Counselling in 2038

Photo of Natasha Lawrence, Counsellor in 2038, NSW
Natasha Lawrence
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
Each person's experience is unique. You might be struggling with past hurts, experiencing challenging thoughts, have feelings of self-sabotage or that no matter what you do, you end up in the same relationships and repeating the same patterns. The answers lie within you and I can help you uncover them. I bring non-judgemental acceptance, belief in your resilience, and compassion to the journey that we embark on together. I will support you to find the patterns and behaviours in your life that no longer serve you.
Each person's experience is unique. You might be struggling with past hurts, experiencing challenging thoughts, have feelings of self-sabotage or that no matter what you do, you end up in the same relationships and repeating the same patterns. The answers lie within you and I can help you uncover them. I bring non-judgemental acceptance, belief in your resilience, and compassion to the journey that we embark on together. I will support you to find the patterns and behaviours in your life that no longer serve you.
(02) 9188 7723 View (02) 9188 7723
Peter Jones
Psychologist, MSc, MAPS
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038  (Online Only)
You are probably a person who has had a degree of success in your life so far, but experiences a level of noticeable dissatisfaction or unresolved difficulty, which you may have felt for some time. Often this experience shows itself in our unhappiness with relationships, family or work/career. You may have had a recent loss that you are having difficulty moving on from, or perhaps you are noticing a pattern in your experiences that seem to recur, no matter what you try to do differently. You are a self-reflective person who is curious about how to change yourself and are now motivated to do so.
You are probably a person who has had a degree of success in your life so far, but experiences a level of noticeable dissatisfaction or unresolved difficulty, which you may have felt for some time. Often this experience shows itself in our unhappiness with relationships, family or work/career. You may have had a recent loss that you are having difficulty moving on from, or perhaps you are noticing a pattern in your experiences that seem to recur, no matter what you try to do differently. You are a self-reflective person who is curious about how to change yourself and are now motivated to do so.
(02) 8503 4154 View (02) 8503 4154
Photo of Remona Coleman, Counsellor in 2038, NSW
Remona Coleman
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
You might be facing challenges such as anxiety or depression, navigating change, past trauma, unresolved grief, or exploring identity. You might be supporting a child, partner or parent through crisis or difficulty; learning how to manage a health condition; wanting to change unhelpful patterns or behaviours; or be in the process of repairing a relationship. You might be working towards self-awareness, using therapy as part of your self-care plan. Or, you might not know what you need, other than that you need help finding out. As a counsellor, I offer you my empathy and my support.
You might be facing challenges such as anxiety or depression, navigating change, past trauma, unresolved grief, or exploring identity. You might be supporting a child, partner or parent through crisis or difficulty; learning how to manage a health condition; wanting to change unhelpful patterns or behaviours; or be in the process of repairing a relationship. You might be working towards self-awareness, using therapy as part of your self-care plan. Or, you might not know what you need, other than that you need help finding out. As a counsellor, I offer you my empathy and my support.
(02) 9188 7723 View (02) 9188 7723
Photo of Safari Lee, Counsellor in 2038, NSW
Safari Lee
Counsellor
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038  (Online Only)
Do you need some calm in the middle of what you are facing? My clients find it can be really helpful to talk about ways to cope, manage symptoms, and get their life back in balance. Whether it's a recent family, work, health or life issue, or this has been going on for a long time, we can aim to make sense of what is happening. We can look at obstacles and plan a way forward. I'm here to support you to gain a renewed sense of confidence and resilience in facing life's challenges.
Do you need some calm in the middle of what you are facing? My clients find it can be really helpful to talk about ways to cope, manage symptoms, and get their life back in balance. Whether it's a recent family, work, health or life issue, or this has been going on for a long time, we can aim to make sense of what is happening. We can look at obstacles and plan a way forward. I'm here to support you to gain a renewed sense of confidence and resilience in facing life's challenges.
(02) 9100 0930 View (02) 9100 0930
Photo of Patrick Watts, Psychologist in 2038, NSW
Patrick Watts
Psychologist, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
Patrick works with adults experiencing a diverse range of issues, including low mood and depression, along with anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety, OCD, social anxiety and phobias. He can also assist with adjustment and moving forward following difficult life events. He strives to bring a warm, compassionate and genuine approach to therapy, and building a supportive relationship is at the heart of his work. His experience means he is well-equipped to support those moving through the challenges of life whilst seeking to build meaning and purpose along the way.
Patrick works with adults experiencing a diverse range of issues, including low mood and depression, along with anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety, OCD, social anxiety and phobias. He can also assist with adjustment and moving forward following difficult life events. He strives to bring a warm, compassionate and genuine approach to therapy, and building a supportive relationship is at the heart of his work. His experience means he is well-equipped to support those moving through the challenges of life whilst seeking to build meaning and purpose along the way.
(02) 9100 0206 View (02) 9100 0206
Photo of Inner West Counselling , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 2038, NSW
Inner West Counselling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
As a Social Worker, Billie applies a holistic approach, considering the person within their entire psycho-social system rather than seeing the person as the "problem". Billie encourages a therapeutic relationship based on collaboration and partnership rather than being the “expert” With almost 20 years of experience, she has worked in a variety of different fields including Women and Children's Health, Domestic Violence, Child Protection, Disability, Adolescent Community Mental Health and Trauma counselling, before commencing in Private Practice in 2020.
As a Social Worker, Billie applies a holistic approach, considering the person within their entire psycho-social system rather than seeing the person as the "problem". Billie encourages a therapeutic relationship based on collaboration and partnership rather than being the “expert” With almost 20 years of experience, she has worked in a variety of different fields including Women and Children's Health, Domestic Violence, Child Protection, Disability, Adolescent Community Mental Health and Trauma counselling, before commencing in Private Practice in 2020.
(02) 9100 0365 View (02) 9100 0365
Photo of Sasha Landis, Psychotherapist in 2038, NSW
Sasha Landis
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
It is my belief that we are all worthy of a place we can go to speak the truth of who we are and be received with compassion, understanding and deep reverence. Being human is hard work and we were never made to do it all alone. I welcome every part of your identity into the room with an open heart and an open mind. I am passionate about working with individuals who are interested in knowing themselves. I am trained in psychodynamic psychotherapy and counselling and our work together is all about building a deeply therapeutic relationship and thus strengthening the relationship with self.
It is my belief that we are all worthy of a place we can go to speak the truth of who we are and be received with compassion, understanding and deep reverence. Being human is hard work and we were never made to do it all alone. I welcome every part of your identity into the room with an open heart and an open mind. I am passionate about working with individuals who are interested in knowing themselves. I am trained in psychodynamic psychotherapy and counselling and our work together is all about building a deeply therapeutic relationship and thus strengthening the relationship with self.
(02) 8806 0304 View (02) 8806 0304
Photo of The Sydney Psychology Practice, Psychologist in 2038, NSW
The Sydney Psychology Practice
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
The Sydney Psychology Practice is focused on supporting clients to make sustainable change. Our team has extensive experience with a diverse range of clients and concerns, and using treatments with demonstrated research efficacy.
The Sydney Psychology Practice is focused on supporting clients to make sustainable change. Our team has extensive experience with a diverse range of clients and concerns, and using treatments with demonstrated research efficacy.
(02) 9100 0631 View (02) 9100 0631
Photo of Anna Rostosky, Counsellor in 2038, NSW
Anna Rostosky
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified
1 Endorsed
Annandale, NSW 2038
You used to be driven, but now you don't even recognise yourself. You feel isolated, ignored, and utterly exhausted. A newfound impatience is taking its toll on your relationship with your partner and children. Have you wondered when this began or why it is impacting you so heavily? You might have been reading about stress due to motherhood or menopause, but that doesn't mean you have to accept it. You long to retake control of your life, but you're uncertain where to begin.
You used to be driven, but now you don't even recognise yourself. You feel isolated, ignored, and utterly exhausted. A newfound impatience is taking its toll on your relationship with your partner and children. Have you wondered when this began or why it is impacting you so heavily? You might have been reading about stress due to motherhood or menopause, but that doesn't mean you have to accept it. You long to retake control of your life, but you're uncertain where to begin.
(02) 9100 0925 View (02) 9100 0925
Photo of Jane Kennedy, Counsellor in 2038, NSW
Jane Kennedy
Counsellor, MC, ACA-L2
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
Being brave with a trusted listener can help us navigate life’s challenges. It helps us move through the strong emotions that make us feel like the ground is giving way. No matter where our stories have taken us, we all just want to be ok, to feel like we can cope, find connection and meaning. Counselling and psychotherapy can be a powerful tool to support this process.
Being brave with a trusted listener can help us navigate life’s challenges. It helps us move through the strong emotions that make us feel like the ground is giving way. No matter where our stories have taken us, we all just want to be ok, to feel like we can cope, find connection and meaning. Counselling and psychotherapy can be a powerful tool to support this process.
(02) 7804 4200 View (02) 7804 4200
Photo of Paula Parmakellis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 2038, NSW
Paula Parmakellis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
Not accepting new clients
Are you finding it difficult to manage your intense emotions? Have you experienced trauma in your life which is unresolved and affecting your life now? Or maybe you are at a point in life where you maybe feeling confused or just want to understand yourself better. I am an Accredited Mental Health Social worker with over 19 years experience in various roles with Children and Adolescents in Government and NGOs and counselling experience with Adolescents, families, ADF and their families. I am warm, empathic, authentic and enjoy a good laugh and would love to hear from you if you feel I would be a good fit.
Are you finding it difficult to manage your intense emotions? Have you experienced trauma in your life which is unresolved and affecting your life now? Or maybe you are at a point in life where you maybe feeling confused or just want to understand yourself better. I am an Accredited Mental Health Social worker with over 19 years experience in various roles with Children and Adolescents in Government and NGOs and counselling experience with Adolescents, families, ADF and their families. I am warm, empathic, authentic and enjoy a good laugh and would love to hear from you if you feel I would be a good fit.
(02) 9100 0106 View (02) 9100 0106
Photo of Tatiana Faundez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 2038, NSW
Tatiana Faundez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Annandale, NSW 2038
I am a Social Worker and a Gestalt Psychotherapist. I have worked in mental health, disability, with the aged and the dying. Throughout my life journey I have come to have a deep appreciation of the human spirit and its capacity for growth and development. I understand that we are all unique in our response to the challenges that we face, and I work towards creating a supportive and safe environment that allows exploration of what is currently occurring in your life and how it is impacting your ability to live as you would like. Through this process, awareness deepens and the possibility and opportunity for change can occur.
I am a Social Worker and a Gestalt Psychotherapist. I have worked in mental health, disability, with the aged and the dying. Throughout my life journey I have come to have a deep appreciation of the human spirit and its capacity for growth and development. I understand that we are all unique in our response to the challenges that we face, and I work towards creating a supportive and safe environment that allows exploration of what is currently occurring in your life and how it is impacting your ability to live as you would like. Through this process, awareness deepens and the possibility and opportunity for change can occur.
0402 975 707 View 0402 975 707
Photo of Pip Eve, Psychologist in 2038, NSW
Pip Eve
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038  (Online Only)
Pip is a warm and down-to-earth Clinical Psychologist. From the outset, Pip values the importance of developing a safe, therapeutic relationship, holding space for a person to explore their inner and external worlds. Pip has a particular interest in supporting people navigate the perinatal period (fertility, pregnancy, birth, postpartum), in addition to supporting people with chronic health conditions (e.g., chronic pain, cancer, autoimmune conditions), stress/burnout, life transitions, and relationship difficulties. Individual telehealth sessions and online groups available (Meditation group and Mothers Nurture Circle).
Pip is a warm and down-to-earth Clinical Psychologist. From the outset, Pip values the importance of developing a safe, therapeutic relationship, holding space for a person to explore their inner and external worlds. Pip has a particular interest in supporting people navigate the perinatal period (fertility, pregnancy, birth, postpartum), in addition to supporting people with chronic health conditions (e.g., chronic pain, cancer, autoimmune conditions), stress/burnout, life transitions, and relationship difficulties. Individual telehealth sessions and online groups available (Meditation group and Mothers Nurture Circle).
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Photo of Elizabeth Alvanos, Counsellor in 2038, NSW
Elizabeth Alvanos
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
2 Endorsed
Annandale, NSW 2038
My practice is informed by a humanistic-existential approach, which means, I understand the complexity of individual intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences and believe that they are at the heart of our human experience. I believe we all have it within us to create meaning and purpose in our lives and this can only occur when we come to understand our lives are not something to overcome but rather something we must face with compassion and tenderness. I draw on evidence based modalities such as CBT, ACT, EFT, IFS, family systems, and Gottman approach to support and guide individual and couples therapy.
My practice is informed by a humanistic-existential approach, which means, I understand the complexity of individual intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences and believe that they are at the heart of our human experience. I believe we all have it within us to create meaning and purpose in our lives and this can only occur when we come to understand our lives are not something to overcome but rather something we must face with compassion and tenderness. I draw on evidence based modalities such as CBT, ACT, EFT, IFS, family systems, and Gottman approach to support and guide individual and couples therapy.
(02) 9100 0471 View (02) 9100 0471
Photo of Menaka Iyengar Cooke M.app.psych, Psychotherapist in 2038, NSW
Menaka Iyengar Cooke M.app.psych
Psychotherapist, MA, PACFA
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
Clients want help with managing stress and anxiety over life matters such as workplace issues, relationships including marriage ups-and-downs, divorce and separation; death including grief and loss; personal development from being assertive to managing health and personal wellbeing; assistance in being better parents; personal trauma incuding sexual assault or bodily harm or migration difficulties
Clients want help with managing stress and anxiety over life matters such as workplace issues, relationships including marriage ups-and-downs, divorce and separation; death including grief and loss; personal development from being assertive to managing health and personal wellbeing; assistance in being better parents; personal trauma incuding sexual assault or bodily harm or migration difficulties
(02) 8069 5431 View (02) 8069 5431
Photo of The Younger Years, Psychologist in 2038, NSW
The Younger Years
Psychologist, PsychD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
We specialise in supporting the mental health of young people and their families from the ages of 0 - 25 years, that is, from the perinatal period right through to early adulthood. We pride ourselves on only working within this age group focusing on offering a wholistic and individualised approach to our patient’s care. We provide effective, evidence based assessment and treatment for anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, behavioural, neurodevelopmental, early childhood and eating issues. We also provide psychometric assessments which can be a way to determine a child or young person's strengths and needs.
We specialise in supporting the mental health of young people and their families from the ages of 0 - 25 years, that is, from the perinatal period right through to early adulthood. We pride ourselves on only working within this age group focusing on offering a wholistic and individualised approach to our patient’s care. We provide effective, evidence based assessment and treatment for anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, behavioural, neurodevelopmental, early childhood and eating issues. We also provide psychometric assessments which can be a way to determine a child or young person's strengths and needs.
(02) 9100 0582 View (02) 9100 0582
Photo of Relationship Therapy/ Marriage Counselling, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 2038, NSW
Relationship Therapy/ Marriage Counselling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, AMHSW
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
Are your fights increasing and you're sick of the constant conflict with no resolution? Are you on the brink of separation or divorce? Don't lose hope. There absolutely IS a way out of chronic conflict and loneliness, emptiness and pain. You’re tired even exhausted, and you may have tried everything. I can help you so you don’t have to let your love evaporate. I have spent years and years studying many methods of couples therapy and even reaching certification level as a Certified Gottman Couples Therapist. I can walk beside you and show you skilful means to building a better way to live, bond and rebuild love.
Are your fights increasing and you're sick of the constant conflict with no resolution? Are you on the brink of separation or divorce? Don't lose hope. There absolutely IS a way out of chronic conflict and loneliness, emptiness and pain. You’re tired even exhausted, and you may have tried everything. I can help you so you don’t have to let your love evaporate. I have spent years and years studying many methods of couples therapy and even reaching certification level as a Certified Gottman Couples Therapist. I can walk beside you and show you skilful means to building a better way to live, bond and rebuild love.
(02) 9541 8469 View (02) 9541 8469
Photo of Pumla Coleman, Psychotherapist in 2038, NSW
Pumla Coleman
Psychotherapist, MA, ACA-L2
Verified
2 Endorsed
Annandale, NSW 2038
I am an experienced mental health professional. I have expertise in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, trauma related disorders, health related and stress disorders, as well as phase of life and circumstantial stress. My personal strength include genuine caring, compassion and unconditional positive regard for all clients. Knowing that life can become challenging for different reasons, I have learnt to appreciate the strength and wisdom of my clients. My therapeutic approach allows for my clients to guide me through the process and explore all the necessary issues they need to overcome.
I am an experienced mental health professional. I have expertise in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, trauma related disorders, health related and stress disorders, as well as phase of life and circumstantial stress. My personal strength include genuine caring, compassion and unconditional positive regard for all clients. Knowing that life can become challenging for different reasons, I have learnt to appreciate the strength and wisdom of my clients. My therapeutic approach allows for my clients to guide me through the process and explore all the necessary issues they need to overcome.
(02) 9100 0529 View (02) 9100 0529
Photo of Patrick McGrath, Psychologist in 2038, NSW
Patrick McGrath
Psychologist, MA, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
I am a clinical psychologist who works across a variety of presentations including anxiety and mood disorders. I hope to bring a warm, empathic and authentic approach to the issues that people bring to therapy. I recognise the investment that people make when they share their difficulties with someone and commit to therapy, and work to honour that commitment by delivering evidence based treatments, that are tailored to a persons needs. I’ve benefitted greatly from the experience of working across a range of inpatient and outpatient hospital settings.
I am a clinical psychologist who works across a variety of presentations including anxiety and mood disorders. I hope to bring a warm, empathic and authentic approach to the issues that people bring to therapy. I recognise the investment that people make when they share their difficulties with someone and commit to therapy, and work to honour that commitment by delivering evidence based treatments, that are tailored to a persons needs. I’ve benefitted greatly from the experience of working across a range of inpatient and outpatient hospital settings.
(02) 8074 5482 View (02) 8074 5482
Photo of Karin Austin - Heartspace Psychology, Psychologist in 2038, NSW
Karin Austin - Heartspace Psychology
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Annandale, NSW 2038
I have worked as a Psychologist for more than 20 years, with a diverse range of people in various sectors, including community services, corporate organisations, private practice and extensively in the higher education sector. I offer a warm and engaging approach, deeply valuing the therapeutic relationship as core to the work of effective intervention. I seek to understand the broader context of wellbeing, working with you to connect with inner resources and strengths in addressing mental health concerns, life transitions and challenges.
I have worked as a Psychologist for more than 20 years, with a diverse range of people in various sectors, including community services, corporate organisations, private practice and extensively in the higher education sector. I offer a warm and engaging approach, deeply valuing the therapeutic relationship as core to the work of effective intervention. I seek to understand the broader context of wellbeing, working with you to connect with inner resources and strengths in addressing mental health concerns, life transitions and challenges.
(02) 9100 0935 View (02) 9100 0935

See more therapy options for 2038

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in 2038

40+

Average cost per session

$175

Counsellors in 2038 who prioritize treating:

88% Anxiety
83% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
81% Self Esteem
76% Stress
69% Trauma and PTSD
67% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

79% Medicare Rebates
57% Bupa
50% Teachers Health

How Counsellors in 2038 see their clients

91% In Person and Online
9% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
17% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in 2038?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.