Therapists in Los Angeles, CA

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Photo of Priscilla Altuve, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Priscilla Altuve
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90095  (Online Only)
Hello, my name is Priscilla Altuve. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker offering telehealth services in California. My personal approach is to meet you where you are and take all parts of your life into consideration. This includes your mental, emotional, and physical experiences to help you identify ways to develop a healthier relationship with yourself and others.
Hello, my name is Priscilla Altuve. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker offering telehealth services in California. My personal approach is to meet you where you are and take all parts of your life into consideration. This includes your mental, emotional, and physical experiences to help you identify ways to develop a healthier relationship with yourself and others.
(818) 650-4231 View (818) 650-4231
Photo of Rae Hadley, Psychologist in Los Angeles, CA
Rae Hadley
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90048
Dr. Hadley is a clinical psychologist with more than 23 years of experience, specializing in working with adolescents and adults who are struggling with ADHD, chronic medical conditions, grief and loss, death and dying, depression, anxiety, life transitions, and spirituality. She believes that the relationship and connection between a client and therapist are essential to successful therapy. Her goal is to create a welcoming, trusting space where you can explore the deepest parts of yourself, to question, challenge, heal, forgive, and grow.
Dr. Hadley is a clinical psychologist with more than 23 years of experience, specializing in working with adolescents and adults who are struggling with ADHD, chronic medical conditions, grief and loss, death and dying, depression, anxiety, life transitions, and spirituality. She believes that the relationship and connection between a client and therapist are essential to successful therapy. Her goal is to create a welcoming, trusting space where you can explore the deepest parts of yourself, to question, challenge, heal, forgive, and grow.
(323) 870-9329 View (323) 870-9329
Photo of Cherise Small, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Cherise Small
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90013  (Online Only)
Are you feeling high levels of anxiety, worry or stress. Do you need someone to help you better understand your feelings and emotions? Some times life can be overwhelming and additional support is needed. Cherise is here to support you. Cherise’s treatment areas include life transitions, anxiety, depression, trauma and stress. Cherise possess the unique skills of relatability, compassion, understanding coupled with clinical knowledge and expertise that will support you and provide you with the tools to cope with everyday life.
Are you feeling high levels of anxiety, worry or stress. Do you need someone to help you better understand your feelings and emotions? Some times life can be overwhelming and additional support is needed. Cherise is here to support you. Cherise’s treatment areas include life transitions, anxiety, depression, trauma and stress. Cherise possess the unique skills of relatability, compassion, understanding coupled with clinical knowledge and expertise that will support you and provide you with the tools to cope with everyday life.
(213) 816-7408 View (213) 816-7408
Photo of Anna Raileanu Pincin, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Anna Raileanu Pincin
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90071  (Online Only)
Hi and welcome! My name is Iris Raileanu Pincin and I am Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) based in Southern California. I work with individuals on a variety of topics such as depression, anxiety, trauma etc. utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Trauma Focused- CBT, Psychodynamic etc. In addition, I work with couples on communication, healthy fighting, discovering unmet needs and so much more by utilizing Gottman, Prepare & Enrich etc.
Hi and welcome! My name is Iris Raileanu Pincin and I am Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) based in Southern California. I work with individuals on a variety of topics such as depression, anxiety, trauma etc. utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Trauma Focused- CBT, Psychodynamic etc. In addition, I work with couples on communication, healthy fighting, discovering unmet needs and so much more by utilizing Gottman, Prepare & Enrich etc.
(562) 293-9647 View (562) 293-9647
Photo of Preyanka Gulati, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Los Angeles, CA
Preyanka Gulati
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90010
It would be an honor to support you in your healing journey. I am a South Asian therapist offering therapeutic support that is rooted in multicultural counseling, compassion, and honoring each client's unique needs. My approach is insight-oriented, collaborative, and empowering. I offer you a trauma-informed, empathetic, and nurturing space to explore insights, feelings, and the layers of your experiences. I work together with clients to support them with cultivating more self-compassion, clarity, grounding, and joy in their lives. I believe that therapy can be a transformative pathway to expansive healing and growth.
It would be an honor to support you in your healing journey. I am a South Asian therapist offering therapeutic support that is rooted in multicultural counseling, compassion, and honoring each client's unique needs. My approach is insight-oriented, collaborative, and empowering. I offer you a trauma-informed, empathetic, and nurturing space to explore insights, feelings, and the layers of your experiences. I work together with clients to support them with cultivating more self-compassion, clarity, grounding, and joy in their lives. I believe that therapy can be a transformative pathway to expansive healing and growth.
(424) 329-8681 View (424) 329-8681
Photo of Rubin Khoddam, Psychologist in Los Angeles, CA
Rubin Khoddam
Psychologist, PhD, MA
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90024
I am a clinical psychologist and founder of COPE Psychological Center and I specialize in addiction, trauma, and mood disorders. In addition to my practice, I also manage a residential treatment program and am on faculty at UCLA. My goal in therapy is to utilize evidence-based treatments to help you understand the parts of your life most impacting you so that you can gain the tools, insights, and skills necessary to live the life you want. I hope to help you write new mental scripts, engage in more intentional behaviors, and ultimately have a new emotional experience that will provide the pathway to the life you want.
I am a clinical psychologist and founder of COPE Psychological Center and I specialize in addiction, trauma, and mood disorders. In addition to my practice, I also manage a residential treatment program and am on faculty at UCLA. My goal in therapy is to utilize evidence-based treatments to help you understand the parts of your life most impacting you so that you can gain the tools, insights, and skills necessary to live the life you want. I hope to help you write new mental scripts, engage in more intentional behaviors, and ultimately have a new emotional experience that will provide the pathway to the life you want.
(310) 928-9662 View (310) 928-9662
Photo of Jade Sealey, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Los Angeles, CA
Jade Sealey
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90004
Sometimes our problems threaten to gain the upper hand, and we find it difficult to step into the life we want to live. I work with adults, couples, youth, and families in a deeply supportive and engaged environment to assist in a thorough exploration of the challenges they might be contending with. My work promotes the understanding that the person is not the problem, the problem is the problem. I believe that everyone is inherently resourceful, and am committed to working with people to help them alleviate the oppressive effects of problems, whether they are new challenges or ongoing issues.
Sometimes our problems threaten to gain the upper hand, and we find it difficult to step into the life we want to live. I work with adults, couples, youth, and families in a deeply supportive and engaged environment to assist in a thorough exploration of the challenges they might be contending with. My work promotes the understanding that the person is not the problem, the problem is the problem. I believe that everyone is inherently resourceful, and am committed to working with people to help them alleviate the oppressive effects of problems, whether they are new challenges or ongoing issues.
(213) 431-0834 View (213) 431-0834
Photo of Katherine Hartley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Katherine Hartley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Not accepting new clients
Do you feel as though your life is not going in the direction you want? Do you feel things could be better, but aren't clear how to get there? If you answered yes to these questions, you are not alone. Making the decision to seek therapy requires strength and insight. At any given moment you have the power to say: "This is not working for me. This is not how my story needs to unfold." With effort and energy, you can learn how to achieve your goals and enact lasting, positive changes in your life. I am here to help you along that path.
Do you feel as though your life is not going in the direction you want? Do you feel things could be better, but aren't clear how to get there? If you answered yes to these questions, you are not alone. Making the decision to seek therapy requires strength and insight. At any given moment you have the power to say: "This is not working for me. This is not how my story needs to unfold." With effort and energy, you can learn how to achieve your goals and enact lasting, positive changes in your life. I am here to help you along that path.
(818) 697-9914 View (818) 697-9914
Photo of Melanie Siegel, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Los Angeles, CA
Melanie Siegel
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90027
Change and growth are possible. Whether you are feeling stuck in a tiny dusty corner or lost in an enormous ocean, I'll meet you right where you are and help get you where you want to be. Taking the first step can be difficult, but will be rewarding as, together, the work that we begin now will expand your relationship to yourself and the world around you.
Change and growth are possible. Whether you are feeling stuck in a tiny dusty corner or lost in an enormous ocean, I'll meet you right where you are and help get you where you want to be. Taking the first step can be difficult, but will be rewarding as, together, the work that we begin now will expand your relationship to yourself and the world around you.
(424) 249-9172 View (424) 249-9172
Photo of Loren Ciani, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Loren Ciani
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90045  (Online Only)
I have worked in hospital outpatient centers, community mental health, residential recovery centers, and in-home services with survivors of sexual assault and adults who struggle with addiction and co-occurring mental health disorders. I am interested in understanding one's emotional responses, interpersonal concerns, and patterns in relationships, identity development, and bettering the person's life as a whole. I believe that every person can grow into the best version of themselves through therapy. When we look inside and grow through what we’ve gone through, we can achieve our true potential.
I have worked in hospital outpatient centers, community mental health, residential recovery centers, and in-home services with survivors of sexual assault and adults who struggle with addiction and co-occurring mental health disorders. I am interested in understanding one's emotional responses, interpersonal concerns, and patterns in relationships, identity development, and bettering the person's life as a whole. I believe that every person can grow into the best version of themselves through therapy. When we look inside and grow through what we’ve gone through, we can achieve our true potential.
(424) 326-1172 View (424) 326-1172
Photo of Luis Lomeli, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Luis Lomeli
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90037
Hello, my name is Luis Lomeli, and I am a bilingual Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist based out of Los Angeles, California servicing clients statewide via telehealth. Over the years I have worked with children, adolescents, and adults to assist with managing issues of anxiety, stress, depression, acculturation, and trauma using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Client-Centered Therapy, and other modalities. My focus is to assist my clients in discovering their strengths and build upon them in order to reach their goals.
Hello, my name is Luis Lomeli, and I am a bilingual Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist based out of Los Angeles, California servicing clients statewide via telehealth. Over the years I have worked with children, adolescents, and adults to assist with managing issues of anxiety, stress, depression, acculturation, and trauma using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Client-Centered Therapy, and other modalities. My focus is to assist my clients in discovering their strengths and build upon them in order to reach their goals.
(213) 228-3898 View (213) 228-3898
Photo of Kristina Alvarez, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Los Angeles, CA
Kristina Alvarez
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90071  (Online Only)
Hi, my name is Kristina. I love to help people overcome obstacles in their lives, including but not limited to relationship problems, anxiety, low moods, work burnout, major life transitions, or self-esteem issues.
Hi, my name is Kristina. I love to help people overcome obstacles in their lives, including but not limited to relationship problems, anxiety, low moods, work burnout, major life transitions, or self-esteem issues.
(562) 471-3649 View (562) 471-3649
Photo of Michelle Hughes, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Michelle Hughes
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, DD, LMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90043
I am a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist, Doctor of Holistic Life Coaching and Spiritual Counseling in private practice in Los Angeles, Ca.
I am a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist, Doctor of Holistic Life Coaching and Spiritual Counseling in private practice in Los Angeles, Ca.
(323) 274-1519 View (323) 274-1519
Photo of Wesley Stahler, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Wesley Stahler
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, RDT, ECMH
Verified
6 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90039
Wishing like parenting came with directions. Realizing you are not the parent, and or partner you thought. Negative behaviors bringing you down. Wondering if your child's ok? Challenges with siblings, bedtimes, strong emotions, school, fill in the blank... Parenting can be the most stressful time, when it is touted as the most joyful. It is a fast track to getting your PhD in personal growth & development. I have been there. And, I can help. We can talk about those dirty, little secrets. Together, concretely creating a plan with long, lasting results. Bringing ease and strength, breaking unhealthy patterns.
Wishing like parenting came with directions. Realizing you are not the parent, and or partner you thought. Negative behaviors bringing you down. Wondering if your child's ok? Challenges with siblings, bedtimes, strong emotions, school, fill in the blank... Parenting can be the most stressful time, when it is touted as the most joyful. It is a fast track to getting your PhD in personal growth & development. I have been there. And, I can help. We can talk about those dirty, little secrets. Together, concretely creating a plan with long, lasting results. Bringing ease and strength, breaking unhealthy patterns.
(323) 992-4031 View (323) 992-4031
Photo of Krista Anderson, Associate Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Krista Anderson
Associate Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, AMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90048
Hi, I look forward to hearing from you! Thank you for your interest in therapy, and I commend you for taking this first step in finding the right therapist for you. I offer individual child, teen, and adult psychotherapy both in person and online. As an Associate Marriage and Family Therapist, I have experience working with individuals across the lifespan. My specialties include autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, mood disorders, life transitions, attachment issues, and anxiety disorders.
Hi, I look forward to hearing from you! Thank you for your interest in therapy, and I commend you for taking this first step in finding the right therapist for you. I offer individual child, teen, and adult psychotherapy both in person and online. As an Associate Marriage and Family Therapist, I have experience working with individuals across the lifespan. My specialties include autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, mood disorders, life transitions, attachment issues, and anxiety disorders.
(424) 264-2625 View (424) 264-2625
Photo of Caryn Shein Psychotherapy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Caryn Shein Psychotherapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Accepting new clients! It is not always easy separating our personal lives from our professional lives when the boundaries we try to maintain in order to excel in both spheres often bleed into each other. You want to bring the best of yourself to all facets of your life, but when issues such as substance abuse, depression, marital strife, family problems, & conflicts with co-workers are so prevalent, how do we cope? What do we do with our mental and emotional baggage? How do we remain balanced and calm when the world we live in demands so much of us?
Accepting new clients! It is not always easy separating our personal lives from our professional lives when the boundaries we try to maintain in order to excel in both spheres often bleed into each other. You want to bring the best of yourself to all facets of your life, but when issues such as substance abuse, depression, marital strife, family problems, & conflicts with co-workers are so prevalent, how do we cope? What do we do with our mental and emotional baggage? How do we remain balanced and calm when the world we live in demands so much of us?
(323) 489-6319 View (323) 489-6319
Photo of Lynne Oliva, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Lynne Oliva
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, LMFT
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90049
My practice is based on an integrative model that privileges contemporary relational theory and practice. I work with a range of issues with individual adults, couples and families, and have a particular interest in working with artists, writers, and intellectuals. When choosing a psychotherapist, it is important to find a good fit - someone you feel comfortable with. Psychotherapy is at best a healing and transformational journey that allows you to have healthier and more satisfying relationships with yourself and others. A good relationship with your therapist is the most important factor in a successful outcome.
My practice is based on an integrative model that privileges contemporary relational theory and practice. I work with a range of issues with individual adults, couples and families, and have a particular interest in working with artists, writers, and intellectuals. When choosing a psychotherapist, it is important to find a good fit - someone you feel comfortable with. Psychotherapy is at best a healing and transformational journey that allows you to have healthier and more satisfying relationships with yourself and others. A good relationship with your therapist is the most important factor in a successful outcome.
(310) 651-7578 View (310) 651-7578
Photo of Samer Fawaz, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Los Angeles, CA
Samer Fawaz
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
12 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90039  (Online Only)
Therapy changed my life. In fact, it led me to become a therapist. Professionally, I had reached a level of success as a business owner that kept me financially comfortable. Unfortunately, my "success" left me feeling depressed and anxious because I felt that I lacked purpose. I was lost in addictions and reckless behaviors which further galvanized my sadness and kept me feeling disconnected from how to make meaningful change. Therapy allowed me to become more connected with myself.
Therapy changed my life. In fact, it led me to become a therapist. Professionally, I had reached a level of success as a business owner that kept me financially comfortable. Unfortunately, my "success" left me feeling depressed and anxious because I felt that I lacked purpose. I was lost in addictions and reckless behaviors which further galvanized my sadness and kept me feeling disconnected from how to make meaningful change. Therapy allowed me to become more connected with myself.
(747) 477-8897 View (747) 477-8897
Photo of Dorie I Weiss, Psychologist in Los Angeles, CA
Dorie I Weiss
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Dr. Weiss is skilled in providing therapy for children, adolescents, and adults. She works with her clients (and their families) in a collaborative and respectful manner utilizing a combination of treatment approaches (including CBT) tailored to meet each client's specific needs. Dr. Weiss has helped clients cope with a range of issues such as anxiety, depression, ADHD, executive functioning challenges, self-esteem issues, life transitions, eating disorders, body image issues, and academic stress. Dr. Weiss is also well known for conducting comprehensive psychological, neuropsychological, and educational testing as well as IQ testing for schools that require IQ testing for admission.
Dr. Weiss is skilled in providing therapy for children, adolescents, and adults. She works with her clients (and their families) in a collaborative and respectful manner utilizing a combination of treatment approaches (including CBT) tailored to meet each client's specific needs. Dr. Weiss has helped clients cope with a range of issues such as anxiety, depression, ADHD, executive functioning challenges, self-esteem issues, life transitions, eating disorders, body image issues, and academic stress. Dr. Weiss is also well known for conducting comprehensive psychological, neuropsychological, and educational testing as well as IQ testing for schools that require IQ testing for admission.
(310) 359-8030 View (310) 359-8030
Photo of Soultenders, Inc, Psychologist in Los Angeles, CA
Soultenders, Inc
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
8 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90064
I have a special interest in working with couples and families and in doing Dream Work with my individual clients. Much of the therapeutic work I do is based on the theories of Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, & James Hillman. However, I do balance my practice using other therapeutic techniques from other theorists as well. It is not so important for me to apply a certain theory or my own beliefs on a client but instead it is my intention to really understand my clients' own personal beliefs and expectations of therapy. This aids in
I have a special interest in working with couples and families and in doing Dream Work with my individual clients. Much of the therapeutic work I do is based on the theories of Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, & James Hillman. However, I do balance my practice using other therapeutic techniques from other theorists as well. It is not so important for me to apply a certain theory or my own beliefs on a client but instead it is my intention to really understand my clients' own personal beliefs and expectations of therapy. This aids in
(626) 498-2187 View (626) 498-2187

See more therapy options for Los Angeles

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Los Angeles, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in Los Angeles, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
75% Self Esteem
73% Relationship Issues
68% Trauma and PTSD
66% Coping Skills
63% Stress

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

73% Aetna
68% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
66% Optum

How Therapists in Los Angeles, CA see their clients

57% In Person and Online
43% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
21% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Los Angeles?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.