Counselling in Bristol

View neighbourhoods in Bristol
Photo of Dr Laura Wade: Attention To Health, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Dr Laura Wade: Attention To Health
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS9
I am a specialise in working with adults and young people with a neurodevelopmental disorder and/or identify as neurodiverse. My area of expertise in ADHD and I offer diagnostic assessment, psychosocial treatment and work closely with two excellent clinical partners who can offer medical treatments. I am have training in CBT and compassion focused interventions and worked greatly with adults who have experienced trauma. Check out our partnership website Attention to Health for more information or to book an expert consultation.
I am a specialise in working with adults and young people with a neurodevelopmental disorder and/or identify as neurodiverse. My area of expertise in ADHD and I offer diagnostic assessment, psychosocial treatment and work closely with two excellent clinical partners who can offer medical treatments. I am have training in CBT and compassion focused interventions and worked greatly with adults who have experienced trauma. Check out our partnership website Attention to Health for more information or to book an expert consultation.
0117 463 3295 View 0117 463 3295
Photo of Daniela D'acri, DCounsPsych, MBACP, Psychotherapist
Daniela D'acri
Psychotherapist, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS3
Not accepting new clients
You may be considering therapy in the hope of something better. Life might be feeling like a real struggle now or maybe has for a while. There may be difficult feelings like anxiety, a lack of interest in things coupled with challenges in your intimate relationships or at work. You may have a very specific issue that you would like to explore, or a general sense of ill-being and things not feeling quite right. Whatever is bringing you here is both unique to you and your story, and very human. Therapy can offer a place where those painful feelings and thoughts are not only welcome, but seen as offering a catalyst for change.
You may be considering therapy in the hope of something better. Life might be feeling like a real struggle now or maybe has for a while. There may be difficult feelings like anxiety, a lack of interest in things coupled with challenges in your intimate relationships or at work. You may have a very specific issue that you would like to explore, or a general sense of ill-being and things not feeling quite right. Whatever is bringing you here is both unique to you and your story, and very human. Therapy can offer a place where those painful feelings and thoughts are not only welcome, but seen as offering a catalyst for change.
01275 402812 View 01275 402812
Photo of Claire Nunan, MSc, SNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Claire Nunan
Counsellor, MSc, SNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS1  (Online Only)
I’m Claire. I am a Senior Accredited Counsellor providing safe and supportive online counselling sessions. I work with a wide range of people but I specialise in working with individuals from the LGBTQ+ and GSRD community, those who are neurodivergent (or think they might be) as well as Millennials and Gen Z-ers.
I’m Claire. I am a Senior Accredited Counsellor providing safe and supportive online counselling sessions. I work with a wide range of people but I specialise in working with individuals from the LGBTQ+ and GSRD community, those who are neurodivergent (or think they might be) as well as Millennials and Gen Z-ers.
0117 463 4729 View 0117 463 4729
Photo of Jamie Smithson, MA, MUKCP, Counsellor
Jamie Smithson
Counsellor, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS15
There are many reasons we seek counselling throughout life. Perhaps you’re feeling sad, depressed, or anxious. Maybe you're going through loss or bereavement, struggling with anger or battling addictions. Or maybe you just don't feel yourself! Whatever it is you bring to counselling, I offer a confidential, non-judgemental and compassionate space to explore, unpack and work through the challenges you are facing.
There are many reasons we seek counselling throughout life. Perhaps you’re feeling sad, depressed, or anxious. Maybe you're going through loss or bereavement, struggling with anger or battling addictions. Or maybe you just don't feel yourself! Whatever it is you bring to counselling, I offer a confidential, non-judgemental and compassionate space to explore, unpack and work through the challenges you are facing.
View
Photo of Stephen Gallini, MA, HCPC-Music Therap., Counsellor
Stephen Gallini
Counsellor, MA, HCPC-Music Therap.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS2
I am an integrative counsellor, HCPC registered Music Therapist and Neurologic Music Therapist, with a MSc in Psychology of Pathological addictions, and further training, amongst others, in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavioural Therapy, Metacognitive Therapy. Currently, I'm finalizing my MSc in Clinical Psychology. Within a holistic person-centred approach, I include in my practice techniques based on mindfulness and breathwork, and, as a Registered Nurse, I bring a well-rounded understanding of health and patient care into my practice.
I am an integrative counsellor, HCPC registered Music Therapist and Neurologic Music Therapist, with a MSc in Psychology of Pathological addictions, and further training, amongst others, in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavioural Therapy, Metacognitive Therapy. Currently, I'm finalizing my MSc in Clinical Psychology. Within a holistic person-centred approach, I include in my practice techniques based on mindfulness and breathwork, and, as a Registered Nurse, I bring a well-rounded understanding of health and patient care into my practice.
0117 456 2147 View 0117 456 2147
Photo of Dr Sara Schamborg, HCPC - Forensic Psych., Psychologist
Dr Sara Schamborg
Psychologist, HCPC - Forensic Psych.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS2
Have you been struggling with relationships, your mood and/ or to cope for some time? Do you find that past experiences interfere with your present life? Are you looking for a psychologist that can provide you with a safe and non-judgemental space to explore, understand, and process your life patterns or difficulties? Then you have come to the right place! I can support you to explore and heal from these life patterns or difficulties, as well as to achieve meaningful and lasting change.
Have you been struggling with relationships, your mood and/ or to cope for some time? Do you find that past experiences interfere with your present life? Are you looking for a psychologist that can provide you with a safe and non-judgemental space to explore, understand, and process your life patterns or difficulties? Then you have come to the right place! I can support you to explore and heal from these life patterns or difficulties, as well as to achieve meaningful and lasting change.
View
Photo of Sarah Weaver, MA, MBACP, Counsellor
Sarah Weaver
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS30
We all have times in life when things seem to get on top of us. We may feel confused, anxious or depressed. Sometimes it feels like we are just going round in circles, getting nowhere in particular. Having someone to talk to can lighten the load and this is often easier with someone other than family or friends.
We all have times in life when things seem to get on top of us. We may feel confused, anxious or depressed. Sometimes it feels like we are just going round in circles, getting nowhere in particular. Having someone to talk to can lighten the load and this is often easier with someone other than family or friends.
0117 456 2380 View 0117 456 2380
Photo of Hazel Cawood, MA, MUKCP, Psychotherapist
Hazel Cawood
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS3  (Online Only)
I am a fully qualified Gestalt Psychotherapist, Integrative Psychotherapeutic Counsellor and Supervisor with over eleven years of experience. I work relationally, offering a confidential, safe, non-judgemental space to explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and understand underlying patterns in relationships. This can help you to identify changes that could be made, and support you to accept and move on from certain situations or emotional states. I will work with you towards greater self-understanding, self-acceptance and the freedom to choose the way you want to live your life.
I am a fully qualified Gestalt Psychotherapist, Integrative Psychotherapeutic Counsellor and Supervisor with over eleven years of experience. I work relationally, offering a confidential, safe, non-judgemental space to explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and understand underlying patterns in relationships. This can help you to identify changes that could be made, and support you to accept and move on from certain situations or emotional states. I will work with you towards greater self-understanding, self-acceptance and the freedom to choose the way you want to live your life.
01275 402858 View 01275 402858
Photo of Susannah Gill, MA, Psychotherapist
Susannah Gill
Psychotherapist, MA
Verified Verified
Bristol BS6
Not accepting new clients
Psychotherapy is a rare invitation to truth - a place to explore your self and your story, make sense of why you feel the way you do and ask how you might meet life's challenges in a more authentic, meaningful and fulfilling way. My approach is integrative, creative and embodied. It considers who you are and what happened to you, as well as what your heart desires. As a relational therapist, I also put your experience with me in therapy at the heart of our work together.
Psychotherapy is a rare invitation to truth - a place to explore your self and your story, make sense of why you feel the way you do and ask how you might meet life's challenges in a more authentic, meaningful and fulfilling way. My approach is integrative, creative and embodied. It considers who you are and what happened to you, as well as what your heart desires. As a relational therapist, I also put your experience with me in therapy at the heart of our work together.
View
Photo of Jonathan Wilkes, MBACP, Counsellor
Jonathan Wilkes
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bristol BS1
I’m a qualified Psychosynthesis counsellor. Psychosynthesis is a broad and inclusive system which has many different techniques and approaches that can be tailored to you and your needs, given that you are unique! I emphasize warmth, kindness, sensitivity and empathy in my approach. I work with people who are experiencing; depression, anxiety, anger and rage, loss and grief, relationship issues, self-esteem issues, feelings of despair and childhood abuse and trauma. I work with people to achieve real, concrete, lasting change in their lives - and have received plenty of positive feedback confirming this!
I’m a qualified Psychosynthesis counsellor. Psychosynthesis is a broad and inclusive system which has many different techniques and approaches that can be tailored to you and your needs, given that you are unique! I emphasize warmth, kindness, sensitivity and empathy in my approach. I work with people who are experiencing; depression, anxiety, anger and rage, loss and grief, relationship issues, self-esteem issues, feelings of despair and childhood abuse and trauma. I work with people to achieve real, concrete, lasting change in their lives - and have received plenty of positive feedback confirming this!
0117 450 2960 View 0117 450 2960
Photo of Tom Noble, BACP, Counsellor
Tom Noble
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS8
Why counselling - There are times where the pressures of life can leave us feeling overwhelmed. For many of us how we feel within ourselves is crucial in day to day life. Wherever we may find ourselves the process of counselling can give us the ability to sculpt and create a vision of belonging that is both true to ourselves and allows us to flourish. What I provide is a non-judgemental, warm and genuine approach focused on person centred therapy. This approach ensures that the client is held throughout the process and feels comfortable exploring experiences both past and present in a safe environment.
Why counselling - There are times where the pressures of life can leave us feeling overwhelmed. For many of us how we feel within ourselves is crucial in day to day life. Wherever we may find ourselves the process of counselling can give us the ability to sculpt and create a vision of belonging that is both true to ourselves and allows us to flourish. What I provide is a non-judgemental, warm and genuine approach focused on person centred therapy. This approach ensures that the client is held throughout the process and feels comfortable exploring experiences both past and present in a safe environment.
01275 402961 View 01275 402961
Photo of Jane Lomax, HCPC - Clin. Psych., Psychologist
Jane Lomax
Psychologist, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS5
Many of us feel stuck, low, anxious, or overwhelmed at times. Whatever you are struggling with, I will help you to make sense of things and support you to develop insight, skills and strategies to make changes that will make a difference in your life. I am experienced in working with adults and young people with a range of difficulties such as stress, low mood, anxiety, panic, PTSD, low self-esteem, identity or relationship difficulties, difficult life experiences, and addiction. I also offer psychological support to people facing health challenges or living with long-term health conditions (e.g., pain, fatigue, COPD, cancer).
Many of us feel stuck, low, anxious, or overwhelmed at times. Whatever you are struggling with, I will help you to make sense of things and support you to develop insight, skills and strategies to make changes that will make a difference in your life. I am experienced in working with adults and young people with a range of difficulties such as stress, low mood, anxiety, panic, PTSD, low self-esteem, identity or relationship difficulties, difficult life experiences, and addiction. I also offer psychological support to people facing health challenges or living with long-term health conditions (e.g., pain, fatigue, COPD, cancer).
View
Photo of Sarah Avenell - The Bristol Hypnotherapy Clinic, MBACP, Counsellor
The Bristol Hypnotherapy Clinic
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS9  (Online Only)
Welcome to the Bristol Hypnotherapy Clinic! Are you ready to take control of your life? Our team of professional hypnotherapists is here to help you overcome any obstacle, from quitting smoking to managing stress and increasing your self-esteem. We all have blocks, whether that be believing we aren’t capable of achieving our goals, constantly being hijacked by negative self-talk or fearful of getting something wrong. At the Bristol Hypnotherapy Clinic, our team of hypnotherapists use their experience and a clinically tested method of hypnosis to remove those blocks, change stories and get you living the living the life you desire.
Welcome to the Bristol Hypnotherapy Clinic! Are you ready to take control of your life? Our team of professional hypnotherapists is here to help you overcome any obstacle, from quitting smoking to managing stress and increasing your self-esteem. We all have blocks, whether that be believing we aren’t capable of achieving our goals, constantly being hijacked by negative self-talk or fearful of getting something wrong. At the Bristol Hypnotherapy Clinic, our team of hypnotherapists use their experience and a clinically tested method of hypnosis to remove those blocks, change stories and get you living the living the life you desire.
01572 494673 View 01572 494673
Photo of Robert McCracken, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Robert McCracken
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bristol BS8
I have worked in the voluntary sector for several years supporting clients who are struggling with their emotions. I love what I do, and I am always delighted to see people find better mental health. My way of working is to listen very carefully to what you bring, and to understand where your distress lies, we will then explore how you can address your concerns, working together to provide an improved level of well-being for you.
I have worked in the voluntary sector for several years supporting clients who are struggling with their emotions. I love what I do, and I am always delighted to see people find better mental health. My way of working is to listen very carefully to what you bring, and to understand where your distress lies, we will then explore how you can address your concerns, working together to provide an improved level of well-being for you.
01934 235285 View 01934 235285
Photo of Samantha Louise Shepherd - Samantha Shepherd Counselling, MBACP, Counsellor
Samantha Shepherd Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS4
I am a fully qualified integrative counsellor offering counselling to individuals in the Bristol area. I have experience of working with anxiety, depression, low confidence/self esteem, relationship issues, bereavement and domestic abuse. Through offering a safe, confidential space and building a trusting relationship, I will work with you to help you gain an understanding of yourself and how you experience life, allowing you to gain self awareness and clarity. Counselling gives you a chance to pause from the chaotic world, reflect and be heard, this may be a rare opportunity and can help gain insight and compassion for yourself.
I am a fully qualified integrative counsellor offering counselling to individuals in the Bristol area. I have experience of working with anxiety, depression, low confidence/self esteem, relationship issues, bereavement and domestic abuse. Through offering a safe, confidential space and building a trusting relationship, I will work with you to help you gain an understanding of yourself and how you experience life, allowing you to gain self awareness and clarity. Counselling gives you a chance to pause from the chaotic world, reflect and be heard, this may be a rare opportunity and can help gain insight and compassion for yourself.
0117 463 1123 View 0117 463 1123
Photo of Aurelia Sleigh, BACP, Counsellor
Aurelia Sleigh
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
Bristol BS49  (Online Only)
We are currently living in a really unprecedented, uncertain and confusing time. Anxiety can rise, health anxiety feels very real, we can feel confused and lonely wondering how can we reach out and feel less alone, along with feeling listened to and supported. At the moment, every day there are new messages from the media, social media, and even the Government, which can feel overwhelming. Being able to sit with the unknown, the uncertainty of what will and is happening can feel really challenging.
We are currently living in a really unprecedented, uncertain and confusing time. Anxiety can rise, health anxiety feels very real, we can feel confused and lonely wondering how can we reach out and feel less alone, along with feeling listened to and supported. At the moment, every day there are new messages from the media, social media, and even the Government, which can feel overwhelming. Being able to sit with the unknown, the uncertainty of what will and is happening can feel really challenging.
07411 113466 View 07411 113466
Photo of Rich Donaldson, MSc, MNCPS Acc., Counsellor
Rich Donaldson
Counsellor, MSc, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bristol BS1
Starting counselling can be a bit scary, but living with unresolved problems is probably much worse. I believe that conditions such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and addictive behaviour signal that something is preventing us from thriving. Recognising something in your life that you want to change is the most crucial step. I offer sessions online and also face-to-face in both Bristol & London.
Starting counselling can be a bit scary, but living with unresolved problems is probably much worse. I believe that conditions such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and addictive behaviour signal that something is preventing us from thriving. Recognising something in your life that you want to change is the most crucial step. I offer sessions online and also face-to-face in both Bristol & London.
0117 463 3990 View 0117 463 3990
Photo of Katie Payne, MBACP, Counsellor
Katie Payne
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bristol BS2
I believe that choosing counselling can be a vital and radical act of self care. The counselling relationship is like no other. I am here for you to explore what is getting in the way of feeling fulfilled. Maybe you have had difficult experiences in the past which are impacting on your present and how you see your future. Perhaps you don't feel in control of your emotional responses and wonder why they happen. Together we can figure out what is going on for you and find new ways to understand your experiences. I'm not here to fix you but to help you access hope.
I believe that choosing counselling can be a vital and radical act of self care. The counselling relationship is like no other. I am here for you to explore what is getting in the way of feeling fulfilled. Maybe you have had difficult experiences in the past which are impacting on your present and how you see your future. Perhaps you don't feel in control of your emotional responses and wonder why they happen. Together we can figure out what is going on for you and find new ways to understand your experiences. I'm not here to fix you but to help you access hope.
0117 463 5156 View 0117 463 5156
Photo of Maria Brooks, PNCPS Acc., Psychotherapist
Maria Brooks
Psychotherapist, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS8
If you are looking for therapy in Bristol then I can help. Life can be complicated and sometimes we need support to make changes and improve the quality of our lives. Entering into counselling or psychotherapy can be one of the hardest but bravest decisions you can make for yourself. I am an Integrative Psychotherapist, Trauma, Eating Disorder and Addiction Specialist. As well as ‘talking therapy’ and 'somatic (body) work' I incorporate eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy into my practice. To treat a range of psychological issues including complex trauma and attachment issues.
If you are looking for therapy in Bristol then I can help. Life can be complicated and sometimes we need support to make changes and improve the quality of our lives. Entering into counselling or psychotherapy can be one of the hardest but bravest decisions you can make for yourself. I am an Integrative Psychotherapist, Trauma, Eating Disorder and Addiction Specialist. As well as ‘talking therapy’ and 'somatic (body) work' I incorporate eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy into my practice. To treat a range of psychological issues including complex trauma and attachment issues.
0117 456 2425 View 0117 456 2425
Photo of Lewis James Cooksley, PNCPS Acc., Psychotherapist
Lewis James Cooksley
Psychotherapist, PNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
Bristol BS16
I am able to help clients with a wide range of issues including but not limited to anxiety and depression, confidence, self esteem, self worth, and relationship issues. I work on a weekly basis from my home or online. I work with individual adults on a one to one basis. I offer a space free of judgement where you are put at the centre of all that we do. The process is lead by you and I join you alongside your journey, never leading, but following alongside you.
I am able to help clients with a wide range of issues including but not limited to anxiety and depression, confidence, self esteem, self worth, and relationship issues. I work on a weekly basis from my home or online. I work with individual adults on a one to one basis. I offer a space free of judgement where you are put at the centre of all that we do. The process is lead by you and I join you alongside your journey, never leading, but following alongside you.
01454 802788 View 01454 802788
1
...

See more therapy options for Bristol

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Bristol

600+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in Bristol who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
85% Depression
85% Self Esteem
79% Stress
77% Relationship Issues
68% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

63% AXA PPP
60% Aviva
48% Bupa

How Counsellors in Bristol see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

73% Female
26% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Bristol?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.