Counselling in Crows Nest, NSW

Photo of Arana Psychology, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Arana Psychology
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Paul is a Registered Psychologist with experience working primarily with adults. He is passionate about supporting individuals make meaningful change to their lives and helping them through challenging transitions. As well as strategies to assist with a range of issues such as anxiety, depression, stress, perfectionism, trauma & PTSD, and relationships, Paul has extensive experience working in the Workers Compensation space – supporting recovery and transition. To complement his training and practice as a psychologist, Paul draws on his many years of experience as a corporate professional. Originally from the UK, Paul has been a
Paul is a Registered Psychologist with experience working primarily with adults. He is passionate about supporting individuals make meaningful change to their lives and helping them through challenging transitions. As well as strategies to assist with a range of issues such as anxiety, depression, stress, perfectionism, trauma & PTSD, and relationships, Paul has extensive experience working in the Workers Compensation space – supporting recovery and transition. To complement his training and practice as a psychologist, Paul draws on his many years of experience as a corporate professional. Originally from the UK, Paul has been a
(02) 8074 5793 View (02) 8074 5793
Photo of Archana Waller, Counsellor in Crows Nest, NSW
Archana Waller
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
I am a clinical counsellor and I work with adults experiencing relationship problems, unresolved trauma or those wanting to reduce stress and improve their quality of life. As a credentialed eating disorder practitioner, I also work with adults and adolescents with eating disorders, and their families. I take into consideration the cognitive, behavioural, physiological, social and spiritual aspects of the systems within a person.
I am a clinical counsellor and I work with adults experiencing relationship problems, unresolved trauma or those wanting to reduce stress and improve their quality of life. As a credentialed eating disorder practitioner, I also work with adults and adolescents with eating disorders, and their families. I take into consideration the cognitive, behavioural, physiological, social and spiritual aspects of the systems within a person.
(02) 9100 0181 View (02) 9100 0181
Photo of Rochelle Oshlack, Psychotherapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Rochelle Oshlack
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Rochelle offers compassionate therapeutic support for adults and adolescents, in dealing with a wide variety of issues including but limited to; addictions, anxiety, depression, sexuality, gender, grief, loss, trauma, relationships, divorce, separation, parenting challenges and life changes. Together as client and therapist, loving attention is paid to what happens in our shared interchange. This is often playful and always compassionate and non-judgemental. More choice results from this compassionate awareness, and with more choice comes long lasting positive change, satisfying relationships with yourself, loved ones and the world.
Rochelle offers compassionate therapeutic support for adults and adolescents, in dealing with a wide variety of issues including but limited to; addictions, anxiety, depression, sexuality, gender, grief, loss, trauma, relationships, divorce, separation, parenting challenges and life changes. Together as client and therapist, loving attention is paid to what happens in our shared interchange. This is often playful and always compassionate and non-judgemental. More choice results from this compassionate awareness, and with more choice comes long lasting positive change, satisfying relationships with yourself, loved ones and the world.
(02) 9100 0142 View (02) 9100 0142
Photo of Jennifer Gripton-Corbett Counselling&Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Jennifer Gripton-Corbett Counselling&Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Jennifer is a Counsellor & Psychotherapist who provides individuals the space to be heard by a caring health professional in an accepting environment where new possibilities and life changes become an option. Jennifer works in private practice, is a Lifeline Counsellor and is a Clinical Supervisor at Canberra University. She works collaboratively with individuals, couples and families to achieve growth, change and new possibilities. Jennifer is a trauma informed therapist who utilises evidence-based therapy with people who are experiencing relationship issues, are stressed, grieving, or experiencing mental health concerns.
Jennifer is a Counsellor & Psychotherapist who provides individuals the space to be heard by a caring health professional in an accepting environment where new possibilities and life changes become an option. Jennifer works in private practice, is a Lifeline Counsellor and is a Clinical Supervisor at Canberra University. She works collaboratively with individuals, couples and families to achieve growth, change and new possibilities. Jennifer is a trauma informed therapist who utilises evidence-based therapy with people who are experiencing relationship issues, are stressed, grieving, or experiencing mental health concerns.
(02) 9100 0873 View (02) 9100 0873
Photo of Sabina Rabold, Psychotherapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Sabina Rabold
Psychotherapist, MA, PACFA
Verified
1 Endorsed
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
No two people are the same, no two stories identical. Perhaps you are already clear about what you want from therapy, perhaps our starting point is to figure this out. No matter what, all of you is welcome. Together, we aim to: heal old emotional wounds you might still be hurting from, clear up current anxiety, stress confusion or disheartenment that weigh on you; make good decisions for your life and find inner joy, calm and balance to sustain you in a meaningful way of being. When working with couples, I support partners to repair relational injuries, strengthen communication, commitment and trust and deepen love and intimacy.
No two people are the same, no two stories identical. Perhaps you are already clear about what you want from therapy, perhaps our starting point is to figure this out. No matter what, all of you is welcome. Together, we aim to: heal old emotional wounds you might still be hurting from, clear up current anxiety, stress confusion or disheartenment that weigh on you; make good decisions for your life and find inner joy, calm and balance to sustain you in a meaningful way of being. When working with couples, I support partners to repair relational injuries, strengthen communication, commitment and trust and deepen love and intimacy.
(02) 9100 0156 View (02) 9100 0156
Photo of Sarah Bays, Psychotherapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Sarah Bays
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Want to create the life you want and reach your potential? Could you do with a little help to solve your problems? Need some support to fast track some of your goals? Well that's what I'm all about! I'm an experienced counsellor and psychotherapist and I work from a trauma-informed and client-led perspective. I'm kind but direct when needed, and support in a solutions focused manner. I love to laugh, and enjoy helping people work through challenges and achieve their goals. I'm a certified DBT (Dialectical Behaviour Therapy) practitioner and run DBT Skills groups or individual DBT sessions in person & online.
Want to create the life you want and reach your potential? Could you do with a little help to solve your problems? Need some support to fast track some of your goals? Well that's what I'm all about! I'm an experienced counsellor and psychotherapist and I work from a trauma-informed and client-led perspective. I'm kind but direct when needed, and support in a solutions focused manner. I love to laugh, and enjoy helping people work through challenges and achieve their goals. I'm a certified DBT (Dialectical Behaviour Therapy) practitioner and run DBT Skills groups or individual DBT sessions in person & online.
(02) 9100 0134 View (02) 9100 0134
Photo of Lizzie Fairbanks Therapy, Counsellor in Crows Nest, NSW
Lizzie Fairbanks Therapy
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
The world is changing, not just on a macro scale concerning issues like climate change, globalisation and social media, but on a micro scale too; the way we identify personally in terms of intersectionality, sexuality and relationship orientation. Whilst there is an increasing awareness and growing acceptance of new and different ways of being in the world, we can also find a whole new set of complex challenges arise when we start to embody our true identity. Maybe these challenges are rooted in past trauma, negative core beliefs and self-talk, overwhelming emotions, unhelpful coping behaviours or ways of relating to others.
The world is changing, not just on a macro scale concerning issues like climate change, globalisation and social media, but on a micro scale too; the way we identify personally in terms of intersectionality, sexuality and relationship orientation. Whilst there is an increasing awareness and growing acceptance of new and different ways of being in the world, we can also find a whole new set of complex challenges arise when we start to embody our true identity. Maybe these challenges are rooted in past trauma, negative core beliefs and self-talk, overwhelming emotions, unhelpful coping behaviours or ways of relating to others.
(02) 9100 0337 View (02) 9100 0337
Photo of Find Reason Therapy, Psychotherapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Find Reason Therapy
Psychotherapist, MA, PACFA
Verified
2 Endorsed
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Do you ever struggle with how you see yourself and how you show up in relationships? Is something getting in the way of allowing you to meet your needs and connect with others? There is a road to finding value in yourself and an ability to be in healthy relationships when you take the step to put yourself first, increase your awareness and address your concerns. Find Reason Therapy creates a safe space to help you find the whole unique you with worth, values, and needs, guiding you to connect to stuck emotional pain in order to live a life with purpose and meaning.
Do you ever struggle with how you see yourself and how you show up in relationships? Is something getting in the way of allowing you to meet your needs and connect with others? There is a road to finding value in yourself and an ability to be in healthy relationships when you take the step to put yourself first, increase your awareness and address your concerns. Find Reason Therapy creates a safe space to help you find the whole unique you with worth, values, and needs, guiding you to connect to stuck emotional pain in order to live a life with purpose and meaning.
(02) 9100 0013 View (02) 9100 0013
Photo of Calm Mind Psychology, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Calm Mind Psychology
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
I am both a psychotherapist and psychologist so I tend to dive deep, and can also help you with current life crises. I work best with people who have already done some therapy and know that personal growth is ongoing and absolutely worth it as a way of becoming more authentic and available in life. I specialise in many areas, please visit my "about me" webpage to see the list of training and areas of therapy and healing I am experienced in; Including but not limited to, IFS, Gestalt, PACT couples and Brainspotting trauma therapy.
I am both a psychotherapist and psychologist so I tend to dive deep, and can also help you with current life crises. I work best with people who have already done some therapy and know that personal growth is ongoing and absolutely worth it as a way of becoming more authentic and available in life. I specialise in many areas, please visit my "about me" webpage to see the list of training and areas of therapy and healing I am experienced in; Including but not limited to, IFS, Gestalt, PACT couples and Brainspotting trauma therapy.
(02) 9100 0139 View (02) 9100 0139
Photo of Leo Martyn - Crows Nest Counselling, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Leo Martyn - Crows Nest Counselling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Leo has been a clinical counsellor in private practice for over 12 years (ACA Level 4) and is an accredited social worker (MAASW). He is also a highly experienced meditation and mindfulness practitioner and student of spiritual and psychological paths. The practice in Crows Nest offers our clients sensitive and attuned counselling and psychotherapy services supportive of compassionate insight and empowerment for you to unpack and transform your mental health and personal life journey. Our space is friendly and safe counselling and psychotherapy space for individuals and couples to unpack and work through their concerns.
Leo has been a clinical counsellor in private practice for over 12 years (ACA Level 4) and is an accredited social worker (MAASW). He is also a highly experienced meditation and mindfulness practitioner and student of spiritual and psychological paths. The practice in Crows Nest offers our clients sensitive and attuned counselling and psychotherapy services supportive of compassionate insight and empowerment for you to unpack and transform your mental health and personal life journey. Our space is friendly and safe counselling and psychotherapy space for individuals and couples to unpack and work through their concerns.
(02) 8806 0384 View (02) 8806 0384
Photo of Alberto Florez, Psychotherapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Alberto Florez
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Are you experiencing overwhelming anxiety and stress due to work or past traumas? Do you long for higher self-esteem, better relationships, and effective coping mechanisms? Together, we'll help you regain control, break down emotional barriers, and find inner peace, ultimately transforming your well-being. I'm here to guide you and build together a transformative journey towards a brighter, more fulfilling future.
Are you experiencing overwhelming anxiety and stress due to work or past traumas? Do you long for higher self-esteem, better relationships, and effective coping mechanisms? Together, we'll help you regain control, break down emotional barriers, and find inner peace, ultimately transforming your well-being. I'm here to guide you and build together a transformative journey towards a brighter, more fulfilling future.
(02) 9100 0516 View (02) 9100 0516
Photo of The Engel Clinic, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
The Engel Clinic
Psychologist, MAPS
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Owner/Director of the Engel Clinic - I have been privileged to work with clients for over 10 years using mindfulness based CBT, ACT, FBT, gut-directed hypnosis, and clinical hypnosis. I work extensively with all kinds of anxiety and stress conditions, gut-brain disorders, and eating disorders (including obesity and ARFID).
Owner/Director of the Engel Clinic - I have been privileged to work with clients for over 10 years using mindfulness based CBT, ACT, FBT, gut-directed hypnosis, and clinical hypnosis. I work extensively with all kinds of anxiety and stress conditions, gut-brain disorders, and eating disorders (including obesity and ARFID).
(02) 8203 8780 View (02) 8203 8780
Photo of Scott Whiteway, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Scott Whiteway
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Hello! I help people resolve personal challenges and mental health issues quickly and effectively. With over 20 years experience successfully providing psychological treatment I develop strong collaborative relationships to get results. I will work with you to identify and achieve your best self. No matter what your life situation or challenges are, together we can determine a plan on how to successfully achieve clarity, a positive mindset and resolve your personal challenges.
Hello! I help people resolve personal challenges and mental health issues quickly and effectively. With over 20 years experience successfully providing psychological treatment I develop strong collaborative relationships to get results. I will work with you to identify and achieve your best self. No matter what your life situation or challenges are, together we can determine a plan on how to successfully achieve clarity, a positive mindset and resolve your personal challenges.
(02) 8074 5252 View (02) 8074 5252
Photo of Julie Grove Psychology, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Julie Grove Psychology
Psychologist, MAPS
Verified
1 Endorsed
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Julie has 25 years' experience working with adults and adolescents across a range of issues; depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties, drug dependency and coping with loss and adjustment.
Julie has 25 years' experience working with adults and adolescents across a range of issues; depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties, drug dependency and coping with loss and adjustment.
(02) 9100 0728 View (02) 9100 0728
Photo of Naomi Halls, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Naomi Halls
Psychologist, PsychD, MAPS
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
In my role as a clinical psychologist I will listen to you, the expert in your own life, to guide us in your treatment goals. Therapy can be short term and specific, or you may wish to have a safe and contemplative space to explore re- occurring themes in your life. You may need to examine and reset patterns of behaviour so your family/relationships can flourish and enjoy wellbeing, or you may be a performing artist or student struggling with performance anxiety, perfectionism and goal setting.
In my role as a clinical psychologist I will listen to you, the expert in your own life, to guide us in your treatment goals. Therapy can be short term and specific, or you may wish to have a safe and contemplative space to explore re- occurring themes in your life. You may need to examine and reset patterns of behaviour so your family/relationships can flourish and enjoy wellbeing, or you may be a performing artist or student struggling with performance anxiety, perfectionism and goal setting.
(02) 9158 6190 View (02) 9158 6190
Photo of Larissa Kirpichnikov, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Larissa Kirpichnikov
Psychologist, PsyBA - Couns. Psych.
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Couples Therapy & Coaching / Individuals Therapy & Coaching / Family Dispute Resolution Mediation (FDRP) & Divorce Coaching Services. With more than 25 years experience of living and working in Australia and abroad, Larissa understands that life and relationships are not always smooth. Whether you are wishing to improve your intimate relationship, seek individual support, parenting &/or financial FDR mediation services, or divorce coaching, please call to discuss how we can best assist you. You may also visit our website for further information.
Couples Therapy & Coaching / Individuals Therapy & Coaching / Family Dispute Resolution Mediation (FDRP) & Divorce Coaching Services. With more than 25 years experience of living and working in Australia and abroad, Larissa understands that life and relationships are not always smooth. Whether you are wishing to improve your intimate relationship, seek individual support, parenting &/or financial FDR mediation services, or divorce coaching, please call to discuss how we can best assist you. You may also visit our website for further information.
(02) 9100 0410 View (02) 9100 0410
Photo of Sophie Mellish, Psychotherapist in Crows Nest, NSW
Sophie Mellish
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
My name is Sophie, a Sydney-based counsellor/psychotherapist living and working on Cammeraygal land. My pronouns are she/her. I work within a person-centred, integrative framework. In our work, we will explore and unpack what is happening for you with compassion and curiosity. Typically, when we have a better understanding of something, we feel more confident on how to move forward. Once we arrive here, this is the space where we can create meaningful and lasting change. I feel incredibly privileged to be walking alongside individuals in their therapeutic journey.
My name is Sophie, a Sydney-based counsellor/psychotherapist living and working on Cammeraygal land. My pronouns are she/her. I work within a person-centred, integrative framework. In our work, we will explore and unpack what is happening for you with compassion and curiosity. Typically, when we have a better understanding of something, we feel more confident on how to move forward. Once we arrive here, this is the space where we can create meaningful and lasting change. I feel incredibly privileged to be walking alongside individuals in their therapeutic journey.
(02) 9100 0617 View (02) 9100 0617
Photo of Dr Deanna MacMahon, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Dr Deanna MacMahon
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA General
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
As a clinical neuropsychology registrar, Deanna specialises in conducting comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations for children and adolescents experiencing a range of emotional, behavioural, and cognitive difficulties. She has particular interest and expertise working with children and adolescents with specific learning disorders. Deanna offers diagnostic assessments for concerns relating to intellect, attention, learning, and autism. She also offers assessments for giftedness.
As a clinical neuropsychology registrar, Deanna specialises in conducting comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations for children and adolescents experiencing a range of emotional, behavioural, and cognitive difficulties. She has particular interest and expertise working with children and adolescents with specific learning disorders. Deanna offers diagnostic assessments for concerns relating to intellect, attention, learning, and autism. She also offers assessments for giftedness.
(02) 9100 0249 View (02) 9100 0249
Photo of Evelyn Moser-Burgess, Psychologist in Crows Nest, NSW
Evelyn Moser-Burgess
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
Are you struggling with worry, stress, or low mood? Are you having trouble sleeping? Are you experiencing challenges that feel out of your control? Do you need help navigating these challenges and help to manage the distress you are experiencing? Based in Parramatta NSW, and via telehealth, I work with individuals experiencing distress, anxiety, depression, low mood, grief and loss, workplace stress and burn-out, work-life balance (and more). I'm here to guide and support your well-being by providing evidence-based therapeutic services to those dealing with challenging life experiences.
Are you struggling with worry, stress, or low mood? Are you having trouble sleeping? Are you experiencing challenges that feel out of your control? Do you need help navigating these challenges and help to manage the distress you are experiencing? Based in Parramatta NSW, and via telehealth, I work with individuals experiencing distress, anxiety, depression, low mood, grief and loss, workplace stress and burn-out, work-life balance (and more). I'm here to guide and support your well-being by providing evidence-based therapeutic services to those dealing with challenging life experiences.
(02) 7804 4941 View (02) 7804 4941
Jacqueline Lim
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Crows Nest, NSW 2065
I work with adults who are seeking to find meaning, direction and self growth in their lives. They may be going through stressful life events, major milestones in their relationships or health, changes of roles, and other life adversities.
I work with adults who are seeking to find meaning, direction and self growth in their lives. They may be going through stressful life events, major milestones in their relationships or health, changes of roles, and other life adversities.
(02) 8880 9015 View (02) 8880 9015

See more therapy options for Crows Nest

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Crows Nest, NSW

60+

Average cost per session

$180

Counsellors in Crows Nest, NSW who prioritize treating:

86% Anxiety
83% Depression
79% Stress
76% Self Esteem
74% Relationship Issues
71% Trauma and PTSD
67% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

68% Bupa
50% Medibank Private
44% Medicare Rebates

How Counsellors in Crows Nest, NSW see their clients

96% In Person and Online
4% Online Only

Gender breakdown

73% Female
27% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Crows Nest?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.