+ community.
Hi, I'm Lucy. I'm an integrative counsellor which means I will tailor my practice to your young person (ages 9-21 years) to best meet their counselling needs. Is your child struggling with knowing where they fit in? I use a range of interventions and like to work creatively with my clients to help them find comfort to explore who they really are. I find working online gives clients the safety to be themselves in their own space. I have worked with young people for over ten years including as a secondary school teacher before I trained as a counsellor. I have two years of experience working with the LGBTQ+ community.
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Photo of RC Counselling, Counsellor in BS4, England
RC Counselling
Counsellor, MA, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS4  (Online Only)
Hello, my name is Rachel. I am a qualified and insured counsellor and supervisor, working in private practice. I offer individual sessions for both short or long term therapy via telephone or Zoom.
Hello, my name is Rachel. I am a qualified and insured counsellor and supervisor, working in private practice. I offer individual sessions for both short or long term therapy via telephone or Zoom.
0117 325 4097 View 0117 325 4097
Photo of Katie Gannaway/Down to Earth Integrative Therapy , Counsellor in BS4, England
Katie Gannaway/Down to Earth Integrative Therapy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS4  (Online Only)
We can all feel overwhelmed, stuck or struggle to make changes to relieve our distress or difficulties. As your therapist I will work alongside you to explore your story, providing opportunities to see yourself separate from your difficulty. By gaining a better understanding of the self and our habitual patterns of thinking and behaviour you can bring an alternative story out of the shadows, which could empower you to make changes, improve your relationships and benefit from improved mental and physical wellbeing. I am registered with the BACP and BABCP.
We can all feel overwhelmed, stuck or struggle to make changes to relieve our distress or difficulties. As your therapist I will work alongside you to explore your story, providing opportunities to see yourself separate from your difficulty. By gaining a better understanding of the self and our habitual patterns of thinking and behaviour you can bring an alternative story out of the shadows, which could empower you to make changes, improve your relationships and benefit from improved mental and physical wellbeing. I am registered with the BACP and BABCP.
0117 463 3359 View 0117 463 3359
Photo of Nicolas Sean Shearer Burgess, Counsellor in BS4, England
Nicolas Sean Shearer Burgess
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Throughout our sessions, we will work together to create a bespoke therapy. As an integrative therapist I use a variety of therapeutic approaches. The main focus of the therapy I offer is deeply rooted in Person Centred Therapy; your life is your lived experience and “you experience yourself, as the expert of your own experience”. This non directive approach is the focus of the work, in addition to this, I believe self-compassion ( the process of applying kindness to yourself), is something that appears to be much harder than we are led to believe but remains a key factor in developing a healthy relationship with our self.
Throughout our sessions, we will work together to create a bespoke therapy. As an integrative therapist I use a variety of therapeutic approaches. The main focus of the therapy I offer is deeply rooted in Person Centred Therapy; your life is your lived experience and “you experience yourself, as the expert of your own experience”. This non directive approach is the focus of the work, in addition to this, I believe self-compassion ( the process of applying kindness to yourself), is something that appears to be much harder than we are led to believe but remains a key factor in developing a healthy relationship with our self.
0117 463 4588 View 0117 463 4588
Photo of Trish Bone, Counsellor in BS4, England
Trish Bone
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
What happened in your childhood? How does it affect you now? I work with adults to overcome childhood/teenage adversities to find their confidence and build self-esteem. You might be feeling anxious, depressed or overwhelmed. It could be feeling unworthy of another person's love, feelings of shame or of being punished for some trust or over trusting other people. Each day can become an internal battle as you feel doubt yourself, maybe loath yourself, just can't get organised and decision leave you exhausted. If this resonates with you, email me or check out my website to book a free 15-minute phone call/zoom chat.
What happened in your childhood? How does it affect you now? I work with adults to overcome childhood/teenage adversities to find their confidence and build self-esteem. You might be feeling anxious, depressed or overwhelmed. It could be feeling unworthy of another person's love, feelings of shame or of being punished for some trust or over trusting other people. Each day can become an internal battle as you feel doubt yourself, maybe loath yourself, just can't get organised and decision leave you exhausted. If this resonates with you, email me or check out my website to book a free 15-minute phone call/zoom chat.
01275 408951 View 01275 408951
Photo of Natalie Stott, Psychologist in BS4, England
Natalie Stott
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bristol BS4  (Online Only)
Are you burnt out? Are you exhausted from having to put up a front every day ? Do you think very little of yourself, are highly critical, yet you keep going and your work and homelife are taking a hit? I am a HCPC registered clinical psychologist. I specialise in working with professionals who are driven and motivated, but who have reached a roadblock. This might be because of the demands of your job, or because of your life circumstances. I can help you to regain your self confidence and work through those intense feelings of anxiety, or not feeling good enough. It is possible make changes and learn to see yourself differently.
Are you burnt out? Are you exhausted from having to put up a front every day ? Do you think very little of yourself, are highly critical, yet you keep going and your work and homelife are taking a hit? I am a HCPC registered clinical psychologist. I specialise in working with professionals who are driven and motivated, but who have reached a roadblock. This might be because of the demands of your job, or because of your life circumstances. I can help you to regain your self confidence and work through those intense feelings of anxiety, or not feeling good enough. It is possible make changes and learn to see yourself differently.
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Photo of Cara Luff, South Bristol Therapy, Counsellor in BS4, England
Cara Luff, South Bristol Therapy
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Are you feeling overwhelmed or confused by your feelings? Do you have things happening you would like to talk through? Do you have unresolved history you feel ready to look at and would like someone to support you in that? Counselling can help you to work through all of these things and help restore a balance to your feelings and life again. I have worked in depth with trauma, attachment issues, parenting difficulties, relationship problems, anxiety, depression, OCD and panic among many other things. I work as an integrative humanistic counsellor, which means I have been trained in a number of different ways of working. ​
Are you feeling overwhelmed or confused by your feelings? Do you have things happening you would like to talk through? Do you have unresolved history you feel ready to look at and would like someone to support you in that? Counselling can help you to work through all of these things and help restore a balance to your feelings and life again. I have worked in depth with trauma, attachment issues, parenting difficulties, relationship problems, anxiety, depression, OCD and panic among many other things. I work as an integrative humanistic counsellor, which means I have been trained in a number of different ways of working. ​
0117 463 0393 View 0117 463 0393
Photo of Anxiety, Toxic Relationship, Binge Eating, Psychotherapist in BS4, England
Anxiety, Toxic Relationship, Binge Eating
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
My mission is to help you feel less stressed and more content. Confidential Counselling or Psychotherapy with me is about getting to the heart of things in a way that is hard to do with a relative or friend. Therapy with me is about getting to the heart of things in a way that is hard to do with a relative or friend. We will look at what causes your anxiety, difficult feelings, obsessive behaviours, or relational conflict. I will teach you easy and helpful methods to manage these, so you can have more control over your life.
My mission is to help you feel less stressed and more content. Confidential Counselling or Psychotherapy with me is about getting to the heart of things in a way that is hard to do with a relative or friend. Therapy with me is about getting to the heart of things in a way that is hard to do with a relative or friend. We will look at what causes your anxiety, difficult feelings, obsessive behaviours, or relational conflict. I will teach you easy and helpful methods to manage these, so you can have more control over your life.
0117 456 2134 View 0117 456 2134
Photo of Ellie Flach, Psychotherapist in BS4, England
Ellie Flach
Psychotherapist, BPC
Verified Verified
Bristol BS4  (Online Only)
If you are feeling stuck with particular problems, situations or relationships and don’t understand why or know how to do things differently, psychotherapy can help. Having a safe, confidential and non-judgemental space to explore things that are on your mind can lead to powerful changes in your life. My focus is to help you to develop greater self awareness and insight so that things that are troubling you can be understood and worked through. During sessions, I listen carefully to you and we explore links between past experiences and current difficulties so that together we can work towards deep and lasting change.
If you are feeling stuck with particular problems, situations or relationships and don’t understand why or know how to do things differently, psychotherapy can help. Having a safe, confidential and non-judgemental space to explore things that are on your mind can lead to powerful changes in your life. My focus is to help you to develop greater self awareness and insight so that things that are troubling you can be understood and worked through. During sessions, I listen carefully to you and we explore links between past experiences and current difficulties so that together we can work towards deep and lasting change.
01761 258931 View 01761 258931
Photo of Kathy Kingdon, Counsellor in BS4, England
Kathy Kingdon
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
I am here to listen. The body and mind work together, and I work holistically to support you through whatever has brought you to seek help. This could be traumas such as bereavement, abuse or relationship difficulties - sometimes there's no specific cause, but a generalised feeling of anxiety or sadness that makes it hard to cope with day to day stresses. Talking to somebody empathic and non-judgemental can help, and I offer a warm, safe and confidential space for us to explore your thoughts, feelings and emotions so that you can make sense of them, and find a much better sense of mental wellbeing.
I am here to listen. The body and mind work together, and I work holistically to support you through whatever has brought you to seek help. This could be traumas such as bereavement, abuse or relationship difficulties - sometimes there's no specific cause, but a generalised feeling of anxiety or sadness that makes it hard to cope with day to day stresses. Talking to somebody empathic and non-judgemental can help, and I offer a warm, safe and confidential space for us to explore your thoughts, feelings and emotions so that you can make sense of them, and find a much better sense of mental wellbeing.
01454 801694 View 01454 801694
Photo of Sandra Wilson Hypnotherapy for Women in BS4, England
Sandra Wilson Hypnotherapy for Women
MSc
Verified Verified
Hi, I'm Sandra, a Clinical Hypnotherapist who helps women with menopause symptoms, in particular anxiety/panic, rage, sexual problems, low body confidence, relationship issues and low self esteem. I have 39 five star google ratings too! Get in touch for a friendly chat.
Hi, I'm Sandra, a Clinical Hypnotherapist who helps women with menopause symptoms, in particular anxiety/panic, rage, sexual problems, low body confidence, relationship issues and low self esteem. I have 39 five star google ratings too! Get in touch for a friendly chat.
0117 325 5737 View 0117 325 5737
Photo of Lottie Storey, Counsellor in BS4, England
Lottie Storey
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
People are drawn to counselling/psychotherapy for various reasons. Perhaps you are facing difficulties in your relationships or grappling with intense emotions. It could be that you're finding it hard to cope with a recent event in your life, or you're feeling distressed without a clear understanding of why. Therapy can help you to make sense of these experiences, gaining a deeper understanding of yourself and finding effective ways to tackle the challenges you encounter. Working alongside a skilled therapist can support you to find a way forward.
People are drawn to counselling/psychotherapy for various reasons. Perhaps you are facing difficulties in your relationships or grappling with intense emotions. It could be that you're finding it hard to cope with a recent event in your life, or you're feeling distressed without a clear understanding of why. Therapy can help you to make sense of these experiences, gaining a deeper understanding of yourself and finding effective ways to tackle the challenges you encounter. Working alongside a skilled therapist can support you to find a way forward.
0117 463 2638 View 0117 463 2638
Photo of Louise Diffey Light Step Counselling, Counsellor in BS4, England
Louise Diffey Light Step Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Are you feeling anxious, depressed, stressed or stuck? Come and talk through how you feel about relationships, family issues including estrangement, about yourself and your worries, or about work or health issues. We can work on helping you to get in touch with how you feel, to increase your self-esteem, to learn to be kind to yourself, and to feel more confident in who you are. I provide a friendly space where you can voice and explore your thoughts at your own pace. Single session therapy offered for some situations; contact me to see if this might be suitable for you.
Are you feeling anxious, depressed, stressed or stuck? Come and talk through how you feel about relationships, family issues including estrangement, about yourself and your worries, or about work or health issues. We can work on helping you to get in touch with how you feel, to increase your self-esteem, to learn to be kind to yourself, and to feel more confident in who you are. I provide a friendly space where you can voice and explore your thoughts at your own pace. Single session therapy offered for some situations; contact me to see if this might be suitable for you.
0117 450 2905 View 0117 450 2905
Photo of Rosie Coad, Psychotherapist in BS4, England
Rosie Coad
Psychotherapist, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
I work in Bristol, offering a compassionate and confidential space in which to explore feelings and experiences at a pace which suits you. You may come with specific things that you would like to talk about, or you may struggle to articulate what you're feeling and why. Psychotherapy offers a space to uncover those difficult feelings and for you to be fully heard, perhaps for the first time. It is my belief that this kind of therapy can lead us into greater understanding and acceptance of ourselves, which in turn provides the opportunity for freedom and change.
I work in Bristol, offering a compassionate and confidential space in which to explore feelings and experiences at a pace which suits you. You may come with specific things that you would like to talk about, or you may struggle to articulate what you're feeling and why. Psychotherapy offers a space to uncover those difficult feelings and for you to be fully heard, perhaps for the first time. It is my belief that this kind of therapy can lead us into greater understanding and acceptance of ourselves, which in turn provides the opportunity for freedom and change.
01275 409706 View 01275 409706
Photo of Peter Dorling, Psychotherapist in BS4, England
Peter Dorling
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified Verified
I offer a secure, confidential space to help you freely communicate; to identify and initiate significant changes; acknowledge trauma and loss; negotiate life's transitions and to manage uncertainty. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a shared exploration of your deepest concerns: we discern core meanings behind suffering and to fulfil cherished aims. By working individually with an experienced clinician, or, sharing honest communication in a supportive, facilitated group, you can develop increased agency, greater self-worth and resilience, courage to discern a new life-direction, and, the confidence to explore relationships.
I offer a secure, confidential space to help you freely communicate; to identify and initiate significant changes; acknowledge trauma and loss; negotiate life's transitions and to manage uncertainty. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a shared exploration of your deepest concerns: we discern core meanings behind suffering and to fulfil cherished aims. By working individually with an experienced clinician, or, sharing honest communication in a supportive, facilitated group, you can develop increased agency, greater self-worth and resilience, courage to discern a new life-direction, and, the confidence to explore relationships.
0117 325 4023 View 0117 325 4023
Photo of Bridget O'Connell MBACP, DipHIC, BSc (Hons), Psychotherapist in BS4, England
Bridget O'Connell MBACP, DipHIC, BSc (Hons)
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Not accepting new clients
Life can be stressful, painful and throw us unexpected challenges. Alternatively we may feel something is missing but are unsure what. Or we may be asking ourselves Who Am I? Whatever the reason for coming to therapy, we need to feel deeply heard, understood and supported. I offer 1:1 face to face counselling and psychotherapy from my private therapy room in South Bristol, off the Wells Road. I offer a free 30 minute initial session which gives us a chance to get to know each other and decide whether we want to work together. I charge from £55 per session. Concessionary rates are offered, feel free to enquire for further details.
Life can be stressful, painful and throw us unexpected challenges. Alternatively we may feel something is missing but are unsure what. Or we may be asking ourselves Who Am I? Whatever the reason for coming to therapy, we need to feel deeply heard, understood and supported. I offer 1:1 face to face counselling and psychotherapy from my private therapy room in South Bristol, off the Wells Road. I offer a free 30 minute initial session which gives us a chance to get to know each other and decide whether we want to work together. I charge from £55 per session. Concessionary rates are offered, feel free to enquire for further details.
0117 325 5795 View 0117 325 5795
Photo of Emily Mew, Counsellor in BS4, England
Emily Mew
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Are you looking for an experienced counsellor who will meet you with warmth and acceptance and who will help you to find your own path forwards? I work with a wide range of clients experiencing all sorts of challenges including: anxiety, depression, bereavement, loss, relationship difficulties and low self-esteem. Whatever you bring to counselling, I will see you as a human rather than a list of problems to be solved. I am engaged and caring and will help you to develop a fuller and deeper understanding of yourself and find your way through life's challenges.
Are you looking for an experienced counsellor who will meet you with warmth and acceptance and who will help you to find your own path forwards? I work with a wide range of clients experiencing all sorts of challenges including: anxiety, depression, bereavement, loss, relationship difficulties and low self-esteem. Whatever you bring to counselling, I will see you as a human rather than a list of problems to be solved. I am engaged and caring and will help you to develop a fuller and deeper understanding of yourself and find your way through life's challenges.
0117 456 5169 View 0117 456 5169
Photo of Milla Kenny, Counsellor in BS4, England
Milla Kenny
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Hello, do you need space to talk? Together we can explore issues relating to bereavement, loss and grief, depression and anxiety, loneliness and isolation, low self-esteem and self-confidence, relationship issues or challenging family dynamics. I have special interest in working with bereavement, grief and loss and can help with what can be a very difficult time in your life. I gravitate towards psychodynamic approach to therapy and I will encourage you to be self-reflective, engage in self-exploration into your thoughts, feelings, emotions, experiences from early life, and the beliefs that you hold.
Hello, do you need space to talk? Together we can explore issues relating to bereavement, loss and grief, depression and anxiety, loneliness and isolation, low self-esteem and self-confidence, relationship issues or challenging family dynamics. I have special interest in working with bereavement, grief and loss and can help with what can be a very difficult time in your life. I gravitate towards psychodynamic approach to therapy and I will encourage you to be self-reflective, engage in self-exploration into your thoughts, feelings, emotions, experiences from early life, and the beliefs that you hold.
01454 804757 View 01454 804757

See more therapy options for BS4

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in BS4

40+

Average cost per session

£50

Counsellors in BS4 who prioritize treating:

98% Anxiety
95% Self Esteem
93% Depression
84% Relationship Issues
77% Stress
75% Trauma and PTSD
66% Bereavement

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

60% AXA PPP
50% Aviva
50% Vitality

How Counsellors in BS4 see their clients

85% In Person and Online
15% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in BS4?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.