Photo of Christine Kim Principal Psychologist, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Christine Kim Principal Psychologist
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Many clients come to counselling with a hope. This hope is an opportunity for the clients to change, to become someone they want to be. Using client's strengths, counselling can help them find a new direction in their lives. Christine Kim is a registered psychologist with a passion for, and experience in working with adolescents and adults in educational and clinical settings. For over 10 years, Christine has experience working across a range of psychological issues including depression, anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety, social anxiety and a range of childhood anxiety disorders), bullying and work-related stress issues.
Many clients come to counselling with a hope. This hope is an opportunity for the clients to change, to become someone they want to be. Using client's strengths, counselling can help them find a new direction in their lives. Christine Kim is a registered psychologist with a passion for, and experience in working with adolescents and adults in educational and clinical settings. For over 10 years, Christine has experience working across a range of psychological issues including depression, anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety, social anxiety and a range of childhood anxiety disorders), bullying and work-related stress issues.
(02) 8806 0035 View (02) 8806 0035
Photo of Kylie Finlayson, Principal Psychologist, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Kylie Finlayson, Principal Psychologist
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA Endorsed
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Kylie’s psychology practice focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of adults experiencing a variety of problems. She specialises in anxiety, stress, depression, aggression and emotional dysregulation, PTSD, adult ADHD, and men’s mental health and distress. Kylie strives to understand each individual client and their unique problem and find the most effective strategies to help them. She uses a variety of evidence-based therapeutic approaches such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT), Narrative Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, Positive Psychology, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR).
Kylie’s psychology practice focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of adults experiencing a variety of problems. She specialises in anxiety, stress, depression, aggression and emotional dysregulation, PTSD, adult ADHD, and men’s mental health and distress. Kylie strives to understand each individual client and their unique problem and find the most effective strategies to help them. She uses a variety of evidence-based therapeutic approaches such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT), Narrative Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, Positive Psychology, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR).
(02) 9100 0436 View (02) 9100 0436
Photo of Dr Tamara Robins, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Dr Tamara Robins
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Waitlist for new clients
I take a compassionate and personalised approach to therapy. I appreciate the distinctive backgrounds and perspectives of each individual. I enjoy working with teens 15+ and adults to build meaning and purpose in life and help navigate challenges such as anxiety, OCD, depression, work, study and parenting stress and burnout, PTSD and complex trauma.
I take a compassionate and personalised approach to therapy. I appreciate the distinctive backgrounds and perspectives of each individual. I enjoy working with teens 15+ and adults to build meaning and purpose in life and help navigate challenges such as anxiety, OCD, depression, work, study and parenting stress and burnout, PTSD and complex trauma.
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Photo of Andrew McPherson, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Andrew McPherson
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
As a clinical psychologist I treat adolescents and adults with a wide range of mental health issues including anxiety, depression, PTSD, and addiction. I aim to provide an empathetic and warm approach to help people improve their mental health and their quality of life.
As a clinical psychologist I treat adolescents and adults with a wide range of mental health issues including anxiety, depression, PTSD, and addiction. I aim to provide an empathetic and warm approach to help people improve their mental health and their quality of life.
(02) 9100 0856 View (02) 9100 0856
Photo of Jimmy Muecke, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Jimmy Muecke
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Bulk Bill or reduced fee available! What's most important to me is that you leave therapy with a sense of hope. I want to help you feel empowered to be the person you want to be. I take a client-led approach, meaning that we'll work together to address what you want to work on and I won't push you to discuss anything you're not ready for. Together, we'll design a personalized treatment plan that you feel willing and able to engage in - a plan that revolves around growth. My goal is to help you not only manage symptoms but also enhance your overall well-being.
Bulk Bill or reduced fee available! What's most important to me is that you leave therapy with a sense of hope. I want to help you feel empowered to be the person you want to be. I take a client-led approach, meaning that we'll work together to address what you want to work on and I won't push you to discuss anything you're not ready for. Together, we'll design a personalized treatment plan that you feel willing and able to engage in - a plan that revolves around growth. My goal is to help you not only manage symptoms but also enhance your overall well-being.
(02) 9100 0913 View (02) 9100 0913
Photo of Andrea Haas, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Andrea Haas
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
I am a highly-skilled relationship psychologist & sex therapist with over 20 years of professional experience seeing clients in private practice. I support couples through relationship issues, infidelity, lack of intimacy and communication problems. I look at the psychological side of sexual difficulties such as low libido, orgasm difficulties, physical pain during sex, performance anxiety or ejaculation problems. I work with complex trauma using a trauma-informed approach to process sexual, physical and emotional abuse. I aim to create safety, grounding and a centred connection within which consolidates your healing.
I am a highly-skilled relationship psychologist & sex therapist with over 20 years of professional experience seeing clients in private practice. I support couples through relationship issues, infidelity, lack of intimacy and communication problems. I look at the psychological side of sexual difficulties such as low libido, orgasm difficulties, physical pain during sex, performance anxiety or ejaculation problems. I work with complex trauma using a trauma-informed approach to process sexual, physical and emotional abuse. I aim to create safety, grounding and a centred connection within which consolidates your healing.
(02) 9538 7934 View (02) 9538 7934
Photo of David Sokol, Counsellor in 2067, NSW
David Sokol
Counsellor, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
I provide Monday-Thursday evening sessions. I specialise in supporting clients in all aspects of relationship: pre-marriage counselling, couples counselling, reflecting on the end of a relationship. Clients have said working with a male counsellor brings a different perspective on clarifying their issues. With over 20 years and over 10,000 sessions experience I have worked with individuals and couples, locally, interstate, and overseas who are experiencing difficulties in their relationship. I offer face-to-face and Zoom sessions. Find my website for more details
I provide Monday-Thursday evening sessions. I specialise in supporting clients in all aspects of relationship: pre-marriage counselling, couples counselling, reflecting on the end of a relationship. Clients have said working with a male counsellor brings a different perspective on clarifying their issues. With over 20 years and over 10,000 sessions experience I have worked with individuals and couples, locally, interstate, and overseas who are experiencing difficulties in their relationship. I offer face-to-face and Zoom sessions. Find my website for more details
(02) 9538 7081 View (02) 9538 7081
Photo of Natalie Robinson, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Natalie Robinson
Psychologist, PsychD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
I have over twenty years experience working in Australia, as well as overseas, within many different teams and services. I have a particular interest in anxiety disorders, mood disorders, trauma and other complex problems. I have studied neuro-psychotherapy and have an interest in how neuroscience applies to psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression.
I have over twenty years experience working in Australia, as well as overseas, within many different teams and services. I have a particular interest in anxiety disorders, mood disorders, trauma and other complex problems. I have studied neuro-psychotherapy and have an interest in how neuroscience applies to psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression.
(02) 8503 4414 View (02) 8503 4414
Photo of Hee Zee Lu, Counsellor in 2067, NSW
Hee Zee Lu
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
I hold certification with the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia (PACFA) and am an approved counsellor affiliated with NSW Victim Services. I specialize in providing tailored outpatient psychological care that effectively addresses a range of challenges including trauma, depression, anxiety, relationship issues, and support for victims and caregivers navigating difficulties.
I hold certification with the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia (PACFA) and am an approved counsellor affiliated with NSW Victim Services. I specialize in providing tailored outpatient psychological care that effectively addresses a range of challenges including trauma, depression, anxiety, relationship issues, and support for victims and caregivers navigating difficulties.
(02) 9100 0600 View (02) 9100 0600
Photo of Fountain of Hope - Counselling Services, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 2067, NSW
Fountain of Hope - Counselling Services
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Would you like access to affordable counselling and therapy? Senior Social Worker with 16 yrs+ experience, I specialise in providing Counselling, Supervision and Art Therapy to clients 16yo+ who have experienced trauma and mental health concerns. I also provide Counselling with Access Plus (ATAPS), Victim Services & NDIS. My additional training in Supervision, Pastoral, Coaching, Suicide Prevention, Art Therapy, CBT, ACT. I enjoy supporting my clients on their journey of trauma recovery, stress management and rebuilding their confidence to live a more fulfilling life. I am currently accepting new referrals for online counselling.
Would you like access to affordable counselling and therapy? Senior Social Worker with 16 yrs+ experience, I specialise in providing Counselling, Supervision and Art Therapy to clients 16yo+ who have experienced trauma and mental health concerns. I also provide Counselling with Access Plus (ATAPS), Victim Services & NDIS. My additional training in Supervision, Pastoral, Coaching, Suicide Prevention, Art Therapy, CBT, ACT. I enjoy supporting my clients on their journey of trauma recovery, stress management and rebuilding their confidence to live a more fulfilling life. I am currently accepting new referrals for online counselling.
(02) 8503 4206 View (02) 8503 4206
Photo of Grace Foo, Counsellor in 2067, NSW
Grace Foo
Counsellor, MC, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Are you in constant conflict with your partner? Do you find yourself disconnecting from each other over time? Relationship issues like conflicts are an integral part of a relationship. However, there is a good chance that the toxicity in the relationship has deeply wounded both. The needs of each other are ignored and arguments become less on the important issues as both are too emotionally detached to care anymore.
Are you in constant conflict with your partner? Do you find yourself disconnecting from each other over time? Relationship issues like conflicts are an integral part of a relationship. However, there is a good chance that the toxicity in the relationship has deeply wounded both. The needs of each other are ignored and arguments become less on the important issues as both are too emotionally detached to care anymore.
(02) 9538 7874 View (02) 9538 7874
Photo of June Gay, Principal Psychologist, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
June Gay, Principal Psychologist
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
June has over 22y experience as a Psychologist and has a Master of Counselling Psychology. Central to therapy with June is an authentic, empathetic and collaborative therapeutic relationship, which research has shown to be the most important factor in successful counselling. Recognising the uniqueness of each individual, June integrates evidence based concepts and techniques to assist and empower client recovery. Sessions can be conducted either in person or via Telehealth video software. Additionally, June is a registered provider with Medicare, health funds, WorkCover, and Access+.
June has over 22y experience as a Psychologist and has a Master of Counselling Psychology. Central to therapy with June is an authentic, empathetic and collaborative therapeutic relationship, which research has shown to be the most important factor in successful counselling. Recognising the uniqueness of each individual, June integrates evidence based concepts and techniques to assist and empower client recovery. Sessions can be conducted either in person or via Telehealth video software. Additionally, June is a registered provider with Medicare, health funds, WorkCover, and Access+.
(02) 9100 0355 View (02) 9100 0355
Photo of Alex Whyburn, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Alex Whyburn
Psychologist, PsyBA - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
I have over 18 years experience working with adults and adolescents with a wide range of clinical presentations including anxiety and depression, grief and loss, bipolar, eating disorders, trauma and personality disorders. I am also experienced in working with the LGBTQ+ community.
I have over 18 years experience working with adults and adolescents with a wide range of clinical presentations including anxiety and depression, grief and loss, bipolar, eating disorders, trauma and personality disorders. I am also experienced in working with the LGBTQ+ community.
(02) 9100 0815 View (02) 9100 0815
Photo of Vonnie Ho, Counsellor in 2067, NSW
Vonnie Ho
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Vonnie believes in the importance of therapeutic relationships, providing a safe space allowing individuals to feel heard and supported when life is challenging. Vonnie had experiences volunteering in various community and multicultural services, practiced face-to-face, online, and telephone counseling to the individuals. She has worked with individuals, children, and parents, and also immigrants. Growing up in a multicultural environment, Vonnie is able to communicate in English, Chinese and Malay. She also integrates faith issues in counselling for Christian clients as requested.
Vonnie believes in the importance of therapeutic relationships, providing a safe space allowing individuals to feel heard and supported when life is challenging. Vonnie had experiences volunteering in various community and multicultural services, practiced face-to-face, online, and telephone counseling to the individuals. She has worked with individuals, children, and parents, and also immigrants. Growing up in a multicultural environment, Vonnie is able to communicate in English, Chinese and Malay. She also integrates faith issues in counselling for Christian clients as requested.
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Photo of Brenda Felix, Counsellor in 2067, NSW
Brenda Felix
Counsellor, MC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Brenda enjoys working with adults, young people and families in different settings. Her lived experience in supporting people with mental health issues and physical disabilities has contributed to her empathic, non-judgmental and respectful aptitudes. Her passion is to empower and give hope to people who are facing their unique stressful life events, such as life transition, relationship issues, developmental injuries, parenting, grief and loss, abuse, trauma and anxiety.
Brenda enjoys working with adults, young people and families in different settings. Her lived experience in supporting people with mental health issues and physical disabilities has contributed to her empathic, non-judgmental and respectful aptitudes. Her passion is to empower and give hope to people who are facing their unique stressful life events, such as life transition, relationship issues, developmental injuries, parenting, grief and loss, abuse, trauma and anxiety.
(02) 7804 4765 View (02) 7804 4765
Photo of Erin Chan- Individual Couple And Family Counselling, Counsellor in 2067, NSW
Erin Chan- Individual Couple And Family Counselling
Counsellor, MSc, PACFA
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
My approach is straightforward, helping you make sense of your experience, explore on coping mechanisms and restore confidence in your life, with evidence-based well-being tools, to better manage in those difficult situations. My goal is to journey together with you until you can take charge effectively! Sometimes with 1 session! With my guidance, you can grow confidently alongside with life issues without escaping from them nor being affected by them. If you are feeling anxious, depressed, stressed or unsatisfied with your relationship or feeling unhappy/sad/angry frequently, I’m here to help. Book a 15-min intro call to start
My approach is straightforward, helping you make sense of your experience, explore on coping mechanisms and restore confidence in your life, with evidence-based well-being tools, to better manage in those difficult situations. My goal is to journey together with you until you can take charge effectively! Sometimes with 1 session! With my guidance, you can grow confidently alongside with life issues without escaping from them nor being affected by them. If you are feeling anxious, depressed, stressed or unsatisfied with your relationship or feeling unhappy/sad/angry frequently, I’m here to help. Book a 15-min intro call to start
(02) 8503 4490 View (02) 8503 4490
Photo of Gabriela Salabert, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Gabriela Salabert
Psychologist, MA, FAPS
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Not accepting new clients
I provide clinical psychologist services and psychotherapy for adults, couples and families. l work with grief, depression, anxiety, relationships and family problems. Im also specialised on trauma work including Intergenerational trauma, Grief, Loss and Bereavement and Antenatal and Postnatal parental adjustments.
I provide clinical psychologist services and psychotherapy for adults, couples and families. l work with grief, depression, anxiety, relationships and family problems. Im also specialised on trauma work including Intergenerational trauma, Grief, Loss and Bereavement and Antenatal and Postnatal parental adjustments.
(02) 4058 2569 View (02) 4058 2569
Photo of Adriana Glusman, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Adriana Glusman
Psychologist, MA, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
I specialise in treating behavioural and emotional problems such as autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, anxiety, depression, PTSD, in children, adolescents and adults. I believe that working collaboratively and honouring clients' knowledge and experience are keys for change. I also have more than 20 years of experience in cognitive, educational and behavioural assessment of young people and adults.
I specialise in treating behavioural and emotional problems such as autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, anxiety, depression, PTSD, in children, adolescents and adults. I believe that working collaboratively and honouring clients' knowledge and experience are keys for change. I also have more than 20 years of experience in cognitive, educational and behavioural assessment of young people and adults.
(02) 6190 7726 View (02) 6190 7726
Photo of Dr Jacky Wan - Multilingual Psychologist, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Dr Jacky Wan - Multilingual Psychologist
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
I am a clinical psychologist with over a decade of experience in clinical supervisory roles held at both hospitals and private practice. In this time I have specialised in sleep issues, sleep disorders, psychotic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder and other clinical presentations. I am passionate about providing caring and compassionate psychological support, tailored to my individual clients. This can range from resolving painful history to promoting growth in various stages of their life. Having practiced in both Hong Kong and Australia, I speak fluent English, Cantonese and Mandarin.
I am a clinical psychologist with over a decade of experience in clinical supervisory roles held at both hospitals and private practice. In this time I have specialised in sleep issues, sleep disorders, psychotic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder and other clinical presentations. I am passionate about providing caring and compassionate psychological support, tailored to my individual clients. This can range from resolving painful history to promoting growth in various stages of their life. Having practiced in both Hong Kong and Australia, I speak fluent English, Cantonese and Mandarin.
(02) 9100 0686 View (02) 9100 0686
Photo of Lauren Bourke, Psychologist in 2067, NSW
Lauren Bourke
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Chatswood, NSW 2067
Whether you want to learn strategies to regain mental health; regulate intense emotions; navigate life's complexities and relationships; manage stress or simply maintain optimal wellbeing and balance, I take a compassionate, collaborative and client-centred approach in employing evidence based treatment relevant to the uniqueness of the client. Working with adolescents and adults from a predominantly DBT-informed lens, I encourage people to take an active role in devising treatment goals and firmly believe that each individual is the expert on themselves. I strive to consistently embody non-judgment and flexibility in all that I do.
Whether you want to learn strategies to regain mental health; regulate intense emotions; navigate life's complexities and relationships; manage stress or simply maintain optimal wellbeing and balance, I take a compassionate, collaborative and client-centred approach in employing evidence based treatment relevant to the uniqueness of the client. Working with adolescents and adults from a predominantly DBT-informed lens, I encourage people to take an active role in devising treatment goals and firmly believe that each individual is the expert on themselves. I strive to consistently embody non-judgment and flexibility in all that I do.
(02) 8403 2137 View (02) 8403 2137

See more therapy options for 2067

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in 2067

100+

Average cost per session

$182

Counsellors in 2067 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
87% Depression
81% Stress
78% Self Esteem
77% Relationship Issues
68% Life Transitions
65% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

62% Medicare Rebates
53% Bupa
36% Medibank Private

How Counsellors in 2067 see their clients

90% In Person and Online
10% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
18% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in 2067?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.