Therapists in Los Angeles, CA

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Photo of Dr. Richard Trammel in Los Angeles, CA
Dr. Richard Trammel
EdD, MS, L3S-CT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90037
As a REAL sports psychologist, I have a unique practice in that I specialize in working with athletes who have the desire to take their game to the next level. Being a competitive athlete helps me relate to other competitive people in sports or business. My primary focus is on confidence building and the elimination of performance anxiety. I use a 3 tiered approach to training: Perspective Training, Mental Skills Training, and Applied Settings (if applicable at a sporting location). I am the only professional to offer that kind of travel service. We also offer Coaching Certification Programs for those who are interested in teaching.
As a REAL sports psychologist, I have a unique practice in that I specialize in working with athletes who have the desire to take their game to the next level. Being a competitive athlete helps me relate to other competitive people in sports or business. My primary focus is on confidence building and the elimination of performance anxiety. I use a 3 tiered approach to training: Perspective Training, Mental Skills Training, and Applied Settings (if applicable at a sporting location). I am the only professional to offer that kind of travel service. We also offer Coaching Certification Programs for those who are interested in teaching.
(213) 212-7591 x2 View (213) 212-7591 x2
Photo of Shehanie Hernandez, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Shehanie Hernandez
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90011  (Online Only)
I work with people from diverse backgrounds s cultures; couples, families, individuals, children and adolescents. I specialize in relationships, depression, anxiety, trauma, codependency, self-esteem and identity, grief and loss, family conflict, 1st and 2nd generational therapy, and general difficulties that you may experience from major and minor life transitions.
I work with people from diverse backgrounds s cultures; couples, families, individuals, children and adolescents. I specialize in relationships, depression, anxiety, trauma, codependency, self-esteem and identity, grief and loss, family conflict, 1st and 2nd generational therapy, and general difficulties that you may experience from major and minor life transitions.
(424) 405-4682 View (424) 405-4682
Photo of Desirae Yoder, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Desirae Yoder
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90048
Desirae is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who started providing therapy in 2013. She has varied experience working in many different settings with children, adolescents, families, and adults who experience depression, anxiety, PTSD, mood disorders, psychosis, personality disorders, ADHD, substance use concerns, and other life stressors. As a therapist Desirae works collaboratively with clients and uses a strength based, trauma informed approach to tailor services to each person and help them feel seen and heard.
Desirae is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who started providing therapy in 2013. She has varied experience working in many different settings with children, adolescents, families, and adults who experience depression, anxiety, PTSD, mood disorders, psychosis, personality disorders, ADHD, substance use concerns, and other life stressors. As a therapist Desirae works collaboratively with clients and uses a strength based, trauma informed approach to tailor services to each person and help them feel seen and heard.
(323) 784-9193 View (323) 784-9193
Photo of Maryam Ashraf, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Maryam Ashraf
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, EMDR
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Do you find yourself struggling with anxiety, depression, grief, self-esteem, identity, and difficult life transitions? Do you find yourself feeling stuck and can’t seem to focus or move forward? There are many ways to get unstuck, and this is the work I love to do to help you heal, grow and live a more fulfilling life. I use an integrative approach including attachment-based work, DBT, CBT, IFS, and mindfulness, bringing in each as needed. Above all, I strive to hold space and empathy for your life experience.
Do you find yourself struggling with anxiety, depression, grief, self-esteem, identity, and difficult life transitions? Do you find yourself feeling stuck and can’t seem to focus or move forward? There are many ways to get unstuck, and this is the work I love to do to help you heal, grow and live a more fulfilling life. I use an integrative approach including attachment-based work, DBT, CBT, IFS, and mindfulness, bringing in each as needed. Above all, I strive to hold space and empathy for your life experience.
(424) 484-3335 View (424) 484-3335
Photo of Alejandro Daniel Pina Online Couples Counseling, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Alejandro Daniel Pina Online Couples Counseling
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90027  (Online Only)
Couples therapy might sound drastic, but you’re feeling so hopeless, stuck, or fed-up in your relationship that you’re considering talking with a licensed couples therapist. You’re not feeling supported by your partner; maybe during a major life transition, or the relationship has been repeating the same disappointing patterns. There might be differences between you both that are hard to talk about, or a hurtful situation took place that you’d rather not confront, and it has felt easier to avoid each other.
Couples therapy might sound drastic, but you’re feeling so hopeless, stuck, or fed-up in your relationship that you’re considering talking with a licensed couples therapist. You’re not feeling supported by your partner; maybe during a major life transition, or the relationship has been repeating the same disappointing patterns. There might be differences between you both that are hard to talk about, or a hurtful situation took place that you’d rather not confront, and it has felt easier to avoid each other.
(213) 699-4931 View (213) 699-4931
Photo of Mary Flocca, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Mary Flocca
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, C-RYT, ART
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90025
My aim as a clinician is to treat the soul, not the symptoms. As a depth-focused psychotherapist I strive to focus on the individual, not their diagnosis or symptomology. My ideal clients are people who not only wish to address their mental health, but develop a deeper understanding of oneself. I have worked alongside clients to address Anxiety Disorders, including Social Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Mood Disorders, Attachment Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and Addiction. My goal is to help clients achieve relief from their mental health by working to heal the wounded aspects of themselves.
My aim as a clinician is to treat the soul, not the symptoms. As a depth-focused psychotherapist I strive to focus on the individual, not their diagnosis or symptomology. My ideal clients are people who not only wish to address their mental health, but develop a deeper understanding of oneself. I have worked alongside clients to address Anxiety Disorders, including Social Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Mood Disorders, Attachment Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and Addiction. My goal is to help clients achieve relief from their mental health by working to heal the wounded aspects of themselves.
(310) 928-9817 View (310) 928-9817
Photo of Dimitry Granovsky, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Dimitry Granovsky
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90004
If you feel stuck by your past, if you worry about the future, if you second guess what steps to take in the present, help is available. Through a supportive and collaborative therapeutic relationship, it is possible to achieve a greater sense of emotional well-being, increased self-awareness, better intimate relationships and a more resilient state of emotional health. Using a modern and mindful approach to therapy, issues related to panic attacks, addictions, anxiety, depression and dysfunctional relationships are processed from a supportive, strengths-based position that helps facilitate insight and change.
If you feel stuck by your past, if you worry about the future, if you second guess what steps to take in the present, help is available. Through a supportive and collaborative therapeutic relationship, it is possible to achieve a greater sense of emotional well-being, increased self-awareness, better intimate relationships and a more resilient state of emotional health. Using a modern and mindful approach to therapy, issues related to panic attacks, addictions, anxiety, depression and dysfunctional relationships are processed from a supportive, strengths-based position that helps facilitate insight and change.
(213) 279-6330 View (213) 279-6330
Photo of Jene' E Verchick, Psychologist in Los Angeles, CA
Jene' E Verchick
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Therapy is a deeply personal process. My approach is to help you to understand the parts of yourself that currently limit your ability to achieve intimacy in relationships, self awareness and insight. I work primarily with patients suffering from depression and other mood disorders, as well as trauma, obsessive compulsive and other anxiety disorders.
Therapy is a deeply personal process. My approach is to help you to understand the parts of yourself that currently limit your ability to achieve intimacy in relationships, self awareness and insight. I work primarily with patients suffering from depression and other mood disorders, as well as trauma, obsessive compulsive and other anxiety disorders.
(424) 543-9615 View (424) 543-9615
Photo of Gabriella D'Urso, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Los Angeles, CA
Gabriella D'Urso
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT, EMDR
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90027
Are you seeking a more loving, connected, and meaningful relationship with yourself and others? Do you struggle with depression, anxiety, and overwhelm? Or coping mechanisms like perfectionism and procrastination that keep you stuck in the same patterns? We can find a way out, together. Symptoms have a deeper story to tell, and I want to listen. Therapy is an invitation to return to your innate sense of wholeness; to acknowledge, accept, and integrate the varied parts of yourself. Working with me can bring a clearer sense of self, authenticity, and ease.
Are you seeking a more loving, connected, and meaningful relationship with yourself and others? Do you struggle with depression, anxiety, and overwhelm? Or coping mechanisms like perfectionism and procrastination that keep you stuck in the same patterns? We can find a way out, together. Symptoms have a deeper story to tell, and I want to listen. Therapy is an invitation to return to your innate sense of wholeness; to acknowledge, accept, and integrate the varied parts of yourself. Working with me can bring a clearer sense of self, authenticity, and ease.
(818) 873-3480 View (818) 873-3480
Photo of Vida Nikzad, Psychologist in Los Angeles, CA
Vida Nikzad
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Waitlist for new clients
Do you feel alone, disconnected, or misunderstood in your marriage or your other relationships ? These feelings are absolutely normal for almost every person at some time in their lives. Fortunately you can do something about it. Clients come to me because something in their lives is not working as they would wish and they feel stuck.
Do you feel alone, disconnected, or misunderstood in your marriage or your other relationships ? These feelings are absolutely normal for almost every person at some time in their lives. Fortunately you can do something about it. Clients come to me because something in their lives is not working as they would wish and they feel stuck.
(424) 294-8924 View (424) 294-8924
Photo of Dr. Mackenzie Lambine, Psychologist in Los Angeles, CA
Dr. Mackenzie Lambine
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90048
Have you been feeling like you might need to talk to someone? It is essential that people find the therapist that is "right" for them as unique individuals, and I strive to ensure support and encouragement for my clients without judgement. My current areas of practice include, but are not limited to, anxiety, depression, stress management, trauma, grief, and relationship problems. I also have extensive experience with clients in the entertainment industry. With clients, I focus on how and where you find meaning in your life in addition to exploring your past and its influence on your present.
Have you been feeling like you might need to talk to someone? It is essential that people find the therapist that is "right" for them as unique individuals, and I strive to ensure support and encouragement for my clients without judgement. My current areas of practice include, but are not limited to, anxiety, depression, stress management, trauma, grief, and relationship problems. I also have extensive experience with clients in the entertainment industry. With clients, I focus on how and where you find meaning in your life in addition to exploring your past and its influence on your present.
(310) 340-1431 View (310) 340-1431
Photo of Corinna Klein, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Corinna Klein
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90024  (Online Only)
I am a licensed therapist with expertise treating trauma, emotion dysregulation, grief, anxiety, and depression across the lifespan. I also specialize in supporting parents of young children with intense emotions, and working with couples and individuals in their transition to parenthood. My treatment approach integrates psychodynamic principles and attachment theory with evidence-based treatments. I am certified in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and licensed to provide psychotherapy in both California and New York.
I am a licensed therapist with expertise treating trauma, emotion dysregulation, grief, anxiety, and depression across the lifespan. I also specialize in supporting parents of young children with intense emotions, and working with couples and individuals in their transition to parenthood. My treatment approach integrates psychodynamic principles and attachment theory with evidence-based treatments. I am certified in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and licensed to provide psychotherapy in both California and New York.
(310) 362-4298 View (310) 362-4298
Photo of Kendra Andersson, Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Kendra Andersson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90037
My name is Kendra, and I have a very informal approach to therapy. I enjoy laughing and commiserating with my clients and believe that they are best supported by a nonjudgmental therapist who truly cares about their well-being. I work from a strengths-based approach, and as a university professor, I love to connect science and research to help understand everyday issues. I hope to cultivate a space in which people can be their authentic selves and feel safe and supported as they do so.
My name is Kendra, and I have a very informal approach to therapy. I enjoy laughing and commiserating with my clients and believe that they are best supported by a nonjudgmental therapist who truly cares about their well-being. I work from a strengths-based approach, and as a university professor, I love to connect science and research to help understand everyday issues. I hope to cultivate a space in which people can be their authentic selves and feel safe and supported as they do so.
(213) 460-1029 View (213) 460-1029
Photo of Erin Lotz, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Erin Lotz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90064
Erin Lotz, L.C.S.W., Licensed Clinical Social Worker, earned her Masters Degree in Clinical Social Work from the University of Southern California, and is a well respected Psychotherapist who integrates traditional psychodynamic psychotherapy with progressive psychotherapeutic principles of Mindfulness, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy. Erin offers practical strategies to calming our "anxious minds", facilitating greater self acceptance, freedom and inner peace.
Erin Lotz, L.C.S.W., Licensed Clinical Social Worker, earned her Masters Degree in Clinical Social Work from the University of Southern California, and is a well respected Psychotherapist who integrates traditional psychodynamic psychotherapy with progressive psychotherapeutic principles of Mindfulness, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy. Erin offers practical strategies to calming our "anxious minds", facilitating greater self acceptance, freedom and inner peace.
(310) 455-8286 View (310) 455-8286
Photo of Miracle Mile Community Practice in Los Angeles, CA
Miracle Mile Community Practice
LCSW
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90036
Whether you are contending with a new challenge or wrestling with an ongoing problem we can help. We have a staff of licensed and pre-licensed therapists who can assist with a broad range of problems, including: Self-doubt, anger, grief and loss, family and couple strife, eating and substance problems, unexpected life events, trauma. What is narrative therapy? Narrative therapy recognizes people’s values as potential platforms for action in addressing the problems that enter their lives. Rather than casting problems in leading roles, it is people’s hopes and dreams that are given marquee status.
Whether you are contending with a new challenge or wrestling with an ongoing problem we can help. We have a staff of licensed and pre-licensed therapists who can assist with a broad range of problems, including: Self-doubt, anger, grief and loss, family and couple strife, eating and substance problems, unexpected life events, trauma. What is narrative therapy? Narrative therapy recognizes people’s values as potential platforms for action in addressing the problems that enter their lives. Rather than casting problems in leading roles, it is people’s hopes and dreams that are given marquee status.
(213) 296-0819 View (213) 296-0819
Photo of William McFadden, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Los Angeles, CA
William McFadden
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90017
I help my clients empower themselves to affect the change they want in their lives. Our process will be guided by your goals in a solutions focused way that creates lasting change. You are not your anxiety, your depression, or your circumstances. These can be so powerful, but they do not have to be permanent. You are worthy of living your life as the most fully realized version of yourself. As someone who has worked as a creative artist in the entertainment industry for over 20 years, I have an intimate understanding of the challenges a career in the arts can present to your self-worth, your relationships, and your mental health.
I help my clients empower themselves to affect the change they want in their lives. Our process will be guided by your goals in a solutions focused way that creates lasting change. You are not your anxiety, your depression, or your circumstances. These can be so powerful, but they do not have to be permanent. You are worthy of living your life as the most fully realized version of yourself. As someone who has worked as a creative artist in the entertainment industry for over 20 years, I have an intimate understanding of the challenges a career in the arts can present to your self-worth, your relationships, and your mental health.
(213) 810-3970 View (213) 810-3970
Photo of Elham Shoa, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Elham Shoa
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90024  (Online Only)
If you are a person of color (POC), in the LGBTQ community, and/or are non-monogamous/poly, you’ve come to the right place. I’ve had the privilege of working with diverse populations for over 15 years. In working with a culturally competent therapist like me, you can focus on what brought you to therapy in the first place and not on explaining or “teaching” the nuances of your culture and sexuality. My expertise is in helping those who are struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship difficulties. I’m trained in EMDR, an evidence-based therapy that treats trauma and other difficulties.
If you are a person of color (POC), in the LGBTQ community, and/or are non-monogamous/poly, you’ve come to the right place. I’ve had the privilege of working with diverse populations for over 15 years. In working with a culturally competent therapist like me, you can focus on what brought you to therapy in the first place and not on explaining or “teaching” the nuances of your culture and sexuality. My expertise is in helping those who are struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship difficulties. I’m trained in EMDR, an evidence-based therapy that treats trauma and other difficulties.
(424) 258-4949 View (424) 258-4949
Photo of Keren Garcia-Arteaga, Associate Marriage & Family Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Keren Garcia-Arteaga
Associate Marriage & Family Therapist, MSMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90041
I believe that relationships are not just a source of our deepest pain, but also the catalyst for transformation and healing. Using cultural humility and compassionate attunement, I foster a nurturing space where you can explore your inner struggles, share your story, and discover your authentic self. As a companion on your journey towards healing, I will use a therapeutic approach that honors the intersecting parts of your being by bringing awareness to mind, body, spirit, and cultural identity.
I believe that relationships are not just a source of our deepest pain, but also the catalyst for transformation and healing. Using cultural humility and compassionate attunement, I foster a nurturing space where you can explore your inner struggles, share your story, and discover your authentic self. As a companion on your journey towards healing, I will use a therapeutic approach that honors the intersecting parts of your being by bringing awareness to mind, body, spirit, and cultural identity.
(213) 682-2713 View (213) 682-2713
Photo of Victoria Graham, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Victoria Graham
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90046  (Online Only)
Hello! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker based in California. I received my Masters from Florida State University and I have six years of experience as a social worker, primarily in the medical field.
Hello! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker based in California. I received my Masters from Florida State University and I have six years of experience as a social worker, primarily in the medical field.
(323) 498-3948 View (323) 498-3948
Photo of Hilda Balakhane, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Los Angeles, CA
Hilda Balakhane
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90024  (Online Only)
Being ready to get professional help is a sign of self awareness, readiness for self growth, personal freedom and feeling more in control. Finding the right therapist is essential in building rapport, trust, and open communication. I work together with my clients to explore dynamics related to life transitions, depression, anxiety, relationship issues, stress, worries, health problems, financial anxieties, and sudden changes in life. I use a combination of techniques including psycho-dynamic, behavioral and cognitive theories, solution focused models, and mindfulness interventions to fit each individual client's needs.
Being ready to get professional help is a sign of self awareness, readiness for self growth, personal freedom and feeling more in control. Finding the right therapist is essential in building rapport, trust, and open communication. I work together with my clients to explore dynamics related to life transitions, depression, anxiety, relationship issues, stress, worries, health problems, financial anxieties, and sudden changes in life. I use a combination of techniques including psycho-dynamic, behavioral and cognitive theories, solution focused models, and mindfulness interventions to fit each individual client's needs.
(310) 742-9086 View (310) 742-9086

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Los Angeles, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in Los Angeles, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
74% Self Esteem
72% Relationship Issues
67% Trauma and PTSD
65% Coping Skills
63% Stress

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% Aetna
69% Cigna and Evernorth
68% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Los Angeles, CA see their clients

56% In Person and Online
44% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
21% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Los Angeles?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.