Therapists in 95492

Photo of Dobbs Psychology, Inc. , Psychologist in 95492, CA
Dobbs Psychology, Inc.
Psychologist, PsyD, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492  (Online Only)
For me, it is vital that you feel heard and supported all times, without judgment. Together, we will strategize how to best cope with daily stressors effectively and easily. I can help you leave the past behind through self-forgiveness and by creating a much more positive present, and thus, future. Often, we talk to ourselves in very negative ways and this determines our reactions and limitations, as well as our worldview. I will help you radically improve your self-esteem and take on each day's challenges feeling strong and at peace with yourself. I also specialize in trauma. My way of treating it is effective and painless.
For me, it is vital that you feel heard and supported all times, without judgment. Together, we will strategize how to best cope with daily stressors effectively and easily. I can help you leave the past behind through self-forgiveness and by creating a much more positive present, and thus, future. Often, we talk to ourselves in very negative ways and this determines our reactions and limitations, as well as our worldview. I will help you radically improve your self-esteem and take on each day's challenges feeling strong and at peace with yourself. I also specialize in trauma. My way of treating it is effective and painless.
(707) 309-6991 View (707) 309-6991
Photo of Gregory Michael Tilden, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Gregory Michael Tilden
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
12 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
Are you especially hard on yourself, finding it difficult to prioritize your own needs? Or perhaps you are striving to express your voice and find a deeper sense of confidence and belonging. If you find yourself feeling unmotivated, directionless, or unclear about your purpose, it would be my honor to hold space for you. I also have a particular knack with helping adolescents who are acting out or struggling with school, relationships, or mental health.
Are you especially hard on yourself, finding it difficult to prioritize your own needs? Or perhaps you are striving to express your voice and find a deeper sense of confidence and belonging. If you find yourself feeling unmotivated, directionless, or unclear about your purpose, it would be my honor to hold space for you. I also have a particular knack with helping adolescents who are acting out or struggling with school, relationships, or mental health.
(415) 704-7941 View (415) 704-7941
Photo of Diana Northness, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Diana Northness
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MS
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
My work as a therapist revolves around creating a relationship that is safe enough to encourage honest reflection and focused enough to encourage challenge and change. Research continues to show that the most important factor in successful therapy is a good connection between the therapist and client. My passion is to establish a strong, safe alliance with you and to be your companion in finding and activating your innate wisdom and resilience. I will encourage an honest exploration of your thoughts, feelings, and passions.
My work as a therapist revolves around creating a relationship that is safe enough to encourage honest reflection and focused enough to encourage challenge and change. Research continues to show that the most important factor in successful therapy is a good connection between the therapist and client. My passion is to establish a strong, safe alliance with you and to be your companion in finding and activating your innate wisdom and resilience. I will encourage an honest exploration of your thoughts, feelings, and passions.
(805) 316-7128 View (805) 316-7128
Photo of Rebecca Sweeney, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 95492, CA
Rebecca Sweeney
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT, APCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
Starting therapy is a big step - trusting a complete stranger with your vulnerabilities, hopes, and anxieties is no small ask. With that in mind, I aim to meet my clients where they're at in order to effect change in a sustainable way. I work with couples and individuals to unpack the origins of their behavioral and cognitive patterns and understand how those are impacting their current relationships and daily lives.
Starting therapy is a big step - trusting a complete stranger with your vulnerabilities, hopes, and anxieties is no small ask. With that in mind, I aim to meet my clients where they're at in order to effect change in a sustainable way. I work with couples and individuals to unpack the origins of their behavioral and cognitive patterns and understand how those are impacting their current relationships and daily lives.
(707) 723-8679 View (707) 723-8679
Photo of Chaela Stewart, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Chaela Stewart
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
Hi I’m Chaela, owner of Connecting Couples Therapy. I work with couples and individuals in various degrees of relationship distress and I help them develop a more secure attachment style. I love helping clients find real ways of connecting more deeply and authentically in order to live a more fulfilling and satisfying life. During times of stress, unmet needs can bring out the worst in a person. I help couples to recognize the root of relational insecurity and to develop security both internally and interpersonally. I also work with couples on the brink of or in the process of divorce to create secure coparenting practices.
Hi I’m Chaela, owner of Connecting Couples Therapy. I work with couples and individuals in various degrees of relationship distress and I help them develop a more secure attachment style. I love helping clients find real ways of connecting more deeply and authentically in order to live a more fulfilling and satisfying life. During times of stress, unmet needs can bring out the worst in a person. I help couples to recognize the root of relational insecurity and to develop security both internally and interpersonally. I also work with couples on the brink of or in the process of divorce to create secure coparenting practices.
(415) 742-2814 View (415) 742-2814
Photo of Asish Purushan, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Asish Purushan
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, RP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in the state of California as well as a Registered Psychotherapist (RP) with the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario, Canada. I hold a Master's degree in Counseling Psychology (M.Ed.) from OISE, University of Toronto, Canada. Clients come to see me for help with anxiety, stress, depression, self-esteem, grief, loss, isolation, trauma, family & relationship issues, loneliness, sexual orientation worries, gender identity concerns, LGBT counselling, addiction issues, etc. Services are offered in English, Hindi,Malayalam or Tamil.
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) in the state of California as well as a Registered Psychotherapist (RP) with the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario, Canada. I hold a Master's degree in Counseling Psychology (M.Ed.) from OISE, University of Toronto, Canada. Clients come to see me for help with anxiety, stress, depression, self-esteem, grief, loss, isolation, trauma, family & relationship issues, loneliness, sexual orientation worries, gender identity concerns, LGBT counselling, addiction issues, etc. Services are offered in English, Hindi,Malayalam or Tamil.
(707) 520-6503 View (707) 520-6503
Photo of Maria Daverede, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Maria Daverede
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492
Waitlist for new clients
Trauma can cause a person to get stuck in the past. With therapy, healing can begin to allow you to live fully in the present, with less triggers and fear. I work with adolescents and adults who have experienced trauma, or who are suffering from depression and anxiety. I use EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) and Internal Family Systems Model in my work.
Trauma can cause a person to get stuck in the past. With therapy, healing can begin to allow you to live fully in the present, with less triggers and fear. I work with adolescents and adults who have experienced trauma, or who are suffering from depression and anxiety. I use EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) and Internal Family Systems Model in my work.
(707) 504-3089 View (707) 504-3089
Photo of Ingrid Redding, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 95492, CA
Ingrid Redding
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
We all want to lead a life in which our life dreams and inner potential are fulfilled. Sometimes life, and we ourselves, get in the way of pursuing these dreams and potentials. As a marriage and family therapist, I can help with these challenges whether they are within your relationships, career or your inner self. I am a client-focused therapist. I work in an engaged, supportive and relational manner. I use an integrative and holistic style in my therapeutic approach and take into consideration attachment, somatic, psychodynamic and mindfulness modalities. My theoretical orientation is inspired by Gottman, Imago and PACT.
We all want to lead a life in which our life dreams and inner potential are fulfilled. Sometimes life, and we ourselves, get in the way of pursuing these dreams and potentials. As a marriage and family therapist, I can help with these challenges whether they are within your relationships, career or your inner self. I am a client-focused therapist. I work in an engaged, supportive and relational manner. I use an integrative and holistic style in my therapeutic approach and take into consideration attachment, somatic, psychodynamic and mindfulness modalities. My theoretical orientation is inspired by Gottman, Imago and PACT.
(707) 940-8197 View (707) 940-8197
Photo of Larissa Pendergraft, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 95492, CA
Larissa Pendergraft
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492
Not accepting new clients
Please navigate to my website to schedule a 15 minute consultation. I offer therapy to aid clients with working through challenges, develop pathways to success and to live a more gratifying life. I view my role as one to walk along side you as you explore what may be holding you back or blocking you from achieving success. I specialize in Accelerated Resolution Therapy, a brief focused therapy using voluntary image replacement and bi-lateral eye stimulation, reducing distressful symptoms and assisting clients in moving through and resolving difficult memories, anxiety, stress, grief, and trauma.
Please navigate to my website to schedule a 15 minute consultation. I offer therapy to aid clients with working through challenges, develop pathways to success and to live a more gratifying life. I view my role as one to walk along side you as you explore what may be holding you back or blocking you from achieving success. I specialize in Accelerated Resolution Therapy, a brief focused therapy using voluntary image replacement and bi-lateral eye stimulation, reducing distressful symptoms and assisting clients in moving through and resolving difficult memories, anxiety, stress, grief, and trauma.
(707) 708-3913 View (707) 708-3913
Photo of Melissa Tan, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 95492, CA
Melissa Tan
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
Whether this is your first time seeking therapy or a continuation of your therapy journey, I want to acknowledge the time you are taking to support yourself by seeking change. I think of therapy as a commitment to making space for things that often don’t get enough space in everyday life— space settle into oneself, to take pause, to be witnessed, to be with experiences and support awareness as it emerges. I believe that awareness leads to choice, and that in therapy we can co-create a space to explore your experiences, building greater awareness of needs, boundaries, and patterns of experience.
Whether this is your first time seeking therapy or a continuation of your therapy journey, I want to acknowledge the time you are taking to support yourself by seeking change. I think of therapy as a commitment to making space for things that often don’t get enough space in everyday life— space settle into oneself, to take pause, to be witnessed, to be with experiences and support awareness as it emerges. I believe that awareness leads to choice, and that in therapy we can co-create a space to explore your experiences, building greater awareness of needs, boundaries, and patterns of experience.
(415) 384-5126 View (415) 384-5126
Photo of Alexis Purugganan, Associate Clinical Social Worker in 95492, CA
Alexis Purugganan
Associate Clinical Social Worker, ASW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
When you’re feeling stuck, you want to move. You need to. You may be feeling left with complicated emotions that keep you from connections to others, yourself & the world around you. Being stuck in painful patterns is a physiological experience, not a personality trait. We might feel both grief and relief in distancing ourselves from pain. We can honor that survival strategies are adaptive, while acknowledging that they take a toll & come at a cost. We'll work together in a safe way by using evidence based practices, such as EMDR & other therapies, to relieve the nervous system, integrate unresolved memories & support mind/body.
When you’re feeling stuck, you want to move. You need to. You may be feeling left with complicated emotions that keep you from connections to others, yourself & the world around you. Being stuck in painful patterns is a physiological experience, not a personality trait. We might feel both grief and relief in distancing ourselves from pain. We can honor that survival strategies are adaptive, while acknowledging that they take a toll & come at a cost. We'll work together in a safe way by using evidence based practices, such as EMDR & other therapies, to relieve the nervous system, integrate unresolved memories & support mind/body.
(707) 504-8506 View (707) 504-8506
Photo of Dr. Elliott Hastings, Psychologist in 95492, CA
Dr. Elliott Hastings
Psychologist, Psy D
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492
I believe that being understood by someone who is compassionate and knowledgeable is essential to becoming the best person we can be. We can be our own worst critics and sometimes it helps to have someone experienced alongside us in our journey. I am a clinical psychologist with over 20 years of experience in working with teens and adults who have a wide range of issues. I specialize in treating issues related to addiction and substance abuse.
I believe that being understood by someone who is compassionate and knowledgeable is essential to becoming the best person we can be. We can be our own worst critics and sometimes it helps to have someone experienced alongside us in our journey. I am a clinical psychologist with over 20 years of experience in working with teens and adults who have a wide range of issues. I specialize in treating issues related to addiction and substance abuse.
(707) 868-8489 View (707) 868-8489
Photo of Monica Coffman Keeney, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 95492, CA
Monica Coffman Keeney, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PPSC
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I have 10 years of experience in the field and offer empathetic, strengths-based care. I use a mixture of CBT and solution-focused therapy to help you identify emotions that lead to unwanted behaviors. I work with adults, children, and families experiencing issues related to addiction, mental health, abuse/neglect, and divorce/custody.
I have 10 years of experience in the field and offer empathetic, strengths-based care. I use a mixture of CBT and solution-focused therapy to help you identify emotions that lead to unwanted behaviors. I work with adults, children, and families experiencing issues related to addiction, mental health, abuse/neglect, and divorce/custody.
(707) 625-7460 View (707) 625-7460
Photo of Kristen Lee Picard, Pre-Licensed Professional in 95492, CA
Kristen Lee Picard
Pre-Licensed Professional, ACSW, RMT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
I have a special focus on anxiety, depression, behavioral challenges, grief, and trauma. I also have experience working with neurodivergent humans. Journey inward with me, Kristen Picard, Associate Clinical Social Worker, Reiki Master Teacher, and Emotional Intelligence Counselor, on the path of healing through disconnect to unconditional self-love.
I have a special focus on anxiety, depression, behavioral challenges, grief, and trauma. I also have experience working with neurodivergent humans. Journey inward with me, Kristen Picard, Associate Clinical Social Worker, Reiki Master Teacher, and Emotional Intelligence Counselor, on the path of healing through disconnect to unconditional self-love.
(707) 383-3619 View (707) 383-3619
Photo of Meaghan Leigh Gosling, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in 95492, CA
Meaghan Leigh Gosling
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492
Not accepting new clients
Normal. What a trippy, pejorative word. And you’re almost fixated on it. Is what you are doing normal? Are your feelings normal? You just don’t feel normal. Fitting into the box of what everyone else is doing doesn’t feel good, but neither does being where you’re at. You as you are does not look like what you see everyone else doing/being. The constant comparisons are so painful, and you just can’t stop them. Something has to be fixed, but you are just not sure what or how. The suffering is becoming too much…
Normal. What a trippy, pejorative word. And you’re almost fixated on it. Is what you are doing normal? Are your feelings normal? You just don’t feel normal. Fitting into the box of what everyone else is doing doesn’t feel good, but neither does being where you’re at. You as you are does not look like what you see everyone else doing/being. The constant comparisons are so painful, and you just can’t stop them. Something has to be fixed, but you are just not sure what or how. The suffering is becoming too much…
(607) 499-4335 View (607) 499-4335
Photo of Marie Nersesian, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Marie Nersesian
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492
Not accepting new clients
It takes a village to build up our children's inner most strengths and help families and individuals through difficult times. As a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, that belief is my foundation. I specialize in working with children, teens, and their families and individuals with complex trauma. I have experience helping individuals and families with school related behavioral problems, anxiety, depression, ADHD, parent separation, and trauma. No one is the same and therefore I use evidence-based interventions and uniquely tailor them to the needs and strengths of each individual client.
It takes a village to build up our children's inner most strengths and help families and individuals through difficult times. As a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, that belief is my foundation. I specialize in working with children, teens, and their families and individuals with complex trauma. I have experience helping individuals and families with school related behavioral problems, anxiety, depression, ADHD, parent separation, and trauma. No one is the same and therefore I use evidence-based interventions and uniquely tailor them to the needs and strengths of each individual client.
(707) 309-7123 View (707) 309-7123
Photo of Selena Foster, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Selena Foster
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492
My passion is to assist children and adolescents to gain skills in order to manage difficult emotions and create healthy relationships in a safe and non-judgmental environment, so they can better manage and understand life’s difficulties and complexities.
My passion is to assist children and adolescents to gain skills in order to manage difficult emotions and create healthy relationships in a safe and non-judgmental environment, so they can better manage and understand life’s difficulties and complexities.
(707) 900-4009 View (707) 900-4009
Photo of Christine Lewis, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 95492, CA
Christine Lewis
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492
I support couples and individuals seeking to make a change in their life. I hold value in the belief that everyone has their own internal strength to solve their issues and that sometimes it takes a different perspective to help guide you towards taking those steps to improving your quality of life. I work with a variety of conflicts that come up in relationships from infidelity to premarital counseling.
I support couples and individuals seeking to make a change in their life. I hold value in the belief that everyone has their own internal strength to solve their issues and that sometimes it takes a different perspective to help guide you towards taking those steps to improving your quality of life. I work with a variety of conflicts that come up in relationships from infidelity to premarital counseling.
(707) 470-7215 View (707) 470-7215
Photo of Laura Porter, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Laura Porter
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Windsor, CA 95492
Not accepting new clients
Are you unsatisfied, tense, restless, or exhausted but can’t figure out what what the real problem is or what to do about it? Do you feel stuck in self destructive patterns or painful emotions but can’t shift those patterns with consistency? Do you feel stressed or overwhelmed in your life and feel unable to truly rest and refresh? Perhaps you are a hard worker, but all your effort has left you feeling heart heavy or exhausted, and fun and joy are too rare. I’d like to help you access your innate healing capacity to find peace and ease in your body, revitalize and come into a fuller and more satisfying expression of yourself.
Are you unsatisfied, tense, restless, or exhausted but can’t figure out what what the real problem is or what to do about it? Do you feel stuck in self destructive patterns or painful emotions but can’t shift those patterns with consistency? Do you feel stressed or overwhelmed in your life and feel unable to truly rest and refresh? Perhaps you are a hard worker, but all your effort has left you feeling heart heavy or exhausted, and fun and joy are too rare. I’d like to help you access your innate healing capacity to find peace and ease in your body, revitalize and come into a fuller and more satisfying expression of yourself.
(707) 475-3293 View (707) 475-3293
Photo of Susan Greene, Marriage & Family Therapist in 95492, CA
Susan Greene
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Windsor, CA 95492  (Online Only)
Neuroscience is showing us what we have known instinctually forever; that it is through nurturing relationships that healing and human growth occurs. If we have been wounded in relationship or have unresolved trauma from the past, our fear and reactivity can prevent us from seeking and maintaining nurturing and safe connections with self and others. I am a licensed therapist in CA and WI and work online with residents of those two states only. My practice is fee for service only.
Neuroscience is showing us what we have known instinctually forever; that it is through nurturing relationships that healing and human growth occurs. If we have been wounded in relationship or have unresolved trauma from the past, our fear and reactivity can prevent us from seeking and maintaining nurturing and safe connections with self and others. I am a licensed therapist in CA and WI and work online with residents of those two states only. My practice is fee for service only.
(707) 677-6043 View (707) 677-6043

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 95492

80+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 95492 who prioritize treating:

94% Relationship Issues
93% Anxiety
90% Depression
83% Self Esteem
77% Trauma and PTSD
67% Grief
63% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

45% Beacon Health Options | Carelon
39% Other
32% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 95492 see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 95492?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.