Therapists in Keene, NH

Photo of Carey Bluhm, Psychologist in Keene, NH
Carey Bluhm
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Waitlist for new clients
How might you choose the best counselor for you? Do you already know whether age and gender are important factors? Do you most of all need a specific time slot? Do you need someone who takes your insurance (or you can afford if you have none)? Does your prospective counselor do a specific kind of therapy you heard was good? You probably are concerned that the counselor will understand you and your specific problem or issues, but that is something you'll only be able to learn when you meet them. Has this counselor worked successfully with people with my problem or my circumstances?
How might you choose the best counselor for you? Do you already know whether age and gender are important factors? Do you most of all need a specific time slot? Do you need someone who takes your insurance (or you can afford if you have none)? Does your prospective counselor do a specific kind of therapy you heard was good? You probably are concerned that the counselor will understand you and your specific problem or issues, but that is something you'll only be able to learn when you meet them. Has this counselor worked successfully with people with my problem or my circumstances?
(888) 491-2993 View (888) 491-2993
Photo of Nicole McElhinney, Counselor in Keene, NH
Nicole McElhinney
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Not accepting new clients
I work with individuals ages 16 and up suffering with eating disorders, trauma, anxiety, and depression among other challenges. My goal is to create a safe, collaborative, and supportive environment for my clients to gain a deeper sense of awareness, understanding, and healing. I work with clients who are seeking a mind-body centered focus along with increased coping skills based in cognitive behavioral, trauma, and solution focused modalities. In my practice I am sensitive to how family systems along with sociocultural and systemic factors impact individual development and wellbeing.
I work with individuals ages 16 and up suffering with eating disorders, trauma, anxiety, and depression among other challenges. My goal is to create a safe, collaborative, and supportive environment for my clients to gain a deeper sense of awareness, understanding, and healing. I work with clients who are seeking a mind-body centered focus along with increased coping skills based in cognitive behavioral, trauma, and solution focused modalities. In my practice I am sensitive to how family systems along with sociocultural and systemic factors impact individual development and wellbeing.
(603) 903-2606 View (603) 903-2606
Photo of Jade Martin-Willis, Counselor in Keene, NH
Jade Martin-Willis
Counselor, LCMHC, LMHC, R-DMT
Verified
3 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431  (Online Only)
I am a licensed clinician in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and I am a Registered Dance/Movement Therapist. I have a person-centered and holistic approach. I enjoy blending traditional talk therapy, expressive arts, and movement therapy in my counseling sessions. Typically I begin therapy with traditional talk therapy and then at that point I am open to using any particular style depending on your preferred way of processing. Typically my clients are people who feel overwhelmed, have recent loss, need help improving self-esteem, need help improving relationships, and want realistic coping skills in their life.
I am a licensed clinician in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and I am a Registered Dance/Movement Therapist. I have a person-centered and holistic approach. I enjoy blending traditional talk therapy, expressive arts, and movement therapy in my counseling sessions. Typically I begin therapy with traditional talk therapy and then at that point I am open to using any particular style depending on your preferred way of processing. Typically my clients are people who feel overwhelmed, have recent loss, need help improving self-esteem, need help improving relationships, and want realistic coping skills in their life.
(603) 903-1414 View (603) 903-1414
Photo of Anna Sommer-Cutts, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Keene, NH
Anna Sommer-Cutts
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCMHC
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Not accepting new clients
Thank you for taking the time to visit my profile. I believe everyone deserves to be happy. I also believe everyone needs something to be passionate about and invested in. If you are feeling down, anxious, scattered, overwhelmed, unsupported, worried, or unfulfilled, I can help. I strive to help clients to identify healthy sources of motivation and help them find passion in life. I work with teens and adults. I am a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor in Keene, NH. I also specialize in counseling with athletes and performers.
Thank you for taking the time to visit my profile. I believe everyone deserves to be happy. I also believe everyone needs something to be passionate about and invested in. If you are feeling down, anxious, scattered, overwhelmed, unsupported, worried, or unfulfilled, I can help. I strive to help clients to identify healthy sources of motivation and help them find passion in life. I work with teens and adults. I am a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor in Keene, NH. I also specialize in counseling with athletes and performers.
(603) 733-4538 View (603) 733-4538
Photo of Travis Rowe in Keene, NH
Travis Rowe
MFT
1 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431  (Online Only)
Travis, a dedicated Marriage and Family Therapist, offers telehealth sessions to individuals and families. Specializing in systemic thinking, he builds comprehensive client profiles, leveraging his extensive knowledge of local resources. Travis expertly navigates anxiety, depression, PTSD, substance abuse, ADHD, and co-occurring disorders. Begin your journey to wellness; call for an appointment today.
Travis, a dedicated Marriage and Family Therapist, offers telehealth sessions to individuals and families. Specializing in systemic thinking, he builds comprehensive client profiles, leveraging his extensive knowledge of local resources. Travis expertly navigates anxiety, depression, PTSD, substance abuse, ADHD, and co-occurring disorders. Begin your journey to wellness; call for an appointment today.
(603) 606-9114 View (603) 606-9114
Photo of Cheyenne Garstad, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Keene, NH
Cheyenne Garstad
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431
Has life thrown a lot your way? Has it been difficult to trust someone to help you through it? Does it feel like you don’t fit in anywhere, like no one gets it? Having a safe place to be yourself and find yourself is a big step in your healing journey. You don’t have to figure it out alone. As a queer and Black therapist, I understand the importance of creating a space where everyone feels welcome and cared for. I will be that safe space for you to share about your struggles and empower you to discover your strengths. You deserve safety, support, and the life you imagine for yourself.
Has life thrown a lot your way? Has it been difficult to trust someone to help you through it? Does it feel like you don’t fit in anywhere, like no one gets it? Having a safe place to be yourself and find yourself is a big step in your healing journey. You don’t have to figure it out alone. As a queer and Black therapist, I understand the importance of creating a space where everyone feels welcome and cared for. I will be that safe space for you to share about your struggles and empower you to discover your strengths. You deserve safety, support, and the life you imagine for yourself.
(603) 945-5485 View (603) 945-5485
Photo of Roger L Peterson, Psychologist in Keene, NH
Roger L Peterson
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP
Verified
Keene, NH 03431  (Online Only)
Roger L. Peterson is a Clinical Psychologist practicing teleheaith in New Hampshire. He works from a cognitive interpersonal orientation and has been influenced by evidence based treatments. He also does supervision, consultation, and teaching. Dr. Peterson’s areas of focus are: Couples, people with interpersonal concerns or health issues, and older people. He takes most insurances but not Medicare. The practice is HIPAA compliant and is not an emergency mental health service. Roger L. Peterson received his doctorate in clinical psychology from Purdue University.
Roger L. Peterson is a Clinical Psychologist practicing teleheaith in New Hampshire. He works from a cognitive interpersonal orientation and has been influenced by evidence based treatments. He also does supervision, consultation, and teaching. Dr. Peterson’s areas of focus are: Couples, people with interpersonal concerns or health issues, and older people. He takes most insurances but not Medicare. The practice is HIPAA compliant and is not an emergency mental health service. Roger L. Peterson received his doctorate in clinical psychology from Purdue University.
(603) 810-8083 View (603) 810-8083
Photo of Anna Weigle, Counselor in Keene, NH
Anna Weigle
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified
Keene, NH 03431  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
My practice will be temporarily closed from Sept 2023 to March 2024. I will not be conducting treatment or accepting new clients during this time. Upon re-opening, I plan to have an office space for in-person treatment (with continuing to offer telehealth as requested), as well as accept a variety of insurances. Please reach out upon reopening for any inquiries into treatment for depression, anxiety, panic, or OCD.
My practice will be temporarily closed from Sept 2023 to March 2024. I will not be conducting treatment or accepting new clients during this time. Upon re-opening, I plan to have an office space for in-person treatment (with continuing to offer telehealth as requested), as well as accept a variety of insurances. Please reach out upon reopening for any inquiries into treatment for depression, anxiety, panic, or OCD.
(603) 322-1367 View (603) 322-1367
Photo of Karen Linafelter, Counselor in Keene, NH
Karen Linafelter
Counselor, MA, LCMHC, BC-DMT
Verified
3 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431  (Online Only)
Thank you for your interest. I offer video sessions throughout the state of NH and VT. I utilize a strength-based and integrated approach to help people identify what they want to work on and move forward with in their lives. I have worked with many topics including, but not limited to, stress of daily life and major changes, losses, depression, anxiety, trauma history, and eating disorders. I have worked with individuals and groups. I have been honored to work with people of all ages and abilities. I use both spoken English as well as American Sign Language.
Thank you for your interest. I offer video sessions throughout the state of NH and VT. I utilize a strength-based and integrated approach to help people identify what they want to work on and move forward with in their lives. I have worked with many topics including, but not limited to, stress of daily life and major changes, losses, depression, anxiety, trauma history, and eating disorders. I have worked with individuals and groups. I have been honored to work with people of all ages and abilities. I use both spoken English as well as American Sign Language.
(603) 757-6423 View (603) 757-6423
Photo of Dana Belletiere, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Keene, NH
Dana Belletiere
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, MSEd
Verified
2 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431  (Online Only)
You may be struggling with perfectionism, shame and guilt, anxiety, self-doubt, and issues with control. You identify as a helper, caretaker, and/or highly sensitive individual. You want to improve how you feel, but have trouble finding the time and energy for yourself. You want a plan to create a more intentional and satisfying day-to-day life, set clear boundaries, and seek to gain greater independence, freedom, and a sense of self-empowerment. In your therapeutic work, you are hoping to cultivate self-worth, take excellent care of themselves, and let go of shame and fear.
You may be struggling with perfectionism, shame and guilt, anxiety, self-doubt, and issues with control. You identify as a helper, caretaker, and/or highly sensitive individual. You want to improve how you feel, but have trouble finding the time and energy for yourself. You want a plan to create a more intentional and satisfying day-to-day life, set clear boundaries, and seek to gain greater independence, freedom, and a sense of self-empowerment. In your therapeutic work, you are hoping to cultivate self-worth, take excellent care of themselves, and let go of shame and fear.
(855) 298-5237 View (855) 298-5237
Photo of Joshua Green, Psychologist in Keene, NH
Joshua Green
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431
If you are struggling with emotional pain that is confusing and/or seemingly uncontrollable and unpredictable, I may be a good fit for you. I frequently work with adults and college students who are struggling with anger, anxiety/panic, depression, relationship difficulties, sexual concerns, and distress related to family and life transitions. I also have significant experience working with individuals with histories of abuse, but I see people struggling with a wide variety of difficulties and concerns. I work with people of all genders, sexualities, and socioeconomic, racial, and cultural backgrounds.
If you are struggling with emotional pain that is confusing and/or seemingly uncontrollable and unpredictable, I may be a good fit for you. I frequently work with adults and college students who are struggling with anger, anxiety/panic, depression, relationship difficulties, sexual concerns, and distress related to family and life transitions. I also have significant experience working with individuals with histories of abuse, but I see people struggling with a wide variety of difficulties and concerns. I work with people of all genders, sexualities, and socioeconomic, racial, and cultural backgrounds.
(518) 430-5767 View (518) 430-5767
Photo of Christine Chamberlin, Psychologist in Keene, NH
Christine Chamberlin
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Not accepting new clients
I work with individual adults seeking to clarify their life path, and who are up for the challenge of taking the necessary steps towards change. You may be encountering life transitions, stress, anxiety, or relationship difficulties, which may extend to a desire for a more comfortable or inspiring living or work environment. My primary interest is to empower you to clarify what you want, build confidence and self-nurturing skills, and manifest potential; in both you and your environment. I utilize techniques aimed at bringing forth what it is you truly desire and need, to live authentically.
I work with individual adults seeking to clarify their life path, and who are up for the challenge of taking the necessary steps towards change. You may be encountering life transitions, stress, anxiety, or relationship difficulties, which may extend to a desire for a more comfortable or inspiring living or work environment. My primary interest is to empower you to clarify what you want, build confidence and self-nurturing skills, and manifest potential; in both you and your environment. I utilize techniques aimed at bringing forth what it is you truly desire and need, to live authentically.
(603) 392-7311 View (603) 392-7311
Emily Cashman
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
I have been working with children and adolescents for over 10 years in the context of individual and family therapy. I often work with teenagers who experience social problems, anxiety, and depression. I also provide psychological assessment for those in need of diagnostic clarification. Parent consultation and intervention is a big part of my practice. Navigating challenges with dysregulated children, children with learning disorders, and young adults is complex and I enjoy guiding parents through these difficult times. I also enjoy providing consultations to parents and caregivers soon emergency bases when needed.
I have been working with children and adolescents for over 10 years in the context of individual and family therapy. I often work with teenagers who experience social problems, anxiety, and depression. I also provide psychological assessment for those in need of diagnostic clarification. Parent consultation and intervention is a big part of my practice. Navigating challenges with dysregulated children, children with learning disorders, and young adults is complex and I enjoy guiding parents through these difficult times. I also enjoy providing consultations to parents and caregivers soon emergency bases when needed.
(475) 256-6265 View (475) 256-6265
Photo of Maisa'a Hanbali, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Keene, NH
Maisa'a Hanbali
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, MLADC, CTP, EMDR, MA, CMHC
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Collaborating with clients to develop individually tailored treatment plans, goals, and methods to assess progress in both one-to-one and group situations is what I strive for. In my previous jobs, I created opportunities for individuals who are in the process of discovering new horizons. I have strong intuitive skills that help me understand my clients' abilities and natural gifts in a nonjudgmental way. I have previously enjoyed working as a Crisis Clinician and a Respite Clinician. After that, I transitioned in my roles from Senior Counselor to an Assistant Director to a Clinical director in a residential setting.
Collaborating with clients to develop individually tailored treatment plans, goals, and methods to assess progress in both one-to-one and group situations is what I strive for. In my previous jobs, I created opportunities for individuals who are in the process of discovering new horizons. I have strong intuitive skills that help me understand my clients' abilities and natural gifts in a nonjudgmental way. I have previously enjoyed working as a Crisis Clinician and a Respite Clinician. After that, I transitioned in my roles from Senior Counselor to an Assistant Director to a Clinical director in a residential setting.
(603) 803-1472 View (603) 803-1472
Alouette Iselin
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Not accepting new clients
I work with clients who have been traumatized, helping them to process memories and manage emotions related to the trauma. I also work with families and help parents increase their skills. I address grief and bereavement issues, and facilitate a support group for people whose loved ones have been murdered, as well as seeing those people individually. I have experience working with dissociation.
I work with clients who have been traumatized, helping them to process memories and manage emotions related to the trauma. I also work with families and help parents increase their skills. I address grief and bereavement issues, and facilitate a support group for people whose loved ones have been murdered, as well as seeing those people individually. I have experience working with dissociation.
(603) 952-3999 View (603) 952-3999
Photo of Beth A Mundahl, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Keene, NH
Beth A Mundahl
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Waitlist for new clients
My approach to therapy is to provide practical feedback to help clients effectively address life challenges. Together, we work on a plan that makes sense to you. It is important to build on your strengths and empower you to attain the personal growth you are committed to achieving. With compassion and understanding, I offer a safe and welcoming place for clients to discover more effective ways to improve their health and well being. I am experienced in the areas of addictions, depression, stress and anxiety, transitions, grief, and family issues.
My approach to therapy is to provide practical feedback to help clients effectively address life challenges. Together, we work on a plan that makes sense to you. It is important to build on your strengths and empower you to attain the personal growth you are committed to achieving. With compassion and understanding, I offer a safe and welcoming place for clients to discover more effective ways to improve their health and well being. I am experienced in the areas of addictions, depression, stress and anxiety, transitions, grief, and family issues.
(603) 294-4351 View (603) 294-4351
Photo of Rachel Chickerella, Psychologist in Keene, NH
Rachel Chickerella
Psychologist, PhD, LP
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Rachel is a licensed psychologist practicing in New Hampshire. Clinically, she is interested in working with people on self acceptance. She prioritizes understanding how they relate to themselves and others and where these relational patterns come from. She also is interested in working with people around identities they hold that impact their experience in the world. She pulls from Relational Cultural Therapy while also integrating Cognitive Behavioral and Dialectical Behavioral methods. In other words, she aims to understand relationships and identities while also utilizing behavioral strategies to reduce psychological distress.
Rachel is a licensed psychologist practicing in New Hampshire. Clinically, she is interested in working with people on self acceptance. She prioritizes understanding how they relate to themselves and others and where these relational patterns come from. She also is interested in working with people around identities they hold that impact their experience in the world. She pulls from Relational Cultural Therapy while also integrating Cognitive Behavioral and Dialectical Behavioral methods. In other words, she aims to understand relationships and identities while also utilizing behavioral strategies to reduce psychological distress.
(833) 618-1230 View (833) 618-1230
Photo of Tricia McLeod, Counselor in Keene, NH
Tricia McLeod
Counselor, MA, LCMHC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431
Not accepting new clients
I am a down to earth, intuitive therapist and provide counseling in a safe, practical and non-judgmental manner. I utilize a variety of therapeutic approaches tailored to each person's specific needs and goals. I truly believe in a person's ability to heal and recover and enjoy working collaboratively to meet people where they are at in their own process of change.
I am a down to earth, intuitive therapist and provide counseling in a safe, practical and non-judgmental manner. I utilize a variety of therapeutic approaches tailored to each person's specific needs and goals. I truly believe in a person's ability to heal and recover and enjoy working collaboratively to meet people where they are at in their own process of change.
(978) 631-2371 View (978) 631-2371
Photo of Shannon L. McIntyre, Psychologist in Keene, NH
Shannon L. McIntyre
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Keene, NH 03431
Waitlist for new clients
Life can get complicated. Seeking guidance to contend with life's complications requires bravery, vulnerability, and perseverance - though, it can be a game changer. As a practitioner, I work best with those who struggle to maintain healthy & satisfying relationships with themselves and others, yet are driven to understand why.
Life can get complicated. Seeking guidance to contend with life's complications requires bravery, vulnerability, and perseverance - though, it can be a game changer. As a practitioner, I work best with those who struggle to maintain healthy & satisfying relationships with themselves and others, yet are driven to understand why.
(855) 554-3238 View (855) 554-3238
Photo of Allison Carey, Marriage & Family Therapist in Keene, NH
Allison Carey
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LFYP-
Verified
3 Endorsed
Keene, NH 03431  (Online Only)
Only accepting for individual therapy at this time. I work with people who are seeking a systemic, strengths-based, collaborative approach. My clients are primarily adolescents and adults experiencing relationship difficulties, parenting issues, marital distress, academic and behavioral difficulties, trauma symptoms and/or depressive & anxious moods. Those seeking to reduce daily stress and overwhelm, increase relationship satisfaction, and discover family patterns are a good fit for my approach.
Only accepting for individual therapy at this time. I work with people who are seeking a systemic, strengths-based, collaborative approach. My clients are primarily adolescents and adults experiencing relationship difficulties, parenting issues, marital distress, academic and behavioral difficulties, trauma symptoms and/or depressive & anxious moods. Those seeking to reduce daily stress and overwhelm, increase relationship satisfaction, and discover family patterns are a good fit for my approach.
(603) 903-1414 View (603) 903-1414

See more therapy options for Keene

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Keene, NH

90+

Average cost per session

$140

Therapists in Keene, NH who prioritize treating:

86% Anxiety
82% Depression
72% Relationship Issues
72% Self Esteem
68% Coping Skills
64% Trauma and PTSD
63% Stress

Average years in practice

17 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% BlueCross and BlueShield
66% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
59% Optum

How Therapists in Keene, NH see their clients

67% In Person and Online
33% Online Only

Gender breakdown

72% Female
27% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Keene?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.