Photo of PCH Psychological Assessment Center, Psychologist in 90066, CA
PCH Psychological Assessment Center
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
The PCH Psychological Testing Clinic offers comprehensive and targeted assessments for psychiatric, psychological and neuropsychological issues, learning disabilities and ADHD or ADD. Each evaluation utilizes qualitative and quantitative testing to produce a thorough appraisal with recommendations for treatment and referrals. Assessments are individualized for each client based on a developmental and psychosocial history, medication history and medical and psychiatric histories. Testing focuses on the specific, relevant problems that need to be investigated, such as psychological problems, treatment resistance or failure, difficulties in school or work, cognitive processing issues, failure to launch and treatment dilemmas.
The PCH Psychological Testing Clinic offers comprehensive and targeted assessments for psychiatric, psychological and neuropsychological issues, learning disabilities and ADHD or ADD. Each evaluation utilizes qualitative and quantitative testing to produce a thorough appraisal with recommendations for treatment and referrals. Assessments are individualized for each client based on a developmental and psychosocial history, medication history and medical and psychiatric histories. Testing focuses on the specific, relevant problems that need to be investigated, such as psychological problems, treatment resistance or failure, difficulties in school or work, cognitive processing issues, failure to launch and treatment dilemmas.
(888) 675-7185 View (888) 675-7185
Photo of Nicole Flowers, Psychologist in 90066, CA
Nicole Flowers
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Not accepting new clients
Since 2020, even the most resilient have found themselves facing disorientation, high emotions and internal conflict causing them to seek out therapy for the first time. I have experience helping high achieving, overthinking adults who may feel isolated, lonely, or disconnected to themselves, to others and to life and want change but don't know how or where to start. Clients who need a reflective, highly supportive and direct approach have found value in working with me.
Since 2020, even the most resilient have found themselves facing disorientation, high emotions and internal conflict causing them to seek out therapy for the first time. I have experience helping high achieving, overthinking adults who may feel isolated, lonely, or disconnected to themselves, to others and to life and want change but don't know how or where to start. Clients who need a reflective, highly supportive and direct approach have found value in working with me.
(424) 434-4951 View (424) 434-4951
Photo of Jessica Mariglio | Certified Emdr Therapist, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Jessica Mariglio | Certified Emdr Therapist
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, EMDR
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Feeling like you’re tied up in knots? You might need to go beyond talk therapy to find freedom. If it feels like you're moving through the world on auto-pilot, or if you just have a sense that something internal is holding you back from having the life you hoped for, it might be time to try something different. With my focus on the connection between the mind and body, I offer a integrative path to unraveling stuckness, mending old wounds and restoring your sense of aliveness and well-being.
Feeling like you’re tied up in knots? You might need to go beyond talk therapy to find freedom. If it feels like you're moving through the world on auto-pilot, or if you just have a sense that something internal is holding you back from having the life you hoped for, it might be time to try something different. With my focus on the connection between the mind and body, I offer a integrative path to unraveling stuckness, mending old wounds and restoring your sense of aliveness and well-being.
(310) 361-2872 View (310) 361-2872
Photo of Susan Lee Mendenhall, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 90066, CA
Susan Lee Mendenhall
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, PsyD
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
If you are feeling sad, anxious, confused, dissatisfied, or are having problems in your relationships with others, I have the experience and qualifications to help you. I provide a safe, warm and supportive relationship in which we can explore your personal experiences and help you find ways to greater fulfillment and happiness.
If you are feeling sad, anxious, confused, dissatisfied, or are having problems in your relationships with others, I have the experience and qualifications to help you. I provide a safe, warm and supportive relationship in which we can explore your personal experiences and help you find ways to greater fulfillment and happiness.
(424) 395-2348 View (424) 395-2348
Photo of Jodi Walsh, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 90066, CA
Jodi Walsh
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
My name is Jodi Walsh, LCSW. I strive to assist my clients with changing their mindset to achieve things they never thought or expected they could. I have been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker since 2017 and have 10 years of experience in the field of Social Work. I utilize evidence-based treatment to facilitate mindset change and address self-limiting thoughts that prevent you from feeling productive and fulfilled. The types of therapy I offer include Coaching, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Mindfulness-Based (MBCT), and Solution-Focused Therapy.
My name is Jodi Walsh, LCSW. I strive to assist my clients with changing their mindset to achieve things they never thought or expected they could. I have been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker since 2017 and have 10 years of experience in the field of Social Work. I utilize evidence-based treatment to facilitate mindset change and address self-limiting thoughts that prevent you from feeling productive and fulfilled. The types of therapy I offer include Coaching, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Mindfulness-Based (MBCT), and Solution-Focused Therapy.
(424) 728-4778 View (424) 728-4778
Photo of Angela Romero, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 90066, CA
Angela Romero
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
With all the therapists out there, choosing one can be overwhelming. Knowing how I conduct therapy and what values and beliefs fuel each session is essential. I believe that people are inherently capable of achieving their innermost desires and naturally want to evolve and heal. Sometimes, we face challenges that make us feel like things are impossible, but feelings don't constitute Truth. My job as your therapist is to guide you toward actualizing the inner strengths that you already have while teaching you new skills so you can live the best version of yourself.
With all the therapists out there, choosing one can be overwhelming. Knowing how I conduct therapy and what values and beliefs fuel each session is essential. I believe that people are inherently capable of achieving their innermost desires and naturally want to evolve and heal. Sometimes, we face challenges that make us feel like things are impossible, but feelings don't constitute Truth. My job as your therapist is to guide you toward actualizing the inner strengths that you already have while teaching you new skills so you can live the best version of yourself.
(310) 361-8071 View (310) 361-8071
Photo of Miranda Selwyn Bishop, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 90066, CA
Miranda Selwyn Bishop
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified Verified
16 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
At your core, you know your true wants and needs, but past experiences can create patterns that keep you from being consciously aware of them. Therapy can help you know yourself better, allowing for more fulfilling relationships with yourself, others, and your work. We will work together to process difficult emotions and places you get stuck, and reveal the meaning behind challenging experiences and their effect on your life. In doing so, difficult feelings can transform from a source of pain into a helpful guide toward removing obstacles to growth and self-love.
At your core, you know your true wants and needs, but past experiences can create patterns that keep you from being consciously aware of them. Therapy can help you know yourself better, allowing for more fulfilling relationships with yourself, others, and your work. We will work together to process difficult emotions and places you get stuck, and reveal the meaning behind challenging experiences and their effect on your life. In doing so, difficult feelings can transform from a source of pain into a helpful guide toward removing obstacles to growth and self-love.
(424) 238-0759 View (424) 238-0759
Photo of Dion Smith, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Dion Smith
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
As a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT), I have extensive experience working with individuals, couples, families, and groups dealing with a wide array of challenges. Whether you’re dealing with anxiety, depression, relationship problems such as codependency, infidelity, or other concerns, trauma, anger, grief, addiction, or other issues, I would be honored to walk with you to discover a better way forward in life.
As a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT), I have extensive experience working with individuals, couples, families, and groups dealing with a wide array of challenges. Whether you’re dealing with anxiety, depression, relationship problems such as codependency, infidelity, or other concerns, trauma, anger, grief, addiction, or other issues, I would be honored to walk with you to discover a better way forward in life.
(310) 997-4062 View (310) 997-4062
Photo of Penelope Starr-Karlin, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Penelope Starr-Karlin
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
If you are seeking help for a catastrophe, cumulative smaller traumas or self-in-relationship difficulties, I would like to introduce myself. I offer a safe, kind, emotionally supportive and effective relational home to understand and illuminate what has happened, and work to dissolve anything interfering with your happiness. In these anxiety provoking times upheavals at international, national, and personal levels of our lives haunt us creating extra difficulty with self-esteem, relationships, decisions, or influence. You will find me experienced, warm, empathic, and responsive and I am highly trained. To learn more please take a look at my website DreamsAndThemesTherapy.com, or email me.
If you are seeking help for a catastrophe, cumulative smaller traumas or self-in-relationship difficulties, I would like to introduce myself. I offer a safe, kind, emotionally supportive and effective relational home to understand and illuminate what has happened, and work to dissolve anything interfering with your happiness. In these anxiety provoking times upheavals at international, national, and personal levels of our lives haunt us creating extra difficulty with self-esteem, relationships, decisions, or influence. You will find me experienced, warm, empathic, and responsive and I am highly trained. To learn more please take a look at my website DreamsAndThemesTherapy.com, or email me.
(310) 391-8718 View (310) 391-8718
Photo of Sarah Thomas, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Sarah Thomas
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066  (Online Only)
My great passion is to help my clients heal themselves. I act as a guide for my clients to find healthy perceptions of themselves and strengthen their relationships so they can know themselves as peaceful, complete, whole and safe.
My great passion is to help my clients heal themselves. I act as a guide for my clients to find healthy perceptions of themselves and strengthen their relationships so they can know themselves as peaceful, complete, whole and safe.
(424) 352-2157 View (424) 352-2157
Photo of Maddie Miyoshi, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 90066, CA
Maddie Miyoshi
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
You are enough. Past experiences may have created a negative inner voice undercutting your self-worth and capacity for joy. People pleasing and perfectionism may have left you needing to do or be more, unable to enjoy the present. We will work together in a safe and non-judgmental space to rewrite your self-talk and your narrative. We will identify and prioritize your own needs, allowing you to be present with grace and acceptance as you navigate healing past wounds & face life's challenges. Therapy will empower you to recognize your intrinsic strengths, forging a new path toward a life of meaning and fulfillment.
You are enough. Past experiences may have created a negative inner voice undercutting your self-worth and capacity for joy. People pleasing and perfectionism may have left you needing to do or be more, unable to enjoy the present. We will work together in a safe and non-judgmental space to rewrite your self-talk and your narrative. We will identify and prioritize your own needs, allowing you to be present with grace and acceptance as you navigate healing past wounds & face life's challenges. Therapy will empower you to recognize your intrinsic strengths, forging a new path toward a life of meaning and fulfillment.
(626) 313-2818 View (626) 313-2818
Photo of Shirin Hart, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Shirin Hart
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
I’m a psychotherapist, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. My approach is modern holistic psychotherapy. I have sought out and learned the latest neuroscience informed therapies. And have been trained by the world’s top holistic practitioners, life coaches, and mindfulness experts. Though I can’t claim to have invented any of these techniques, I have combined them in my own unique way and am sharing it with people so they can win. When people win, it’s helping the community win. To me that is what it is all about.
I’m a psychotherapist, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. My approach is modern holistic psychotherapy. I have sought out and learned the latest neuroscience informed therapies. And have been trained by the world’s top holistic practitioners, life coaches, and mindfulness experts. Though I can’t claim to have invented any of these techniques, I have combined them in my own unique way and am sharing it with people so they can win. When people win, it’s helping the community win. To me that is what it is all about.
(424) 342-5545 View (424) 342-5545
Photo of Jessica Leader, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Jessica Leader
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Starting therapy can be overwhelming. My goal is to eliminate that stress and create a space for adolescents, adults, couples, and families to process emotions and explore their identities and their relationships in a non-judgmental, safe environment. We all undergo transitions and experiences that require additional support from an objective third party to allow us to thrive personally and interpersonally. I utilize individualized, evidence-based approaches to foster a collaborative environment that produces long-term change.
Starting therapy can be overwhelming. My goal is to eliminate that stress and create a space for adolescents, adults, couples, and families to process emotions and explore their identities and their relationships in a non-judgmental, safe environment. We all undergo transitions and experiences that require additional support from an objective third party to allow us to thrive personally and interpersonally. I utilize individualized, evidence-based approaches to foster a collaborative environment that produces long-term change.
(323) 792-2903 View (323) 792-2903
Photo of Martha Jane Joachim, Psychologist in 90066, CA
Martha Jane Joachim
Psychologist
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066
I have had many years of gratifying experience in deeply engaging with the people I work with, and training and supervising doctoral students and therapists (many on this site have been my students!). Discovering what has been causing personal distress, worry, loneliness, or disappointment is what transforms life. These underlying stresses can cause problems with relationship, career, mood, or just general feelings of dissatisfaction. The personal growth that blooms in the therapy opens doors inside and out, and creates the rich opportunities and experiences we all want in life.
I have had many years of gratifying experience in deeply engaging with the people I work with, and training and supervising doctoral students and therapists (many on this site have been my students!). Discovering what has been causing personal distress, worry, loneliness, or disappointment is what transforms life. These underlying stresses can cause problems with relationship, career, mood, or just general feelings of dissatisfaction. The personal growth that blooms in the therapy opens doors inside and out, and creates the rich opportunities and experiences we all want in life.
(424) 250-2779 View (424) 250-2779
Photo of Ariel Bahner, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 90066, CA
Ariel Bahner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Do you feel disconnected from living a vibrant and engaged life? Do the simplest tasks stand before you like an ocean? Are relationships a source of emotional pain in your life? Our ability to make sense of our emotional experiences can be the key to releasing emotional pain and suffering. Often times, our own cultural perceptions of mental health can prevent us from seeking the help that we need. My personal and professional experiences have influenced my understanding of the value of promoting mental health and how simple changes can have a profound effect on our lives.
Do you feel disconnected from living a vibrant and engaged life? Do the simplest tasks stand before you like an ocean? Are relationships a source of emotional pain in your life? Our ability to make sense of our emotional experiences can be the key to releasing emotional pain and suffering. Often times, our own cultural perceptions of mental health can prevent us from seeking the help that we need. My personal and professional experiences have influenced my understanding of the value of promoting mental health and how simple changes can have a profound effect on our lives.
(818) 860-7357 View (818) 860-7357
Photo of Brian Fields, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Brian Fields
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, LPCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Culver City, CA 90066
Do you get stuck in cycles of negative thinking? Does it sometimes feel like your mind is working against you? Do you find it tough to turn off damaging self-talk and self-blame? This perpetual self-punishment can give rise to and worsen already challenging conditions like depression and anxiety, as well as sustain the effects of trauma. Wouldn’t it be a relief to break these patterns of destructive thinking? To improve self-esteem? To feel confident and worthy of engaging with others? I can help.
Do you get stuck in cycles of negative thinking? Does it sometimes feel like your mind is working against you? Do you find it tough to turn off damaging self-talk and self-blame? This perpetual self-punishment can give rise to and worsen already challenging conditions like depression and anxiety, as well as sustain the effects of trauma. Wouldn’t it be a relief to break these patterns of destructive thinking? To improve self-esteem? To feel confident and worthy of engaging with others? I can help.
(424) 262-8272 View (424) 262-8272
Photo of Dr. Shez Kennedy, Registered Psychological Associate in 90066, CA
Dr. Shez Kennedy
Registered Psychological Associate, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Dr. Shez Kennedy is a highly skilled and compassionate Clinical Psychologist. For over 10 years she has dedicated her career to others achieve emotional health and well-being. She has devoted her career to helping individuals, couples, and families navigate the complex challenges of mental health. Throughout her career, she has developed a reputation as a kind and insightful therapist, committed to helping her clients achieve meaningful and lasting change.
Dr. Shez Kennedy is a highly skilled and compassionate Clinical Psychologist. For over 10 years she has dedicated her career to others achieve emotional health and well-being. She has devoted her career to helping individuals, couples, and families navigate the complex challenges of mental health. Throughout her career, she has developed a reputation as a kind and insightful therapist, committed to helping her clients achieve meaningful and lasting change.
(310) 361-9061 View (310) 361-9061
Photo of Pamela Mullen, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Pamela Mullen
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90066  (Online Only)
A healthy relationship with yourself is the foundation for a fulfilling life. Moving through compassionate self-inquiry helps to build this foundation. What are your areas for growth? What holds you back or limits you from experiencing your full potential with yourself and in your relationships? What are your strengths that may not yet be recognized? My method is to help empower you to achieve your goals and reconnect with yourself on a deeper level. You hold the answers you need. Sometimes professional help is needed to find our answers and discover better strategies in finding our way in the world.
A healthy relationship with yourself is the foundation for a fulfilling life. Moving through compassionate self-inquiry helps to build this foundation. What are your areas for growth? What holds you back or limits you from experiencing your full potential with yourself and in your relationships? What are your strengths that may not yet be recognized? My method is to help empower you to achieve your goals and reconnect with yourself on a deeper level. You hold the answers you need. Sometimes professional help is needed to find our answers and discover better strategies in finding our way in the world.
(424) 766-4936 View (424) 766-4936
Photo of Jack Grabon, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 90066, CA
Jack Grabon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CPC
Verified Verified
Culver City, CA 90066  (Online Only)
What is it you're trying to shift or change? What do you want more or less of? I start wherever you're at. It's a simple as that, while striving to do that in a profound way. My aim is to help you help yourself. The combined practices of psychotherapy & life coaching have allowed me to dive deeper with people to help them become their best selves. When I'm not doing therapy, I'm making music, hiking, surfing, or reading something thought-provoking. I may even recommend books, movies, etc. to help you dive even deeper and get the most out of our time together. Are you ready to work through your past and move forward in your life?
What is it you're trying to shift or change? What do you want more or less of? I start wherever you're at. It's a simple as that, while striving to do that in a profound way. My aim is to help you help yourself. The combined practices of psychotherapy & life coaching have allowed me to dive deeper with people to help them become their best selves. When I'm not doing therapy, I'm making music, hiking, surfing, or reading something thought-provoking. I may even recommend books, movies, etc. to help you dive even deeper and get the most out of our time together. Are you ready to work through your past and move forward in your life?
(310) 873-6790 View (310) 873-6790
Photo of Joana Cruz, Marriage & Family Therapist in 90066, CA
Joana Cruz
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
I work in a predominantly psychodynamic framework, developing a relationship in which I collaborate with adults, children, couples and families to address a variety of concerns, interests and goals. I received my Master of Arts degree in Clinical Psychology from Antioch University in 2013, specializing in Child/Family and Depth psychology followed by clinical training at The Maple Counseling Center. I completed my doctorate in psychoanalysis at the Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis in 2021.
I work in a predominantly psychodynamic framework, developing a relationship in which I collaborate with adults, children, couples and families to address a variety of concerns, interests and goals. I received my Master of Arts degree in Clinical Psychology from Antioch University in 2013, specializing in Child/Family and Depth psychology followed by clinical training at The Maple Counseling Center. I completed my doctorate in psychoanalysis at the Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis in 2021.
(424) 329-5496 View (424) 329-5496

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 90066

400+

Average cost per session

$190

Therapists in 90066 who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
89% Depression
84% Relationship Issues
76% Self Esteem
75% Trauma and PTSD
72% Stress
71% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

60% Aetna
57% Cigna and Evernorth
57% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 90066 see their clients

68% In Person and Online
32% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
16% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 90066?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.