Therapists in Centreville, VA

Photo of Debra Tievsky, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Debra Tievsky
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20120  (Online Only)
I am a clinical social worker who has practiced in Virginia since 1987. I work with individuals, families, and couples to provide help coping with the stresses of everyday life as well as crisis situations. I have a lot of experience in treating anxiety and depression, using a cognitive-behavioral approach. Helping adult clients deal with past trauma is also one of my specialties. If you have any questions about my practice, please feel free to contact me.
I am a clinical social worker who has practiced in Virginia since 1987. I work with individuals, families, and couples to provide help coping with the stresses of everyday life as well as crisis situations. I have a lot of experience in treating anxiety and depression, using a cognitive-behavioral approach. Helping adult clients deal with past trauma is also one of my specialties. If you have any questions about my practice, please feel free to contact me.
(703) 831-6331 View (703) 831-6331
Photo of Caitlin Wordham, Licensed Professional Counselor in Centreville, VA
Caitlin Wordham
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121
Not accepting new clients
Beginning your therapy journey can be daunting, but it can also be exciting. I'm here to help you start on the path to regaining ownership and control over your life. I believe in the importance of finding your own voice, discovering and embracing your authenticity, and developing greater awareness that empowers us, and it can begin here. Whatever your needs are, together we will strive to meet those needs in a supportive, caring, non-judgmental space, while effectively addressing your therapeutic goals. I am passionate about therapy, and equally passionate about your therapy journey being safe, effective, and true to who you are.
Beginning your therapy journey can be daunting, but it can also be exciting. I'm here to help you start on the path to regaining ownership and control over your life. I believe in the importance of finding your own voice, discovering and embracing your authenticity, and developing greater awareness that empowers us, and it can begin here. Whatever your needs are, together we will strive to meet those needs in a supportive, caring, non-judgmental space, while effectively addressing your therapeutic goals. I am passionate about therapy, and equally passionate about your therapy journey being safe, effective, and true to who you are.
(571) 568-8372 View (571) 568-8372
Photo of Lorne Ladner, Psychologist in Centreville, VA
Lorne Ladner
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121
I believe in a compassionate approach to therapy, working collaboratively to see inner and outer challenges in new ways so that you can have new choices in how you wish to them. Sometimes, it's useful to look to the past in therapy so as to change old patterns of thought, emotion and behavior in order to discover more liberating ways of being in the present and the future. Therapy also focuses on developing new skills to handle one's emotions and relationships so as to decrease suffering and work more effectively towards the goals that you care deeply about.
I believe in a compassionate approach to therapy, working collaboratively to see inner and outer challenges in new ways so that you can have new choices in how you wish to them. Sometimes, it's useful to look to the past in therapy so as to change old patterns of thought, emotion and behavior in order to discover more liberating ways of being in the present and the future. Therapy also focuses on developing new skills to handle one's emotions and relationships so as to decrease suffering and work more effectively towards the goals that you care deeply about.
(703) 810-7112 View (703) 810-7112
Photo of Caryll Jefferies, Psychologist in Centreville, VA
Caryll Jefferies
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20120
Waitlist for new clients
Dr. Jefferies is only accepting clients ages 5-22 with the the following issues: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Anxiety, Panic attacks, Selective Mutism, Phobias, Body Focused Repetitive Behaviors (trichotillomania, skin-picking). I have completed specialized instruction in using Exposure and Ritual Prevention (ExRP) in psychotherapy, including training at IOCDF's Behavior Training Institute
Dr. Jefferies is only accepting clients ages 5-22 with the the following issues: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Anxiety, Panic attacks, Selective Mutism, Phobias, Body Focused Repetitive Behaviors (trichotillomania, skin-picking). I have completed specialized instruction in using Exposure and Ritual Prevention (ExRP) in psychotherapy, including training at IOCDF's Behavior Training Institute
(703) 940-1058 View (703) 940-1058
Photo of Rebecca Hogg, Licensed Professional Counselor in Centreville, VA
Rebecca Hogg
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LSATP, BC-TMH, NCC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20120  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Do you find yourself feeling overwhelmed or exhausted? Maybe you’re feeling confused, lost or stuck along the path of life? Have these emotions or the stressors of life overwhelmed your ability to cope? My approach is focused on you and your needs. I will support you to engage your strengths and self-compassion right NOW to reach your goals you identify and overcome challenges that you are facing. We will explore how you can thrive in the present, and grow your potential.
Do you find yourself feeling overwhelmed or exhausted? Maybe you’re feeling confused, lost or stuck along the path of life? Have these emotions or the stressors of life overwhelmed your ability to cope? My approach is focused on you and your needs. I will support you to engage your strengths and self-compassion right NOW to reach your goals you identify and overcome challenges that you are facing. We will explore how you can thrive in the present, and grow your potential.
(571) 200-6943 View (571) 200-6943
Photo of Dorothy Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Dorothy Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW, BFA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20121
Need help now? I have space. I specialize in anxiety and the related trauma, stress, and depression. Are you willing to work at therapy? I will give between session assignments. My work centers around you and moving towards: calming your anxiety, building strengths, and healing trauma. Let me help you work on: decreasing those worried thoughts, meditation, boundary setting, self-compassion, healing your mental pain, and slowing down to see where you want to go in life. I will partner with you to work on your goals. And hey, if I don't answer, I may be helping someone, so please do leave a message.
Need help now? I have space. I specialize in anxiety and the related trauma, stress, and depression. Are you willing to work at therapy? I will give between session assignments. My work centers around you and moving towards: calming your anxiety, building strengths, and healing trauma. Let me help you work on: decreasing those worried thoughts, meditation, boundary setting, self-compassion, healing your mental pain, and slowing down to see where you want to go in life. I will partner with you to work on your goals. And hey, if I don't answer, I may be helping someone, so please do leave a message.
(703) 884-8997 View (703) 884-8997
Photo of Jesenia Alonso, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Jesenia Alonso
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121  (Online Only)
Taking the initial step to ask for help is often the hardest, but you are here today, so give yourself credit. Do you struggle to find the drive to get out of bed, finish your schoolwork, or even go to work? Have you stopped enjoying activities you used to enjoy? Have you experienced or witnessed a traumatic event? If you can relate to any of this, let's work together to improve your coping skills and begin the healing process. I aim to support you while you develop your capacity for self-knowledge, personal development, and transformation.
Taking the initial step to ask for help is often the hardest, but you are here today, so give yourself credit. Do you struggle to find the drive to get out of bed, finish your schoolwork, or even go to work? Have you stopped enjoying activities you used to enjoy? Have you experienced or witnessed a traumatic event? If you can relate to any of this, let's work together to improve your coping skills and begin the healing process. I aim to support you while you develop your capacity for self-knowledge, personal development, and transformation.
(703) 386-7929 View (703) 386-7929
Photo of Shayla Ortell, Licensed Professional Counselor in Centreville, VA
Shayla Ortell
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121
I have over 20 years of experience helping clients struggling with anxiety, mood disorders, trauma, and relationship problems. I provide individual and couples counseling for adults.
I have over 20 years of experience helping clients struggling with anxiety, mood disorders, trauma, and relationship problems. I provide individual and couples counseling for adults.
(540) 318-1288 View (540) 318-1288
Photo of Peter Whang, Licensed Professional Counselor in Centreville, VA
Peter Whang
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LCPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20121
In my private practice, I offer individual, couple, and group therapy.
In my private practice, I offer individual, couple, and group therapy.
(571) 620-6437 View (571) 620-6437
Photo of Diana O'Brien, LCSW, MEd, LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Diana O'Brien, LCSW, MEd, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MEd
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20120
Not accepting new clients
I have been providing individual and family counseling since 2002. I enjoy working with all ages with anxiety and depression. I tailor the services to each individual client to best suit their needs. I have a history of working with families in crisis in their homes on family dynamics. I also have experience working with foster children and foster families, so have knowledge of trauma issues and how to support these children and families.
I have been providing individual and family counseling since 2002. I enjoy working with all ages with anxiety and depression. I tailor the services to each individual client to best suit their needs. I have a history of working with families in crisis in their homes on family dynamics. I also have experience working with foster children and foster families, so have knowledge of trauma issues and how to support these children and families.
(703) 468-0090 View (703) 468-0090
Photo of Jasmine Appleton, Psy.D, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Centreville, VA
Jasmine Appleton, Psy.D, LPC
Licensed Professional Counselor, PsyD, LPC
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
* When leaving a message, please also provide your insurance type to ensure I am an in network, thank you!* My name is Dr. Jasmine Appleton and I have over 10 years of experience helping my clients and patients work through underlying issues in order to be the best version of themselves. I use DBT, CBT, and meditation based practices to help you gain self-awareness, and insight into your thoughts and behaviors. I educate my clients on what is happening psychologically, emotionally, and neurologically in order to work on self-acceptance, which in turn, trickles into all aspects of our lives including interpersonal relationships.
* When leaving a message, please also provide your insurance type to ensure I am an in network, thank you!* My name is Dr. Jasmine Appleton and I have over 10 years of experience helping my clients and patients work through underlying issues in order to be the best version of themselves. I use DBT, CBT, and meditation based practices to help you gain self-awareness, and insight into your thoughts and behaviors. I educate my clients on what is happening psychologically, emotionally, and neurologically in order to work on self-acceptance, which in turn, trickles into all aspects of our lives including interpersonal relationships.
(703) 215-2563 View (703) 215-2563
Photo of Anwar Taylor, Pre-Licensed Professional in Centreville, VA
Anwar Taylor
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMFT-R
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121
When we are in conflict, disconnection, or misunderstanding with a loved one, we all experience distress. Our protective strategies come alive- we shut down, criticize, go numb, or pursue for reconnection. We find ourselves in the same old dance, talking different relational languages we can’t seem to reconcile, having the same old fight. I help individuals, couples, and families talk about what is happening inside them, identify needs, and understand what is at the core of any recurring patterns. I make space for all the ways life has shaped each of you, how this impacts your interactions, and where the misses are taking place.
When we are in conflict, disconnection, or misunderstanding with a loved one, we all experience distress. Our protective strategies come alive- we shut down, criticize, go numb, or pursue for reconnection. We find ourselves in the same old dance, talking different relational languages we can’t seem to reconcile, having the same old fight. I help individuals, couples, and families talk about what is happening inside them, identify needs, and understand what is at the core of any recurring patterns. I make space for all the ways life has shaped each of you, how this impacts your interactions, and where the misses are taking place.
(703) 260-7104 View (703) 260-7104
Photo of Hilary H Cohen, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Hilary H Cohen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121
Common problems that bring people to therapy are such things as anxiety, depression, loss, relationship difficulties, life transitions and trauma. I use a psychodynamic approach to get an understanding of deeper issues that may underlie these present day problems. My perspective is informed by attachment and trauma focused models, based on the premise that events in one’s personal history can affect present day functioning. I will work with you to formulate a plan to change long standing problems with behaviors and negative perceptions, and to achieve a greater sense of well being.
Common problems that bring people to therapy are such things as anxiety, depression, loss, relationship difficulties, life transitions and trauma. I use a psychodynamic approach to get an understanding of deeper issues that may underlie these present day problems. My perspective is informed by attachment and trauma focused models, based on the premise that events in one’s personal history can affect present day functioning. I will work with you to formulate a plan to change long standing problems with behaviors and negative perceptions, and to achieve a greater sense of well being.
(571) 200-2232 View (571) 200-2232
Photo of Ann Boyer Holmes, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Ann Boyer Holmes, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20120
Would you like to become the best version of yourself? That journey begins with figuring out what you want, choosing what you believe and taking responsibility for the changes you want to make. This is a step by step process best achieved in an environment of unconditional positive regard, validation and genuineness. I use evidence-based techniques including Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Interpersonal Therapy along with mindfulness, assertiveness training and relaxation techniques. I am out of network for all insurance but happy to help you navigate that process. Ask me if you qualify for a reduced fee.
Would you like to become the best version of yourself? That journey begins with figuring out what you want, choosing what you believe and taking responsibility for the changes you want to make. This is a step by step process best achieved in an environment of unconditional positive regard, validation and genuineness. I use evidence-based techniques including Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Interpersonal Therapy along with mindfulness, assertiveness training and relaxation techniques. I am out of network for all insurance but happy to help you navigate that process. Ask me if you qualify for a reduced fee.
(703) 884-2177 View (703) 884-2177
Photo of Donna Fortney, Licensed Professional Counselor in Centreville, VA
Donna Fortney
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20120
Hello, My name is Donna Fortney and I am a Virginia Licensed Professional Counselor. I am a Certified Imago Relationship Therapist, Certified Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Therapist, Certified Solution Oriented Brief Therapist, Voice Dialogue Facilitator, and an Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) Practitioner. I volunteer my mental health expertise with the American Red Cross and assist locally during disaster relief efforts. I have also volunteered as a mentor with Opportunities, Alternatives, and Resources (OAR) in the Fairfax County Jail system. My specialty is working with relationships including: GLBT couples and individuals, blended families, parents/adolescents, siblings, and organizationsHell0.
Hello, My name is Donna Fortney and I am a Virginia Licensed Professional Counselor. I am a Certified Imago Relationship Therapist, Certified Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Therapist, Certified Solution Oriented Brief Therapist, Voice Dialogue Facilitator, and an Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) Practitioner. I volunteer my mental health expertise with the American Red Cross and assist locally during disaster relief efforts. I have also volunteered as a mentor with Opportunities, Alternatives, and Resources (OAR) in the Fairfax County Jail system. My specialty is working with relationships including: GLBT couples and individuals, blended families, parents/adolescents, siblings, and organizationsHell0.
(703) 348-9873 View (703) 348-9873
Photo of Melissa Futreal, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Melissa Futreal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20121
I began helping others in 1990 as a Peer Counselor (Drug Exemption NCO) while on active duty in the Marine Corps. After earning degrees in Psychology and Social Work at UNCW/ECU, I obtained licensure to practice independently with the Virginia Board of Health Professionals in 2004. I am originally from the Hampton Roads area but have worked internationally with people from many different backgrounds. I have continued to support the military, as well as the community at large, for over 3 decades with evidence-based treatments for trauma (PTSD).
I began helping others in 1990 as a Peer Counselor (Drug Exemption NCO) while on active duty in the Marine Corps. After earning degrees in Psychology and Social Work at UNCW/ECU, I obtained licensure to practice independently with the Virginia Board of Health Professionals in 2004. I am originally from the Hampton Roads area but have worked internationally with people from many different backgrounds. I have continued to support the military, as well as the community at large, for over 3 decades with evidence-based treatments for trauma (PTSD).
(571) 322-8908 View (571) 322-8908
Photo of Laurel Musson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Laurel Musson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20120  (Online Only)
Lately life is relentless. Overwhelming. Filled with demands. Suddenly, you’re full time mom, teacher, employee of the year and queen of the zoom meeting! There’s never a moment to yourself…yet you’ve never felt more alone, invisible, exhausted by it all. You find yourself anxious. How to balance all the competing demands and still have time to wipe down the groceries, let alone sleep a few hours before you get up to do it again? Your mind circles, trying to figure some way out of the trap…you don’t want to be grouchy. You long to get back to connection and peace, to be the fun-loving mom you always thought you’d be.
Lately life is relentless. Overwhelming. Filled with demands. Suddenly, you’re full time mom, teacher, employee of the year and queen of the zoom meeting! There’s never a moment to yourself…yet you’ve never felt more alone, invisible, exhausted by it all. You find yourself anxious. How to balance all the competing demands and still have time to wipe down the groceries, let alone sleep a few hours before you get up to do it again? Your mind circles, trying to figure some way out of the trap…you don’t want to be grouchy. You long to get back to connection and peace, to be the fun-loving mom you always thought you’d be.
(571) 378-5767 View (571) 378-5767
Photo of Melody Concas, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Melody Concas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20120  (Online Only)
Hi, my name is Melody (she/her). I am a licensed social worker in MD, DC, and VA. I have experience working with people across the lifespan and with issues related to parenting, trauma, identity confusion, anxiety, depression, LGBTQIA+, and life changes. My goal as a therapist is to provide an authentic and nonjudgmental space for ALL people. I believe that having a safe space to explore thoughts and emotions is essential for healing and resilience.
Hi, my name is Melody (she/her). I am a licensed social worker in MD, DC, and VA. I have experience working with people across the lifespan and with issues related to parenting, trauma, identity confusion, anxiety, depression, LGBTQIA+, and life changes. My goal as a therapist is to provide an authentic and nonjudgmental space for ALL people. I believe that having a safe space to explore thoughts and emotions is essential for healing and resilience.
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Photo of Russell A Hunter Psy D, Psychologist in Centreville, VA
Russell A Hunter Psy D
Psychologist, PLLC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Centreville, VA 20121  (Online Only)
I am a Clinical Psychologist with over 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of Panic Attacks, OCD, Generalized Anxiety, and ADHD. I have experience working with children, adolescents, adults, older adults, and published a book on Panic Attacks "Attacking Panic: The Power To Be Calm." I am licensed to practice in Virginia and in California. In my current work I have been collaboratively working with clients on issues related to OCD, major life adjustments, and identity exploration.
I am a Clinical Psychologist with over 20 years of experience specializing in the treatment of Panic Attacks, OCD, Generalized Anxiety, and ADHD. I have experience working with children, adolescents, adults, older adults, and published a book on Panic Attacks "Attacking Panic: The Power To Be Calm." I am licensed to practice in Virginia and in California. In my current work I have been collaboratively working with clients on issues related to OCD, major life adjustments, and identity exploration.
(571) 454-8007 View (571) 454-8007
Photo of Patricia Humphrey, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Centreville, VA
Patricia Humphrey
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Centreville, VA 20120  (Online Only)
Greetings from Nucleus Counseling Services (NCS)!! Are you or a loved one experiencing feelings of loneliness, fatigue, low energy, lack of focus, anxiety or are you struggling with a traumatic experience? At Nucleus we believe that healing begins when our core issues are addressed. We are here, via teletherapy, to assist individuals with navigating social/emotional obstacles that may be interfering with day to day function and progress.
Greetings from Nucleus Counseling Services (NCS)!! Are you or a loved one experiencing feelings of loneliness, fatigue, low energy, lack of focus, anxiety or are you struggling with a traumatic experience? At Nucleus we believe that healing begins when our core issues are addressed. We are here, via teletherapy, to assist individuals with navigating social/emotional obstacles that may be interfering with day to day function and progress.
(571) 497-4697 View (571) 497-4697

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Centreville, VA

100+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Centreville, VA who prioritize treating:

89% Anxiety
84% Depression
74% Self Esteem
73% Relationship Issues
71% Coping Skills
67% Trauma and PTSD
61% Grief

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

83% Anthem | Elevance
79% BlueCross and BlueShield
69% CareFirst

How Therapists in Centreville, VA see their clients

80% In Person and Online
20% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
15% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Centreville?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.