Therapists in Santa Monica, CA

Photo of Joseph R McCowan, PsyD, Psychologist
Joseph R McCowan
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90403
Psychotherapist and researcher drawing from humanistic, mindfulness-based, and holistic approaches to help individuals discover their inner capacity to heal and grow.
Psychotherapist and researcher drawing from humanistic, mindfulness-based, and holistic approaches to help individuals discover their inner capacity to heal and grow.
(424) 234-2438 View (424) 234-2438
Photo of Sarah (Sally) Gibbons - Sally Gibbons Psychotherapy, MA, LPCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sally Gibbons Psychotherapy
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90403
At different times in life, many of us find ourselves feeling stuck, uncertain about who we have become, feeling hopeless or anxious as we confront the challenges of our life. Entering therapy can be a courageous and creative way to find support in transforming the pain of these experiences into an opportunity for healing and growth. The therapeutic relationship allows client and therapist together to engage in a dialogue that fosters understanding and acceptance, while encouraging emotional growth and shifting old patterns that may be keeping us stuck and suffering.
At different times in life, many of us find ourselves feeling stuck, uncertain about who we have become, feeling hopeless or anxious as we confront the challenges of our life. Entering therapy can be a courageous and creative way to find support in transforming the pain of these experiences into an opportunity for healing and growth. The therapeutic relationship allows client and therapist together to engage in a dialogue that fosters understanding and acceptance, while encouraging emotional growth and shifting old patterns that may be keeping us stuck and suffering.
(310) 388-8653 View (310) 388-8653
Photo of Eveline Smilack, MFA, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Eveline Smilack
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFA, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90402
Do problems feel unmanageable? Are relationships growing more stressful? Sometimes life can be challenging. It can be difficult to know how to move forward. My practice is dedicated to listening carefully and offering insight with compassion and care. I offer a trusting supportive space to understand and heal emotional experiences, develop nurturing relationships, and move towards fulfilling your personal goals. Whatever your reasons for wanting to talk to someone, therapy can help you better understand your experiences. Let psychotherapy help you discover your own potential. Starting the conversation is easier than you think. Reach out to explore the possibilities.
Do problems feel unmanageable? Are relationships growing more stressful? Sometimes life can be challenging. It can be difficult to know how to move forward. My practice is dedicated to listening carefully and offering insight with compassion and care. I offer a trusting supportive space to understand and heal emotional experiences, develop nurturing relationships, and move towards fulfilling your personal goals. Whatever your reasons for wanting to talk to someone, therapy can help you better understand your experiences. Let psychotherapy help you discover your own potential. Starting the conversation is easier than you think. Reach out to explore the possibilities.
(310) 869-1533 View (310) 869-1533
Photo of Robin Olesen, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Robin Olesen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90404  (Online Only)
I help clients change in directions desirable to them and to gain sustainable tools to break free and become unstuck on their road to fulfillment. Many experience shame which can impede progress. Supportive therapy that's practical as well as creative and spiritual can afford clients the opportunity for deep, ongoing growth.
I help clients change in directions desirable to them and to gain sustainable tools to break free and become unstuck on their road to fulfillment. Many experience shame which can impede progress. Supportive therapy that's practical as well as creative and spiritual can afford clients the opportunity for deep, ongoing growth.
(310) 868-2057 View (310) 868-2057
Photo of Kelsey Harper - Kelsey Harper, Psy.D., PsyD, Psychologist
Kelsey Harper, Psy.D.
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90403  (Online Only)
A life worth living is one that is full of relationships, and commitments that align with and express our personal values; a life of meaning and purpose. For many people with trauma, such a life feels like a fantasy, wholly unattainable and not within grasp. We often simply hope for a life we can survive, getting through day to day, weeks, months, and staying alive and ok. But we can hope for more than that from life. We can recover and heal, and learn about ourselves and what makes us come alive. I’m here to help you navigate overwhelming emotion so you can feel safe and grounded; connect to yourself so you feel powerful.
A life worth living is one that is full of relationships, and commitments that align with and express our personal values; a life of meaning and purpose. For many people with trauma, such a life feels like a fantasy, wholly unattainable and not within grasp. We often simply hope for a life we can survive, getting through day to day, weeks, months, and staying alive and ok. But we can hope for more than that from life. We can recover and heal, and learn about ourselves and what makes us come alive. I’m here to help you navigate overwhelming emotion so you can feel safe and grounded; connect to yourself so you feel powerful.
(415) 680-9455 View (415) 680-9455
Photo of Samira Hosseini, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Samira Hosseini
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90403  (Online Only)
**Accepting New Clients** Many of my clients come to me during times of uncertainty and stress -- feeling lost or on edge, experiencing turmoil in their relationships, or generally overwhelmed and eager to find solutions. I believe that our problems have deeper roots and if not addressed can cause unconscious and unwanted patterns that affect our relationships with ourselves, others, and our perception of our reality. I hope to partner with you toward self-discovery, empowerment, self-compassion, and responding instead of reacting from a place of peace rather than urgency.
**Accepting New Clients** Many of my clients come to me during times of uncertainty and stress -- feeling lost or on edge, experiencing turmoil in their relationships, or generally overwhelmed and eager to find solutions. I believe that our problems have deeper roots and if not addressed can cause unconscious and unwanted patterns that affect our relationships with ourselves, others, and our perception of our reality. I hope to partner with you toward self-discovery, empowerment, self-compassion, and responding instead of reacting from a place of peace rather than urgency.
(401) 237-6421 View (401) 237-6421
Photo of Kurt Vaillancourt, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kurt Vaillancourt
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90401  (Online Only)
Is life becoming unmanageable? Looking for real answers? Seeking the best group of clinicians who accept your insurance? Welcome to WellPsyche Medical Group! WellPsyche providers are experts in Wellness and Mental Health. Our providers take a Thoughtful, Practical, and Caring approach to therapy and can help you balance your life. WellPsyche is also a leader in Telemedicine. Now you can visit with your provider from the privacy and convenience of your home or work.
Is life becoming unmanageable? Looking for real answers? Seeking the best group of clinicians who accept your insurance? Welcome to WellPsyche Medical Group! WellPsyche providers are experts in Wellness and Mental Health. Our providers take a Thoughtful, Practical, and Caring approach to therapy and can help you balance your life. WellPsyche is also a leader in Telemedicine. Now you can visit with your provider from the privacy and convenience of your home or work.
(310) 388-3651 View (310) 388-3651
Photo of Angela M Doss, MA, NTP, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Angela M Doss
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, NTP, AMFT
Not Verified Not Verified
2 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Your reach for support is a reach toward wholeness and connection in a world that is increasingly divided, distressed and disembodied - a world that privileges toughness, denial and individualism over sensitivity, awareness and collaboration. We receive messages from our culture that who we are isn't enough. And so we spend a great deal of energy trying to be something or someone that we are not - an abstract, ever-elusive someone we think we "should" be. We sweep the socially unacceptable parts of ourselves under the rug, often to the great detriment of our mental, emotional, and even physical health.
Your reach for support is a reach toward wholeness and connection in a world that is increasingly divided, distressed and disembodied - a world that privileges toughness, denial and individualism over sensitivity, awareness and collaboration. We receive messages from our culture that who we are isn't enough. And so we spend a great deal of energy trying to be something or someone that we are not - an abstract, ever-elusive someone we think we "should" be. We sweep the socially unacceptable parts of ourselves under the rug, often to the great detriment of our mental, emotional, and even physical health.
(213) 373-4575 View (213) 373-4575
Photo of Relationships - Recovery - Stress Management With Jessica Kauffmann, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Relationships - Recovery - Stress Management With Jessica Kauffmann
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90402
Many of us turn to therapy when life's challenges leave us unsure how to care for ourselves or move forward in meaningful ways. Painful experiences often shape our ability to meet our own needs. Whether we are repeating relational patterns, overworking, withdrawing from loved ones, struggling with disordered eating or substance abuse—when we become tangled in one of life’s knots, it can be so hard to know how to cope. This can create an endless cycle of difficulty in our lives, complicating our relationship with ourselves and others. No matter where you find yourself today, I hope you know that things can get better.
Many of us turn to therapy when life's challenges leave us unsure how to care for ourselves or move forward in meaningful ways. Painful experiences often shape our ability to meet our own needs. Whether we are repeating relational patterns, overworking, withdrawing from loved ones, struggling with disordered eating or substance abuse—when we become tangled in one of life’s knots, it can be so hard to know how to cope. This can create an endless cycle of difficulty in our lives, complicating our relationship with ourselves and others. No matter where you find yourself today, I hope you know that things can get better.
(424) 216-5497 View (424) 216-5497
Photo of Katy O'Donnell, RN, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Katy O'Donnell
Marriage & Family Therapist, RN, LMFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90403
Anxiety and depression are on the rise. We are regularly flooded with images of climate crisis, war, violence, homelessness... leaving us feeling overwhelmed and powerless. The strain of these events can intensify ongoing stressors on every front; relationships, finances, physical and mental health. It's hard to know where to turn or how to help ourselves. As a trauma therapist, I integrate psychotherapy and Attachment-Focused EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), a cutting edge therapy that works with the brain's natural ability to heal.
Anxiety and depression are on the rise. We are regularly flooded with images of climate crisis, war, violence, homelessness... leaving us feeling overwhelmed and powerless. The strain of these events can intensify ongoing stressors on every front; relationships, finances, physical and mental health. It's hard to know where to turn or how to help ourselves. As a trauma therapist, I integrate psychotherapy and Attachment-Focused EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), a cutting edge therapy that works with the brain's natural ability to heal.
(424) 488-0232 View (424) 488-0232
Photo of J. Lancaster, PsyD, MFT, Psychologist
J. Lancaster
Psychologist, PsyD, MFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Generally, I treat groups, couples, and individuals--21 years of age or older. I am best suited to treat depression, anxiety, bipolar, alcohol/drug issues, personality disorders, anger, panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, grief/loss, employment difficulties, military/veterans, spiritual issues, and relationship problems.
Generally, I treat groups, couples, and individuals--21 years of age or older. I am best suited to treat depression, anxiety, bipolar, alcohol/drug issues, personality disorders, anger, panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, grief/loss, employment difficulties, military/veterans, spiritual issues, and relationship problems.
(661) 349-9328 View (661) 349-9328
Photo of Lisa Lichtenstein, MFT, CHT, NLP, Marriage & Family Therapist
Lisa Lichtenstein
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, CHT, NLP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90401
I am a licensed psychotherapist (MFT) specializing in hypnosis and NLP (Neuro- Linguistic Programming). I help people live the life they dream of, which includes removing unhealthy patterns and assisting in goal achievement. I work with individuals, couples and families. In a safe and warm environment I combine psychotherapy, hypnotherapy and/or neuro-linguistic programming with emotional support and tools to transform you into your highest potential self. I am proficient in eliminating or decreasing depression, anxiety, panic attacks and fears/phobias. In addition, I work with increasing healthy self-confidence.
I am a licensed psychotherapist (MFT) specializing in hypnosis and NLP (Neuro- Linguistic Programming). I help people live the life they dream of, which includes removing unhealthy patterns and assisting in goal achievement. I work with individuals, couples and families. In a safe and warm environment I combine psychotherapy, hypnotherapy and/or neuro-linguistic programming with emotional support and tools to transform you into your highest potential self. I am proficient in eliminating or decreasing depression, anxiety, panic attacks and fears/phobias. In addition, I work with increasing healthy self-confidence.
(310) 895-9822 View (310) 895-9822
Photo of James Wood, PhD, LMFT, DAC, Marriage & Family Therapist
James Wood
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT, DAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90404
When I begin a session with a new client, I want to present myself as a real person. I want to create a situation where the client feels comfortable being him/herself and communicating whatever is going on. I will observe closely, being as present as possible. I will listen carefully and respond when appropriate. I may ask questions or make interpretations about what we talk about, but most importantly I want the client to feel free to say whatever is on his/her mind. I want to establish a trusting relationship so we can begin to work on this person’s issues.
When I begin a session with a new client, I want to present myself as a real person. I want to create a situation where the client feels comfortable being him/herself and communicating whatever is going on. I will observe closely, being as present as possible. I will listen carefully and respond when appropriate. I may ask questions or make interpretations about what we talk about, but most importantly I want the client to feel free to say whatever is on his/her mind. I want to establish a trusting relationship so we can begin to work on this person’s issues.
(424) 236-6209 View (424) 236-6209
Photo of Miriam Conde, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Miriam Conde
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90403  (Online Only)
I am a licensed marriage and family therapist with extensive experience providing individual, family, and group psychotherapy to children, adolescents, and adults. Prior to working in mental health , I worked with children with special needs and developed skills to help families, parents and caregivers support their children to create a balanced environment.
I am a licensed marriage and family therapist with extensive experience providing individual, family, and group psychotherapy to children, adolescents, and adults. Prior to working in mental health , I worked with children with special needs and developed skills to help families, parents and caregivers support their children to create a balanced environment.
(424) 275-6173 View (424) 275-6173
Photo of Ariana Kiefer, LMFT , Marriage & Family Therapist
Ariana Kiefer
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90404  (Online Only)
My typical client is not looking for a one-size fits all approach, they are looking for a creative solution, one which they have not already tried themselves. Initially coming in for therapy my client may feel anxious, depressed, have insomnia, relationship troubles or struggle with putting their phone away. I enjoy working with teenagers who spend too much time on their phones and are showing signs of emotional instability. I enjoy helping families and couples who are drifting apart, yet want to earnestly work on mending their relationship.
My typical client is not looking for a one-size fits all approach, they are looking for a creative solution, one which they have not already tried themselves. Initially coming in for therapy my client may feel anxious, depressed, have insomnia, relationship troubles or struggle with putting their phone away. I enjoy working with teenagers who spend too much time on their phones and are showing signs of emotional instability. I enjoy helping families and couples who are drifting apart, yet want to earnestly work on mending their relationship.
(310) 504-6533 View (310) 504-6533
Photo of Jeffrey Nord, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jeffrey Nord
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90403
Not accepting new clients
Every couple is different, every couple is complicated, and every couple has trouble talking about one or more key issues. In your first session I will quickly assess what isn't working in your relationship and build a plan to eliminate the problem. I will help facilitate effective communication, make sure the sessions are emotionally safe, and teach practical methods for getting your thoughts and feelings across. My job is not to figure out who is right and who is wrong, my job is to help. ​I tend to work with couples each week for 8-12 weeks.
Every couple is different, every couple is complicated, and every couple has trouble talking about one or more key issues. In your first session I will quickly assess what isn't working in your relationship and build a plan to eliminate the problem. I will help facilitate effective communication, make sure the sessions are emotionally safe, and teach practical methods for getting your thoughts and feelings across. My job is not to figure out who is right and who is wrong, my job is to help. ​I tend to work with couples each week for 8-12 weeks.
(424) 373-6636 View (424) 373-6636
Linda Owen
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90401  (Online Only)
My goal is to help people find successful solutions to difficulties they are encountering. I believe that quality of life and relationships can be improved with intention, attention, and action.
My goal is to help people find successful solutions to difficulties they are encountering. I believe that quality of life and relationships can be improved with intention, attention, and action.
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Photo of Georgina Kim Smith, PhD, Psychologist
Georgina Kim Smith
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90401
Dr. Smith's genuine, grounded and integrated therapeutic approach allows for a connection to her clients where through modalities such as EMDR, IFS (parts work), and attachment-based talk therapy, there is a focus on insight shifting to somatic integration and actionable change, discovering and healing the core self, learning to regulate emotion and express needs in healthy ways, adapting internal dialogue, core beliefs, and reinforcing coping resources. Dr. Smith believes in building an authentic therapeutic relationship based on respect, empathy, challenge and change while creating a renewed sense of self, empowerment and hope.
Dr. Smith's genuine, grounded and integrated therapeutic approach allows for a connection to her clients where through modalities such as EMDR, IFS (parts work), and attachment-based talk therapy, there is a focus on insight shifting to somatic integration and actionable change, discovering and healing the core self, learning to regulate emotion and express needs in healthy ways, adapting internal dialogue, core beliefs, and reinforcing coping resources. Dr. Smith believes in building an authentic therapeutic relationship based on respect, empathy, challenge and change while creating a renewed sense of self, empowerment and hope.
(424) 258-5793 View (424) 258-5793
Photo of Casey Jones,  MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Casey Jones
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90405  (Online Only)
Welcome. If you’re here, likely something is going on in your life that you would like to change. Perhaps you’re overwhelmed, sad, anxious, tired, in pain, on edge, bingeing on a substance or the internet, or having sleep issues. Trouble communicating with loved ones? Disconnected rather than connected? Maybe you can’t quite put your finger on it, but life just isn’t what it was, what you thought it would be, or what you would like. Anger, sadness, anxiety, disappointment, worry all play a part in everyone’s life, but sometimes it increases to the point where it’s just too much to handle alone.
Welcome. If you’re here, likely something is going on in your life that you would like to change. Perhaps you’re overwhelmed, sad, anxious, tired, in pain, on edge, bingeing on a substance or the internet, or having sleep issues. Trouble communicating with loved ones? Disconnected rather than connected? Maybe you can’t quite put your finger on it, but life just isn’t what it was, what you thought it would be, or what you would like. Anger, sadness, anxiety, disappointment, worry all play a part in everyone’s life, but sometimes it increases to the point where it’s just too much to handle alone.
(818) 574-7523 View (818) 574-7523
Photo of Sophie Halavy, MS, AMFT, APCC, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Sophie Halavy
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MS, AMFT, APCC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90405
My goal as your therapist is to guide you in developing a deeper understanding of your identity, empowering you to make life choices that align with your values. Collaboratively, we will explore how past experiences have shaped present challenges, examining their impact on your thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. Within our therapeutic relationship, I prioritize authenticity, humor, warmth, and a sense of safety. This commitment creates a safe space for you to further your self-awareness and develop skills necessary to foster positive behavioral and emotional changes.
My goal as your therapist is to guide you in developing a deeper understanding of your identity, empowering you to make life choices that align with your values. Collaboratively, we will explore how past experiences have shaped present challenges, examining their impact on your thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. Within our therapeutic relationship, I prioritize authenticity, humor, warmth, and a sense of safety. This commitment creates a safe space for you to further your self-awareness and develop skills necessary to foster positive behavioral and emotional changes.
(424) 459-7919 View (424) 459-7919
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Santa Monica, CA

1,000+

Average cost per session

$200

Therapists in Santa Monica, CA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
90% Depression
85% Relationship Issues
76% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
66% Grief
66% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

59% Aetna
48% Cigna and Evernorth
41% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Santa Monica, CA see their clients

66% In Person and Online
34% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Santa Monica?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.