Counselling in HG4

Photo of Nick McNamara, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Nick McNamara
Psychotherapist, MA, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
I work with individuals who are struggling with all kinds of issues, such as depression, anxiety and stress, questions of identity, personality problems, relationship issues, bereavement, addictions, abuse, anger management and many other difficulties. Sometimes problems can be difficult to articulate, like feeling lost, confused, or like something just isn’t right. Often we can face problems that feel so ingrained that we might feel there can’t be a solution. We might feel ‘it’s just who I am’. I am also an experienced couples therapist. Most fights between couples are rooted in the pain of loosing connection with each other.
I work with individuals who are struggling with all kinds of issues, such as depression, anxiety and stress, questions of identity, personality problems, relationship issues, bereavement, addictions, abuse, anger management and many other difficulties. Sometimes problems can be difficult to articulate, like feeling lost, confused, or like something just isn’t right. Often we can face problems that feel so ingrained that we might feel there can’t be a solution. We might feel ‘it’s just who I am’. I am also an experienced couples therapist. Most fights between couples are rooted in the pain of loosing connection with each other.
01423 449098 View 01423 449098
Photo of Kirsten Antoncich, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Kirsten Antoncich
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
I'm a registered Psychotherapist and Counsellor. I work with Children, Adolescents, Adults and also offer support to families. I've worked in the field for 9 years and have worked with the NHS, for charities and also as Clinical Lead managing a service in the North East. My background is in Psychology. Whilst I am passionate about research in the field and best practice, I am also a warm, approachable practitioner who is able to put prospective clients at ease. I understand how daunting coming to see a Counsellor or therapist can be.
I'm a registered Psychotherapist and Counsellor. I work with Children, Adolescents, Adults and also offer support to families. I've worked in the field for 9 years and have worked with the NHS, for charities and also as Clinical Lead managing a service in the North East. My background is in Psychology. Whilst I am passionate about research in the field and best practice, I am also a warm, approachable practitioner who is able to put prospective clients at ease. I understand how daunting coming to see a Counsellor or therapist can be.
01347 668127 View 01347 668127
Photo of Adrian Peter Langham, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Adrian Peter Langham
Psychotherapist, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ripon HG4
I am an Accredited Counsellor & Psychotherapist with 18 years experience of working with a diverse mix of clients in various settings ranging from mental health services, NHS clinics, sexual health & sexual violence services. I work from a non pathological stance and value diversity. In addition to my therapeutic training I have undertaken specialist LGBTQ+ training enabling me to work effectively with Gender, Sex and Relationship Diversity. I am also an accredited Mindfulness teacher and incorporate aspects of this into my client work.I hope to enable clients to gain insights and meet themselves with compassion & understanding.
I am an Accredited Counsellor & Psychotherapist with 18 years experience of working with a diverse mix of clients in various settings ranging from mental health services, NHS clinics, sexual health & sexual violence services. I work from a non pathological stance and value diversity. In addition to my therapeutic training I have undertaken specialist LGBTQ+ training enabling me to work effectively with Gender, Sex and Relationship Diversity. I am also an accredited Mindfulness teacher and incorporate aspects of this into my client work.I hope to enable clients to gain insights and meet themselves with compassion & understanding.
0115 697 1336 View 0115 697 1336
Photo of Caroline Smith, Counsellor in HG4, England
Caroline Smith
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Most people feel overwhelmed and 'burned out' at some point in their life. Often we know what the problem is, it might be work related, personal or a combination of things. Maybe, it is less clear, a general awareness of feeling low and unhappy much of the time without really knowing why. It can be invaluable to have somewhere private and confidential to talk, to be able to think more clearly about what isn't working, the reasons why and how things could be different going forward.
Most people feel overwhelmed and 'burned out' at some point in their life. Often we know what the problem is, it might be work related, personal or a combination of things. Maybe, it is less clear, a general awareness of feeling low and unhappy much of the time without really knowing why. It can be invaluable to have somewhere private and confidential to talk, to be able to think more clearly about what isn't working, the reasons why and how things could be different going forward.
01423 803310 View 01423 803310
Photo of Claire Lloyd Talking Therapy, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Claire Lloyd Talking Therapy
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Feeling sad, traumatised or disconnected from the world, or perhaps struggling with unhelpful behaviours leaving you feeling anxious and low. This often is a result of conflict with the relationship with ourselves or others, at work or at home. Relational conflict with partners, parents, friendships and colleagues can make us feel vulnerable, unsafe and unable to cope. Clients tend to be the best expert on their experience and often understand what's concerning them but are stuck and unable to find a way through. It takes courage to face into some of our issues but recognising we have them is the hardest part.
Feeling sad, traumatised or disconnected from the world, or perhaps struggling with unhelpful behaviours leaving you feeling anxious and low. This often is a result of conflict with the relationship with ourselves or others, at work or at home. Relational conflict with partners, parents, friendships and colleagues can make us feel vulnerable, unsafe and unable to cope. Clients tend to be the best expert on their experience and often understand what's concerning them but are stuck and unable to find a way through. It takes courage to face into some of our issues but recognising we have them is the hardest part.
01423 803318 View 01423 803318
Photo of Amanda Louise Donkin, Counsellor in HG4, England
Amanda Louise Donkin
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Masham HG4  (Online Only)
Why counselling? Counselling can help with all sorts of different issues. It can help with positive events such as choosing a direction in life or reaching your full potential. There may be things from your past that you would like to tackle or there may be things in the present that you want to try and change. Perhaps you are experiencing significant events in your life such as getting married and starting a family, leaving home for the first time or coming to terms with the death of a loved one. ​ ​ ​Maybe you are feeling anxious or stressed, there are many, many reasons why we might need a bit of support .
Why counselling? Counselling can help with all sorts of different issues. It can help with positive events such as choosing a direction in life or reaching your full potential. There may be things from your past that you would like to tackle or there may be things in the present that you want to try and change. Perhaps you are experiencing significant events in your life such as getting married and starting a family, leaving home for the first time or coming to terms with the death of a loved one. ​ ​ ​Maybe you are feeling anxious or stressed, there are many, many reasons why we might need a bit of support .
01765 530622 View 01765 530622
Photo of Caroline Mattinson Better Nature Counselling, Counsellor in HG4, England
Caroline Mattinson Better Nature Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Hello and welcome. I’m a counsellor providing short and long term therapy. You may have reached a point in your life where you feel that you need help to deal with something, understand it, or come to terms with it. Sometimes, you may not be able to pinpoint the reason behind your sense of unhappiness, or there isn’t a name or heading for the way you feel, yet you do have the inkling that now might be the right time to do something about it. Counselling can offer you that time and space. I can help with issues like anxiety, depression, low self esteem, coping with life’s challenges, or how our early relationships affect us.
Hello and welcome. I’m a counsellor providing short and long term therapy. You may have reached a point in your life where you feel that you need help to deal with something, understand it, or come to terms with it. Sometimes, you may not be able to pinpoint the reason behind your sense of unhappiness, or there isn’t a name or heading for the way you feel, yet you do have the inkling that now might be the right time to do something about it. Counselling can offer you that time and space. I can help with issues like anxiety, depression, low self esteem, coping with life’s challenges, or how our early relationships affect us.
01845 444621 View 01845 444621
Photo of Josephine Kerr, Counsellor in HG4, England
Josephine Kerr
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Hello, I'm Josephine. If you're feeling lost, overwhelmed or are struggling , I can help you find your own way to deal with what's going on in your life, find your way through your issues so that you are able to face life with renewed hope and energy. I work with each client’s unique issues be they anxiety, menopause, relationships, loss of identity due to life changes, bereavement, burnout, stress and depression. I have a particular interest in supporting Headteachers, school leaders and teachers and offer a reduced rate for these clients.
Hello, I'm Josephine. If you're feeling lost, overwhelmed or are struggling , I can help you find your own way to deal with what's going on in your life, find your way through your issues so that you are able to face life with renewed hope and energy. I work with each client’s unique issues be they anxiety, menopause, relationships, loss of identity due to life changes, bereavement, burnout, stress and depression. I have a particular interest in supporting Headteachers, school leaders and teachers and offer a reduced rate for these clients.
01423 740184 View 01423 740184
Photo of Katherine Banner, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Katherine Banner
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
I specialise in the area of feeling 'overwhelmed', 'high anxiety' and your boudares being ignored. I work with you to define tools that support you to reduce anxiety. I am here to support these questions in life: -How can I feel like my self again? -How can I feel calmer? or even -How can I start to feel again? My experience of working with high anxiety, bereavement, depression and psychological neglect, enables me to meet your needs.
I specialise in the area of feeling 'overwhelmed', 'high anxiety' and your boudares being ignored. I work with you to define tools that support you to reduce anxiety. I am here to support these questions in life: -How can I feel like my self again? -How can I feel calmer? or even -How can I start to feel again? My experience of working with high anxiety, bereavement, depression and psychological neglect, enables me to meet your needs.
01325 809265 View 01325 809265
Photo of Rosy Taylor, Counsellor in HG4, England
Rosy Taylor
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Are your thoughts, feelings or behaviour making you anxious, depressed or limiting what you can do? Are your relationships with others or food causing you difficulty? Do you want to understand why things that happened in your childhood are still influencing you now? Having the opportunity to 'tell your story' to an interested listener is a therapeutic experience. Whatever challenge you are currently facing making the time and space for yourself to engage in therpay is an act of self kindness.
Are your thoughts, feelings or behaviour making you anxious, depressed or limiting what you can do? Are your relationships with others or food causing you difficulty? Do you want to understand why things that happened in your childhood are still influencing you now? Having the opportunity to 'tell your story' to an interested listener is a therapeutic experience. Whatever challenge you are currently facing making the time and space for yourself to engage in therpay is an act of self kindness.
01347 668119 View 01347 668119
Photo of Carole Turner, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Carole Turner
Psychotherapist, MSc, MUKCP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Thank you for taking the time to read my profile. With over 35 years experience I have helped hundreds of people like you to find greater peace and acceptance of themselves. The pandemic has revealed difficulties such as anxiety, depression, obsessiveness, and feelings of powerlessness to name but a few. Relationships with ourselves, with families and partners have been sorely tested. How we relate to ourselves is the building block for how we relate to others. People tell me that I am a good listener, warm, compassionate, wise with a sense of humour.
Thank you for taking the time to read my profile. With over 35 years experience I have helped hundreds of people like you to find greater peace and acceptance of themselves. The pandemic has revealed difficulties such as anxiety, depression, obsessiveness, and feelings of powerlessness to name but a few. Relationships with ourselves, with families and partners have been sorely tested. How we relate to ourselves is the building block for how we relate to others. People tell me that I am a good listener, warm, compassionate, wise with a sense of humour.
01609 716686 View 01609 716686
Photo of Clear Mind CBT, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Clear Mind CBT
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBABCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ripon HG4
Do you ever notice a feeling of dread at the day ahead or that you’re constantly worrying and berating yourself? Do you struggle with sleep, or sleep too much but still wake never feeling properly rested? Do you find yourself playing over conversations, picking apart the things that you said and how people responded, worrying about what they think of you? How would you like to feel happier, more confident and energised? To sleep better, look forward to your days and be kinder to yourself? These are just some of the areas I can help you with.
Do you ever notice a feeling of dread at the day ahead or that you’re constantly worrying and berating yourself? Do you struggle with sleep, or sleep too much but still wake never feeling properly rested? Do you find yourself playing over conversations, picking apart the things that you said and how people responded, worrying about what they think of you? How would you like to feel happier, more confident and energised? To sleep better, look forward to your days and be kinder to yourself? These are just some of the areas I can help you with.
01423 226985 View 01423 226985
Photo of Hannah Woodruff, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Hannah Woodruff
Psychotherapist, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Not accepting new clients
Are you struggling to recognise yourself at the moment. Perhaps there has been a life altering event? Or maybe it has gradually dawned on you how things have changed. Are you experiencing difficulties in your relationships? Or feeling out of synch with your responses to the world around you? We all experience times like these where we need a little more support. Time to stop and process things so we can make the decisions we want to move forward to a place of happiness and freedom again. If you need space to discuss your feelings I can provide a non-judgemental warm and safe place to explore yourself and to create change.
Are you struggling to recognise yourself at the moment. Perhaps there has been a life altering event? Or maybe it has gradually dawned on you how things have changed. Are you experiencing difficulties in your relationships? Or feeling out of synch with your responses to the world around you? We all experience times like these where we need a little more support. Time to stop and process things so we can make the decisions we want to move forward to a place of happiness and freedom again. If you need space to discuss your feelings I can provide a non-judgemental warm and safe place to explore yourself and to create change.
01423 226965 View 01423 226965
Photo of Mark Christopher Dove, Counsellor in HG4, England
Mark Christopher Dove
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Hello, my name is Mark. Thank you for looking at my profile. As you're here, there is a chance that you are going through difficult times in your life. Rest assured that you do not have to go through it alone. I am here to support you, so let me tell you a bit about my approach to counselling. I use a person centred, integrative approach. This is a non-directive method whereby I will be guided by you, the client, as to what issues you wish to discuss. It also enables me to tailor my service to your specific needs, using a variety of therapies, including CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and (CFT) Compassion Focused Therapy.
Hello, my name is Mark. Thank you for looking at my profile. As you're here, there is a chance that you are going through difficult times in your life. Rest assured that you do not have to go through it alone. I am here to support you, so let me tell you a bit about my approach to counselling. I use a person centred, integrative approach. This is a non-directive method whereby I will be guided by you, the client, as to what issues you wish to discuss. It also enables me to tailor my service to your specific needs, using a variety of therapies, including CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and (CFT) Compassion Focused Therapy.
01756 630578 View 01756 630578
Photo of Anne Brown, Counsellor in HG4, England
Anne Brown
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Not accepting new clients
Are you tired of feeling anxious, of having unwanted intrusive thoughts whizzing around your head ? As a specialist in anxiety, trauma and loss my aim is to help you to make positive changes and achieve fast, positive results. I work with individuals and organizations including police officers and civilian workers. My counselling experience is extensive; more than 25 years during which I set up and for 11 years managed the employee counselling service for North Yorks CC, District Councils and colleges (workforce >26,000) I am approved by PFOA (Police Firearms Officers' Assoc.)
Are you tired of feeling anxious, of having unwanted intrusive thoughts whizzing around your head ? As a specialist in anxiety, trauma and loss my aim is to help you to make positive changes and achieve fast, positive results. I work with individuals and organizations including police officers and civilian workers. My counselling experience is extensive; more than 25 years during which I set up and for 11 years managed the employee counselling service for North Yorks CC, District Councils and colleges (workforce >26,000) I am approved by PFOA (Police Firearms Officers' Assoc.)
01677 938944 View 01677 938944
Photo of Catherine Clay Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in HG4, England
Catherine Clay Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP Accred
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ripon HG4
Perhaps you are reading this profile because you are going through something difficult right now, and you are looking for someone to offer you support without agenda or judgement? Therapy is about creating a compassionate space in which you will be heard and given the time to explore what is going on for you. My role is to help you feel safe and empowered to reflect on your feelings, fears, hopes and frustrations, and to find a way forward that is right for you. So that you can decide if I am the right therapist for you, I am always happy to have a conversation via Zoom before you book an appointment.
Perhaps you are reading this profile because you are going through something difficult right now, and you are looking for someone to offer you support without agenda or judgement? Therapy is about creating a compassionate space in which you will be heard and given the time to explore what is going on for you. My role is to help you feel safe and empowered to reflect on your feelings, fears, hopes and frustrations, and to find a way forward that is right for you. So that you can decide if I am the right therapist for you, I am always happy to have a conversation via Zoom before you book an appointment.
01423 648694 View 01423 648694
Photo of Dr Sarah Wilson Counselling Psychology, Psychologist in HG4, England
Dr Sarah Wilson Counselling Psychology
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
I am a Doctor in Counselling Psychology, with over 19 years experience of working as a therapist. The decision to start therapy is not always an easy one, and everybody has a different reason for wanting to attend therapy. It may be recent circumstances which have caused you upset, stress or discomfort, or life long issues which you now feel you would like to address. It may be that you are feeling uncertain, or stuck, and not entirely sure why. Exploration of these issues together with a therapist could help you develop an understanding and move forward in life.
I am a Doctor in Counselling Psychology, with over 19 years experience of working as a therapist. The decision to start therapy is not always an easy one, and everybody has a different reason for wanting to attend therapy. It may be recent circumstances which have caused you upset, stress or discomfort, or life long issues which you now feel you would like to address. It may be that you are feeling uncertain, or stuck, and not entirely sure why. Exploration of these issues together with a therapist could help you develop an understanding and move forward in life.
01423 449121 View 01423 449121
Photo of Laura Morris, Counsellor in HG4, England
Laura Morris
Counsellor, MBACP Snr. Accred
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Hello I'm Laura, a BACP Senior Accredited Counsellor and Therapy Supervisor with NHS experience and over 10,000 client hours, offering genuine and non judgemental support. Whether you are an individual or couple dealing with a marriage or relationship issue, let us work together towards you feeling happier, more confident, focussed and ready for change. In additional and importantly to explore and help you to understand why you felt challenged, to reduce the impact and the chance of the same problems repeating themselves.
Hello I'm Laura, a BACP Senior Accredited Counsellor and Therapy Supervisor with NHS experience and over 10,000 client hours, offering genuine and non judgemental support. Whether you are an individual or couple dealing with a marriage or relationship issue, let us work together towards you feeling happier, more confident, focussed and ready for change. In additional and importantly to explore and help you to understand why you felt challenged, to reduce the impact and the chance of the same problems repeating themselves.
01423 222423 View 01423 222423
Photo of Julie Iveson Psychotherapeutic Counselling, Counsellor in HG4, England
Julie Iveson Psychotherapeutic Counselling
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified Verified
Ripon HG4
Welcome! I offer a warm, relaxed and empathic space to help you deveIop self-understanding, compassion and acceptance . My skills, knowledge and training were achieved at the highest level available at the accredited Northern Guild in Jesmond, Newcastle. In addition to my private practice, I have experience working in a variety of therapy and psychology services; and significant experience working with grief, loss and illness, including: an NHS secondary mental health service, a national bereavement charity, and a local hospice. ​I am on the National Autistic Society's List of Counsellors.
Welcome! I offer a warm, relaxed and empathic space to help you deveIop self-understanding, compassion and acceptance . My skills, knowledge and training were achieved at the highest level available at the accredited Northern Guild in Jesmond, Newcastle. In addition to my private practice, I have experience working in a variety of therapy and psychology services; and significant experience working with grief, loss and illness, including: an NHS secondary mental health service, a national bereavement charity, and a local hospice. ​I am on the National Autistic Society's List of Counsellors.
01969 600597 View 01969 600597

See more therapy options for HG4

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in HG4

10+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in HG4 who prioritize treating:

95% Depression
95% Anxiety
95% Stress
89% Relationship Issues
89% Bereavement
89% Self Esteem
74% Peer Relationships

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

43% AXA PPP
43% WPA
43% Health Assured

How Counsellors in HG4 see their clients

95% In Person and Online
5% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
22% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in HG4?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.