Photo of Anne Newby, Psychologist in N6C, ON
Anne Newby
Psychologist, MA, CPsych
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C
People often come for therapy as they are hurting or distressed and they have found that they are confused about how to move forward. They can be worried about someone else, are having difficulty with relationships with their spouse, children, or coworkers. Some people prefer to attend therapy on their own, while others wish to include the family member they are concerned about. I see people with depression, anxiety, attention difficulties, obsessive compulsive disorder, substance abuse, adjustment issues (separation and divorce).
People often come for therapy as they are hurting or distressed and they have found that they are confused about how to move forward. They can be worried about someone else, are having difficulty with relationships with their spouse, children, or coworkers. Some people prefer to attend therapy on their own, while others wish to include the family member they are concerned about. I see people with depression, anxiety, attention difficulties, obsessive compulsive disorder, substance abuse, adjustment issues (separation and divorce).
(844) 402-2865 View (844) 402-2865
Photo of Summer Thorp, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Summer Thorp
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW, MEd
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C
Stories have always intrigued me because they helped me to understand how other people think and see the world. I see the power of personal narratives to limit or expand what my clients think is possible. The focus of my practice is periods of transition. Transitions occur at all stages of life. They can include a new diagnosis, the loss of employment, the death of a loved one, the end of a relationship, a new sexual or gender identity, recovery after illness, or a faith crisis. They can also include healing from violence, abuse and trauma.
Stories have always intrigued me because they helped me to understand how other people think and see the world. I see the power of personal narratives to limit or expand what my clients think is possible. The focus of my practice is periods of transition. Transitions occur at all stages of life. They can include a new diagnosis, the loss of employment, the death of a loved one, the end of a relationship, a new sexual or gender identity, recovery after illness, or a faith crisis. They can also include healing from violence, abuse and trauma.
(226) 243-0687 View (226) 243-0687
Photo of Lisa Lyons Counselling And Supervision, Registered Psychotherapist in N6C, ON
Lisa Lyons Counselling And Supervision
Registered Psychotherapist, RP , M Ed
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C  (Online Only)
Welcome. Helping you to manage the stresses of life with evidence-based treatment and strategies that work. Our focus will be on solutions and coping strategies to help you manage stress, anxiety and relationship issues. Through our work together you will learn skills and strategies so that you can live the life that you want and achieve the results that you deserve.
Welcome. Helping you to manage the stresses of life with evidence-based treatment and strategies that work. Our focus will be on solutions and coping strategies to help you manage stress, anxiety and relationship issues. Through our work together you will learn skills and strategies so that you can live the life that you want and achieve the results that you deserve.
(226) 779-0588 View (226) 779-0588
Photo of Jared French, Psychologist in N6C, ON
Jared French
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C
***Now Offering Telepsychology Services for Individual Therapy via Phone or Secure Online Video***. Hello, I'm Dr. Jared French. I am a Registered Psychologist who provides individual and group psychotherapy to adults (18+) to address a range of mental health concerns and everyday life challenges. When working with clients I privilege people’s strengths in defining the problem(s), setting goals, and working towards solutions, growth, and change.
***Now Offering Telepsychology Services for Individual Therapy via Phone or Secure Online Video***. Hello, I'm Dr. Jared French. I am a Registered Psychologist who provides individual and group psychotherapy to adults (18+) to address a range of mental health concerns and everyday life challenges. When working with clients I privilege people’s strengths in defining the problem(s), setting goals, and working towards solutions, growth, and change.
(226) 270-7251 View (226) 270-7251
Photo of Amelia Holden, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Amelia Holden
Registered Social Worker, MSW, BSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
Waitlist for new clients
Amelia has been a Registered Social Worker for 23 years working with individuals, couples, and families who may have experienced intergenerational trauma, mental health diagnosis such as anxiety, depression, borderline personality disorder, or relationship ruptures causing stress and conflict within their daily lives. By giving them the knowledge and skills of how to accept the things they cannot change and to change the things they can control will assist them in building a life worth living.
Amelia has been a Registered Social Worker for 23 years working with individuals, couples, and families who may have experienced intergenerational trauma, mental health diagnosis such as anxiety, depression, borderline personality disorder, or relationship ruptures causing stress and conflict within their daily lives. By giving them the knowledge and skills of how to accept the things they cannot change and to change the things they can control will assist them in building a life worth living.
(226) 773-0810 View (226) 773-0810
Photo of Dan Logie, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Dan Logie
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
Experiencing personal difficulties? Struggling in your marriage or relationship? Caught in situations that leave you feeling frustrated, hurt, angry or helpless? I can help you to understand and manage your concerns more effectively. Through our work together, you will be able to resolve specific problems, and develop lasting strategies and techniques that support you to move forward.
Experiencing personal difficulties? Struggling in your marriage or relationship? Caught in situations that leave you feeling frustrated, hurt, angry or helpless? I can help you to understand and manage your concerns more effectively. Through our work together, you will be able to resolve specific problems, and develop lasting strategies and techniques that support you to move forward.
(226) 663-5835 View (226) 663-5835
Felicia Otchet
Psychologist, PhD, CPsych
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C
Dr. Otchet is a psychologist who works in private practice in London, Ontario. She sees adults presenting with a range of health and/or mental health concerns, including medical and/or psychological disability, acute and/or chronic pain, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and gender dysphoria. She has particular interests in adjustment to illness and injury, in trauma and resilience, and in coping with life transitions. She also has interest in working with first responders and their adult family members, as well as people who work in health care.
Dr. Otchet is a psychologist who works in private practice in London, Ontario. She sees adults presenting with a range of health and/or mental health concerns, including medical and/or psychological disability, acute and/or chronic pain, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and gender dysphoria. She has particular interests in adjustment to illness and injury, in trauma and resilience, and in coping with life transitions. She also has interest in working with first responders and their adult family members, as well as people who work in health care.
(226) 773-9091 View (226) 773-9091
Photo of Stuart Dow, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Stuart Dow
Registered Social Worker, MSW, BSW, RSW, CYW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
I am accepting new clients. Feeling overwhelmed, frustrated, or stuck? Unsure of what to do to see a change in your life? We can work together to get you moving forward. I strive to provide a space where empathy and connection are used to support individuals through the therapy or counseling process. I tailor my approach to your needs, using trauma-informed modalities, and offering insight and strategies for your consideration. During our time together we will discover what works for you, and address any challenges that may arise during our time together.
I am accepting new clients. Feeling overwhelmed, frustrated, or stuck? Unsure of what to do to see a change in your life? We can work together to get you moving forward. I strive to provide a space where empathy and connection are used to support individuals through the therapy or counseling process. I tailor my approach to your needs, using trauma-informed modalities, and offering insight and strategies for your consideration. During our time together we will discover what works for you, and address any challenges that may arise during our time together.
(226) 774-1427 View (226) 774-1427
Photo of Jon Turalinski, Registered Psychotherapist in N6C, ON
Jon Turalinski
Registered Psychotherapist, RP, CCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London, ON N6C  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Hi, my name is Jon and I am a registered psychotherapist with the CRPO. I want to provide you with the care and support that you need to navigate life’s difficult challenges. I want to listen to and understand your experiences so that I can work with you and help you overcome obstacles to build a life of fulfillment and value. I take an existentialist and person-centered approach, and I offer a robust set of techniques and skills that stimulate acceptance and change.
Hi, my name is Jon and I am a registered psychotherapist with the CRPO. I want to provide you with the care and support that you need to navigate life’s difficult challenges. I want to listen to and understand your experiences so that I can work with you and help you overcome obstacles to build a life of fulfillment and value. I take an existentialist and person-centered approach, and I offer a robust set of techniques and skills that stimulate acceptance and change.
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Photo of Leanne Eby, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Leanne Eby
Registered Social Worker, MSc, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
Currently Accepting New Clients for Virtual Appointments Only. Do you suffer from feelings of anxiety, overwhelm, nervousness, racing thoughts, panic attacks, difficulty relaxing, exhaustion, or burn out? Having overcome my own struggle with anxiety as a young person, I have developed a strong passion for assisting others who are suffering from similar challenges. Let’s work together to transform your struggles into stepping stones, leading you towards a peaceful and empowered life. No challenge is too big or too small – I’m dedicated to helping you find your way and ensuring you no longer feel held back by your troubles.
Currently Accepting New Clients for Virtual Appointments Only. Do you suffer from feelings of anxiety, overwhelm, nervousness, racing thoughts, panic attacks, difficulty relaxing, exhaustion, or burn out? Having overcome my own struggle with anxiety as a young person, I have developed a strong passion for assisting others who are suffering from similar challenges. Let’s work together to transform your struggles into stepping stones, leading you towards a peaceful and empowered life. No challenge is too big or too small – I’m dedicated to helping you find your way and ensuring you no longer feel held back by your troubles.
(226) 778-2187 View (226) 778-2187
Photo of Trees Can Dance Counselling, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Trees Can Dance Counselling
Registered Social Worker, RSW, MSW, BEd
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
London, ON N6C  (Online Only)
Imagine being in a place where you feel safe, supported and accepted, in a way that moves you to tell your story to someone who listens to you fully and really hears what you are saying. Most of us rarely experience this. However, this is the experience Gladys strives to create for each of her clients: a space of understanding, curiosity and hope, one that naturally leads to the uncovering of answers to life's difficulties, to the resolving of the anxieties that surround you.
Imagine being in a place where you feel safe, supported and accepted, in a way that moves you to tell your story to someone who listens to you fully and really hears what you are saying. Most of us rarely experience this. However, this is the experience Gladys strives to create for each of her clients: a space of understanding, curiosity and hope, one that naturally leads to the uncovering of answers to life's difficulties, to the resolving of the anxieties that surround you.
(226) 271-1309 View (226) 271-1309
Photo of Kelly Robertson, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Kelly Robertson
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C
Currently accepting new clients: Empowering change & nurturing growth: At Better Minds Counselling Services, our mission is to provide individuals with effective and tangible tools to navigate life's challenges. By focusing on actionable strategies, skill-building, and real-world application, we help individuals achieve not only personal growth, but also a renewed sense of control and fulfillment. Using evidence-based interventions and unwavering support, we empower individuals to overcome obstacles, achieve emotional balance, and cultivate a better quality of life. By nurturing better minds, we pave the way for better lives!
Currently accepting new clients: Empowering change & nurturing growth: At Better Minds Counselling Services, our mission is to provide individuals with effective and tangible tools to navigate life's challenges. By focusing on actionable strategies, skill-building, and real-world application, we help individuals achieve not only personal growth, but also a renewed sense of control and fulfillment. Using evidence-based interventions and unwavering support, we empower individuals to overcome obstacles, achieve emotional balance, and cultivate a better quality of life. By nurturing better minds, we pave the way for better lives!
(226) 408-5246 View (226) 408-5246
Photo of Roxanne McFadzean, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Roxanne McFadzean
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
You want and deserve to feel better. Starting counselling can seem difficult but I am here to understand you and your experiences and provide help and hope. I am easy to talk to, non-judgmental, and empathetic. I have over 15 years of counselling experience working with clients from diverse and varied lived experiences. I am here to help you find healing and understanding in difficult situations. Are you seeking to improve your mental health, adjusting to changes at home, work or school, or looking to address relationship difficulties? Together, we will work on strategies that allow you to build a happier and more satisfying life.
You want and deserve to feel better. Starting counselling can seem difficult but I am here to understand you and your experiences and provide help and hope. I am easy to talk to, non-judgmental, and empathetic. I have over 15 years of counselling experience working with clients from diverse and varied lived experiences. I am here to help you find healing and understanding in difficult situations. Are you seeking to improve your mental health, adjusting to changes at home, work or school, or looking to address relationship difficulties? Together, we will work on strategies that allow you to build a happier and more satisfying life.
(226) 407-6310 View (226) 407-6310
Photo of Dean E Anderson, Drug & Alcohol Counsellor in N6C, ON
Dean E Anderson
Drug & Alcohol Counsellor, CCAC
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
If you are focused on recovery from drugs and alcohol and are confused about the processes of change or how to get started and then maintain it, then we should talk. I specialize in helping those that have difficulty with navigation of harm-reduction or the 12 step process by aiding in the creation of a long-term plan focused on the quality of life while not using psychoactive substances. If you are confused by the concept of addiction recovery please set up a free consultation to help you to understand what's next. Privacy and confidentiality are of the utmost importance to me and all of my clients.
If you are focused on recovery from drugs and alcohol and are confused about the processes of change or how to get started and then maintain it, then we should talk. I specialize in helping those that have difficulty with navigation of harm-reduction or the 12 step process by aiding in the creation of a long-term plan focused on the quality of life while not using psychoactive substances. If you are confused by the concept of addiction recovery please set up a free consultation to help you to understand what's next. Privacy and confidentiality are of the utmost importance to me and all of my clients.
(226) 798-5001 View (226) 798-5001
Photo of Julie Gerber, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Julie Gerber
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C  (Online Only)
Imagine waking up every day feeling empowered, confident, and deeply connected to your authentic self. Now, Imagine living a life that truly reflects your deepest values, surrounded by love and fulfilling relationships - sounds like a dream, right? Well, that's where I come in! I'm a dedicated therapist who is committed to helping women find their true selves and create fulfilling lives. I am passionate about empowering women to find clarity and strength within themselves, especially when it comes to love, relationships, and personal development.
Imagine waking up every day feeling empowered, confident, and deeply connected to your authentic self. Now, Imagine living a life that truly reflects your deepest values, surrounded by love and fulfilling relationships - sounds like a dream, right? Well, that's where I come in! I'm a dedicated therapist who is committed to helping women find their true selves and create fulfilling lives. I am passionate about empowering women to find clarity and strength within themselves, especially when it comes to love, relationships, and personal development.
(226) 783-4251 View (226) 783-4251
Photo of Brittanni Oake, Registered Psychotherapist in N6C, ON
Brittanni Oake
Registered Psychotherapist, BA, DTATI, RP, CCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
London, ON N6C  (Online Only)
My intention as a therapist is to create a safe, warm, and confidential space where genuine healing is cultivated. Inner Canvas operates through a client-centered lens that embraces non-judgment and compassion, holding space for authentic growth and transformation to occur. I accept and welcome everyone where they're at in their journey, with an open mind and heart. I hold the belief that everything we need to navigate the peaks and valleys of our lives already lies within. It is my honour to journey alongside and empower you as you re-discover your inner strengths and resiliency.
My intention as a therapist is to create a safe, warm, and confidential space where genuine healing is cultivated. Inner Canvas operates through a client-centered lens that embraces non-judgment and compassion, holding space for authentic growth and transformation to occur. I accept and welcome everyone where they're at in their journey, with an open mind and heart. I hold the belief that everything we need to navigate the peaks and valleys of our lives already lies within. It is my honour to journey alongside and empower you as you re-discover your inner strengths and resiliency.
(226) 702-8371 View (226) 702-8371
Photo of Mike Fluit, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Mike Fluit
Registered Social Worker, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
I help men and women dealing with stress, anxiety, past trauma or abuse, and relationship difficulties understand the problems in their life, find ways to move forward and find peace. If you often feel overwhelmed or irritable in your daily life, or like your emotions are always simmering just below the surface or spilling over, I can help. I am a therapist at North Counselling and Psychotherapy, a group of Registered Social Workers/Psychotherapists who provide counselling services to adults and children in London, ON.
I help men and women dealing with stress, anxiety, past trauma or abuse, and relationship difficulties understand the problems in their life, find ways to move forward and find peace. If you often feel overwhelmed or irritable in your daily life, or like your emotions are always simmering just below the surface or spilling over, I can help. I am a therapist at North Counselling and Psychotherapy, a group of Registered Social Workers/Psychotherapists who provide counselling services to adults and children in London, ON.
(226) 641-6727 View (226) 641-6727
Photo of Olivia Jagoo, Pre-Licensed Professional in N6C, ON
Olivia Jagoo
Pre-Licensed Professional, BA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
London, ON N6C
As a dedicated Master of Social Work student, I am committed to fostering a safe and supportive atmosphere for those looking to embark on a path toward healing and connection. My approach is firmly rooted in a trauma-informed and inclusive model of practice. I believe in the power of creating a safe and affirming space where diverse perspectives are valued and respected. Through empathy and understanding, my aim is to empower individuals to navigate their challenges, develop new coping skills, and achieve their goals.
As a dedicated Master of Social Work student, I am committed to fostering a safe and supportive atmosphere for those looking to embark on a path toward healing and connection. My approach is firmly rooted in a trauma-informed and inclusive model of practice. I believe in the power of creating a safe and affirming space where diverse perspectives are valued and respected. Through empathy and understanding, my aim is to empower individuals to navigate their challenges, develop new coping skills, and achieve their goals.
(226) 829-5473 View (226) 829-5473
Photo of Rachel Oegema, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Rachel Oegema
Registered Social Worker, MSW RSW
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C
I am a Clinical Social Worker (MSW) with 20 years of experience. I provide psychotherapy and am in trained in numerous evidence based interventions. I bring an inclusive, non-judgmental and compassionate approach that creates an emotionally safe place to heal, grow and learn about yourself. I work with individuals and couples, ages 12 and up.
I am a Clinical Social Worker (MSW) with 20 years of experience. I provide psychotherapy and am in trained in numerous evidence based interventions. I bring an inclusive, non-judgmental and compassionate approach that creates an emotionally safe place to heal, grow and learn about yourself. I work with individuals and couples, ages 12 and up.
(226) 271-6720 View (226) 271-6720
Photo of Brooke Hurley, Registered Social Worker in N6C, ON
Brooke Hurley
Registered Social Worker, BA, MSW, RSW
Verified Verified
London, ON N6C  (Online Only)
Everyone has unique experiences, challenges, and goals. I believe in the power of individual therapy, where personalized support and guidance can help you navigate your journey towards healing and personal growth. Inside a safe and non-judgmental space, I will help you explore your thoughts and emotions, identify patterns or obstacles that may be holding you back, and develop new coping strategies and skills. I tailor my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs, utilizing evidence-based techniques such as cognitive-behavioural therapy and mindfulness practices. It is my goal to empower you to cultivate self-awareness, build
Everyone has unique experiences, challenges, and goals. I believe in the power of individual therapy, where personalized support and guidance can help you navigate your journey towards healing and personal growth. Inside a safe and non-judgmental space, I will help you explore your thoughts and emotions, identify patterns or obstacles that may be holding you back, and develop new coping strategies and skills. I tailor my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs, utilizing evidence-based techniques such as cognitive-behavioural therapy and mindfulness practices. It is my goal to empower you to cultivate self-awareness, build
(226) 794-5293 View (226) 794-5293

See more therapy options for N6C

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in N6C

80+

Average cost per session

$150

Counsellors in N6C who prioritize treating:

96% Anxiety
93% Stress
90% Depression
88% Self Esteem
85% Relationship Issues
77% Life Transitions
76% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

87% Green Shield Canada
61% Canada Life | Great-West Life
57% Manulife

How Counsellors in N6C see their clients

70% In Person and Online
30% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
15% Male
6% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in N6C?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postal code, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postal code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are certified by one of the main professional associations, mainly the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA), and will have a Certified Canadian Counsellor (CCC) designation with their name. Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered members of the college specific to their province. To be listed in the directory, Psychologists must be registered with the psychological college specific to their province or territory.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given the considerable variation in professional regulation and prerequisites across Canadian provinces, some providers may possess significant professional qualifications without necessarily holding professional memberships or being obliged to acquire them. As a result, they may be selectively included without the "Verified" seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Canada.

Psychologists have a master's and/or doctoral degree and have passed both written and oral exams. Psychologists are able to complete mental health assessments and provide diagnostic information to clients as well as provide counselling therapy or psychotherapy. Counsellors and psychotherapists are expected to have a master's or doctoral degree in counselling psychology, social work, or a related mental health discipline and certification by a professional association, such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. Registered Social Workers possess a Bachelor's or Master's degree in Social Work and where possible must be licensed or certified by the provincial government and/or regulatory college.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Canada could be between $100 and $200. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. Some types of outpatient mental health services are covered by Medicare, provided these are performed by a licensed mental health professional in the provinces or territory you reside in and who accepts the assignment.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postal code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Professionals licensed by regulatory colleges and those certified by associations such as the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association are obligated to uphold client confidentiality unless there is a legal reason that requires them to disclose information. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others, or a court order, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.