Therapists in Lubbock, TX

Photo of Marie Luna, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Marie Luna
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79423
I have a unique background of working as an Elementary School Counselor and have many years of experience providing support to children and their parents. I love working with teens and young adults who struggle with identify, self-esteem and anxiety and want to create a life that has deep meaning and purpose. I also love walking alongside young adults in navigating big changes and transitions. I excel in working with parents to help their children and teens be more successful. I also specialize in helping clients who struggle with phobias, performance anxiety and past trauma and who want to build self compassion and resiliency.
I have a unique background of working as an Elementary School Counselor and have many years of experience providing support to children and their parents. I love working with teens and young adults who struggle with identify, self-esteem and anxiety and want to create a life that has deep meaning and purpose. I also love walking alongside young adults in navigating big changes and transitions. I excel in working with parents to help their children and teens be more successful. I also specialize in helping clients who struggle with phobias, performance anxiety and past trauma and who want to build self compassion and resiliency.
(806) 203-6308 View (806) 203-6308
Photo of The Mommy Mentor, Psychologist in Lubbock, TX
The Mommy Mentor
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79416
Smart, accomplished women can be taken off guard by the personal and emotional challenges that come with pregnancy and new motherhood. Becoming a mother requires a whole new skill set, and the process can feel chaotic and stressful. If you sense that your relationships are becoming strained, that you are not handling stress well, or that your peace and joy have evaporated - it's time to call me, Dr. Kimberly Thompson, aka The Mommy Mentor. I help women conquer the stress of motherhood, cope skillfully with its challenges, and find their joy again.
Smart, accomplished women can be taken off guard by the personal and emotional challenges that come with pregnancy and new motherhood. Becoming a mother requires a whole new skill set, and the process can feel chaotic and stressful. If you sense that your relationships are becoming strained, that you are not handling stress well, or that your peace and joy have evaporated - it's time to call me, Dr. Kimberly Thompson, aka The Mommy Mentor. I help women conquer the stress of motherhood, cope skillfully with its challenges, and find their joy again.
(806) 478-0273 View (806) 478-0273
Photo of Rachel Gardner, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lubbock, TX
Rachel Gardner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Lubbock, TX 79423
Self-love and compassion are foundational to our well-being and you are as deserving of love and kindness as anyone else. As a therapist, I help clients to navigate through places in their lives where they encounter challenges or feel overwhelmed. Using empathy and maintaining a non-judgmental stance, I create a safe-haven where clients can discover their own resilience, enabling them to address and overcome obstacles that block them from a vibrant and fulfilling life. My perspective on therapy is this: Healing is not forgetting or ignoring past pain, but from gaining insight from it.
Self-love and compassion are foundational to our well-being and you are as deserving of love and kindness as anyone else. As a therapist, I help clients to navigate through places in their lives where they encounter challenges or feel overwhelmed. Using empathy and maintaining a non-judgmental stance, I create a safe-haven where clients can discover their own resilience, enabling them to address and overcome obstacles that block them from a vibrant and fulfilling life. My perspective on therapy is this: Healing is not forgetting or ignoring past pain, but from gaining insight from it.
(806) 835-6182 View (806) 835-6182
Photo of Dr. Mark White, Marriage & Family Therapist in Lubbock, TX
Dr. Mark White
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT-S, CSAT-S, CMAT-S, CPTT-S, LSOTP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79423
Searching for hope and healing from experiencing the trauma of betrayal, infidelity, compulsive sexual behavior, or relationship distress? Lasting, long-term recovery requires expert guidance. Individually, are you experiencing anxiety or depression? With a focus on your context, experience, and emotion, I specialize in deconstructing your presenting issues to clarify specific problems that you desire to change or respond to. I offer services by video conferencing, phone, and in-person. With similarly qualified colleagues, we offer collaborating therapists for each partner and for the relationship.
Searching for hope and healing from experiencing the trauma of betrayal, infidelity, compulsive sexual behavior, or relationship distress? Lasting, long-term recovery requires expert guidance. Individually, are you experiencing anxiety or depression? With a focus on your context, experience, and emotion, I specialize in deconstructing your presenting issues to clarify specific problems that you desire to change or respond to. I offer services by video conferencing, phone, and in-person. With similarly qualified colleagues, we offer collaborating therapists for each partner and for the relationship.
(806) 553-2618 View (806) 553-2618
Photo of Leigh Wells, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Leigh Wells
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Lubbock, TX 79424
Life can be challenging at times, and some seasons are difficult and painful to go through. There are times our lives take an unexpected turn, and you may have found yourself in a place you never thought you would be. I can help you navigate the unexpected life changes, and develop the ability to handle future turns in your journey. Many of my clients are experiencing anxiety, grief and loss, depression, or life transitions. I will listen to you, and a plan will be developed for changes you want to make in your life.
Life can be challenging at times, and some seasons are difficult and painful to go through. There are times our lives take an unexpected turn, and you may have found yourself in a place you never thought you would be. I can help you navigate the unexpected life changes, and develop the ability to handle future turns in your journey. Many of my clients are experiencing anxiety, grief and loss, depression, or life transitions. I will listen to you, and a plan will be developed for changes you want to make in your life.
(806) 416-8348 View (806) 416-8348
Photo of Melissa Brower, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Melissa Brower
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79424
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, Registered Play Therapist and certified AutPlay Therapist. I have over 15 years experience working with traumatized children and their families. My passion is working with children and young adults to help them learn positive coping skills, manage emotions and have healing. I will provide a safe, nonjudgmental and confidential environment while meeting you where you are emotionally and mentally.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, Registered Play Therapist and certified AutPlay Therapist. I have over 15 years experience working with traumatized children and their families. My passion is working with children and young adults to help them learn positive coping skills, manage emotions and have healing. I will provide a safe, nonjudgmental and confidential environment while meeting you where you are emotionally and mentally.
(806) 590-4056 View (806) 590-4056
Photo of Helen Feola, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Helen Feola
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79423
Accepting new clients. If you are reading this right now, your are likely feeling burdened by something. Maybe you are grieving the loss of a special person or a pet. Maybe you have come to a fork in the road and are unsure of what direction to take. Maybe you are feeling overwhelmed by life in general. Regardless of the burdens you face, I believe there is hope in overcoming them.
Accepting new clients. If you are reading this right now, your are likely feeling burdened by something. Maybe you are grieving the loss of a special person or a pet. Maybe you have come to a fork in the road and are unsure of what direction to take. Maybe you are feeling overwhelmed by life in general. Regardless of the burdens you face, I believe there is hope in overcoming them.
(806) 602-8345 View (806) 602-8345
Photo of Christian Enevoldsen, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Christian Enevoldsen
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79414
Throughout my work in the mental health field, I have found my specialization in working with individuals, as well as couples, who are seeking more effective ways to cope with stress, communication, depression, and anxiety among other varied topics. I understand that these aspects can affect not only the person experiencing them but oftentimes their relationships with significant others. In order to make improvements, an integrative and often educational approach can be the building blocks toward future growth. Working with clients who are tired of being sick and tired and want to make improvements motivates me!
Throughout my work in the mental health field, I have found my specialization in working with individuals, as well as couples, who are seeking more effective ways to cope with stress, communication, depression, and anxiety among other varied topics. I understand that these aspects can affect not only the person experiencing them but oftentimes their relationships with significant others. In order to make improvements, an integrative and often educational approach can be the building blocks toward future growth. Working with clients who are tired of being sick and tired and want to make improvements motivates me!
(806) 557-1519 x705 View (806) 557-1519 x705
Photo of Jodie L. Martin, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Jodie L. Martin
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79416
I work with my clients to help heal life's hurts from a Christian, holistic perspective. My passion is to bring healing to your mind, body, and spirit, and help facilitate healing using a solution-focused model. I work with teens, young adults, women, and families. I have been an advocate for victims of domestic violence, grief counselor, DivorceCare facilitator, and treatment facility therapist. I also work with families going through the difficult process of divorce as a Neutral Mental Health Professional in Collaborative Divorces. I have a wide-array of experience to meet you where you are.
I work with my clients to help heal life's hurts from a Christian, holistic perspective. My passion is to bring healing to your mind, body, and spirit, and help facilitate healing using a solution-focused model. I work with teens, young adults, women, and families. I have been an advocate for victims of domestic violence, grief counselor, DivorceCare facilitator, and treatment facility therapist. I also work with families going through the difficult process of divorce as a Neutral Mental Health Professional in Collaborative Divorces. I have a wide-array of experience to meet you where you are.
(806) 853-8824 View (806) 853-8824
Photo of Maddie Johnson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Maddie Johnson
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-A
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79413
I believe that all people are valuable and worthy of experiencing peace; however many factors make it difficult to achieve that. Counseling is one way to navigate those factors whether they are mild or debilitating. Often times, we are capable of healing and finding relief from painful experiences, we only need the right resources to begin. I am here to provide those and offer a healthy relationship to support you in the process. I can help by offering a safe and judgement free space for you to be honest, maybe for the first time.
I believe that all people are valuable and worthy of experiencing peace; however many factors make it difficult to achieve that. Counseling is one way to navigate those factors whether they are mild or debilitating. Often times, we are capable of healing and finding relief from painful experiences, we only need the right resources to begin. I am here to provide those and offer a healthy relationship to support you in the process. I can help by offering a safe and judgement free space for you to be honest, maybe for the first time.
(806) 304-5741 View (806) 304-5741
Photo of Scott Jacobs, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Scott Jacobs
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79424
Accepting Evening Appointments. Making this call can be one of the hardest first steps you ever take. I have worked with men, women, couples, and adolescents struggling with anxiety and depression, substance abuse issues, chronic pain, interpersonal conflicts, decision making, life adjustments, grief and loss, serious mental illness as well as those experiencing suicidal thoughts.
Accepting Evening Appointments. Making this call can be one of the hardest first steps you ever take. I have worked with men, women, couples, and adolescents struggling with anxiety and depression, substance abuse issues, chronic pain, interpersonal conflicts, decision making, life adjustments, grief and loss, serious mental illness as well as those experiencing suicidal thoughts.
(806) 304-5279 View (806) 304-5279
Photo of Jennifer Morse, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Jennifer Morse
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, PLLC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79424
Not accepting new clients
Welcome! Jennifer strives to help people feel empowered and confident in their decisions, gain self-understanding and awareness, and find direction. Jennifer can help you process trauma (past or recent) and develop coping strategies. Jennifer provides person-centered therapy and wants to meet you where you are in life. Jennifer wants you to feel that you are a part of your therapy journey. Clients describe Jennifer as easy-going, open-minded, understanding, and easy to talk to. Jennifer values comprehensive care and collaboration with doctors, psychiatrists, and other professionals (with client consent).
Welcome! Jennifer strives to help people feel empowered and confident in their decisions, gain self-understanding and awareness, and find direction. Jennifer can help you process trauma (past or recent) and develop coping strategies. Jennifer provides person-centered therapy and wants to meet you where you are in life. Jennifer wants you to feel that you are a part of your therapy journey. Clients describe Jennifer as easy-going, open-minded, understanding, and easy to talk to. Jennifer values comprehensive care and collaboration with doctors, psychiatrists, and other professionals (with client consent).
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Photo of Jason M White, Marriage & Family Therapist Intern in Lubbock, TX
Jason M White
Marriage & Family Therapist Intern, MFT(i)
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79414
As a Marriage and Family Therapist (MFT) my job is to work with clients, couples, and families to help them understand and overcome the breakdown of communication, emotional and behavioral challenges that can lead to problems in family units. As an MFT, my ultimate goal is to strive to help families understand the root causes of family systems breakdowns. As a husband, father, partner, and military veteran, I have extensive experience working with diverse cultures. My background includes working with Veterans with PTSD and their family members, as well as individuals, couples, and families to overcome temporary disagreements.
As a Marriage and Family Therapist (MFT) my job is to work with clients, couples, and families to help them understand and overcome the breakdown of communication, emotional and behavioral challenges that can lead to problems in family units. As an MFT, my ultimate goal is to strive to help families understand the root causes of family systems breakdowns. As a husband, father, partner, and military veteran, I have extensive experience working with diverse cultures. My background includes working with Veterans with PTSD and their family members, as well as individuals, couples, and families to overcome temporary disagreements.
(432) 226-7671 View (432) 226-7671
Photo of Marisa Valdez-Stalvey, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Marisa Valdez-Stalvey
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79424
I’m a Bilingual Counselor, fully proficient in English and Spanish. I have worked with people with a wide range of concerns including ADHD (having been diagnosed myself), burnout, grief, depression, anxiety, stress management, emotional regulation, identity issues, search for meaning, and culture shock. I also work with Highly Sensitive People and empaths.
I’m a Bilingual Counselor, fully proficient in English and Spanish. I have worked with people with a wide range of concerns including ADHD (having been diagnosed myself), burnout, grief, depression, anxiety, stress management, emotional regulation, identity issues, search for meaning, and culture shock. I also work with Highly Sensitive People and empaths.
(806) 304-5900 View (806) 304-5900
Photo of Cody Dan Curbo, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Cody Dan Curbo
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC, LCDC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79414
It is my belief that we all need help at times in our lives, but reaching out can be difficult. Issues around addiction, trauma, communication within a relationship, and Autism can seem overwhelming. I have a strong belief that clients have the ability to resolve their own problems with some assistance. I believe that through a strong empathic working relationship, clients are capable of finding clarity and contentment in their lives. It is my job to help you through difficult times and provide you with the tools necessary to move on in your lives in a healthy way.
It is my belief that we all need help at times in our lives, but reaching out can be difficult. Issues around addiction, trauma, communication within a relationship, and Autism can seem overwhelming. I have a strong belief that clients have the ability to resolve their own problems with some assistance. I believe that through a strong empathic working relationship, clients are capable of finding clarity and contentment in their lives. It is my job to help you through difficult times and provide you with the tools necessary to move on in your lives in a healthy way.
(806) 203-6076 x703 View (806) 203-6076 x703
Photo of Shelley Lee Counseling, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Shelley Lee Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79423
I am a licensed professional counselor who received my masters level training at Oral Roberts University in Christian Counseling. I have 19 years of experience and have worked exclusively in private practice for the last 14 years. I also teaching undergraduate courses at Lubbock Christian University. I currently work with ages 12 and up. My most recent training has focused in the area of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as well as Internal Family Systems. Before working exclusively in private practice I worked at The Ranch At Dove Tree with addictions. I am currently working on my doctorate in counselor ed.
I am a licensed professional counselor who received my masters level training at Oral Roberts University in Christian Counseling. I have 19 years of experience and have worked exclusively in private practice for the last 14 years. I also teaching undergraduate courses at Lubbock Christian University. I currently work with ages 12 and up. My most recent training has focused in the area of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as well as Internal Family Systems. Before working exclusively in private practice I worked at The Ranch At Dove Tree with addictions. I am currently working on my doctorate in counselor ed.
(806) 589-2958 View (806) 589-2958
Photo of Margarita Gamboa, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Margarita Gamboa
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
Lubbock, TX 79414
Do you feel alone, unheard, or overwhelmed? Often, we just need someone to listen and be present. My name is Margarita, and it is privilege to be a part of your journey by providing a safe space for you to feel heard and supported. Though vulnerability can be difficult, I do believe every person has the strength to rise above unimaginable boundaries. It takes courage and strength to seek help, and I am genuinely here to assist you in overcoming the barriers in your journey to healing.
Do you feel alone, unheard, or overwhelmed? Often, we just need someone to listen and be present. My name is Margarita, and it is privilege to be a part of your journey by providing a safe space for you to feel heard and supported. Though vulnerability can be difficult, I do believe every person has the strength to rise above unimaginable boundaries. It takes courage and strength to seek help, and I am genuinely here to assist you in overcoming the barriers in your journey to healing.
(806) 482-1388 View (806) 482-1388
Photo of Timothy James White, Marriage & Family Therapist in Lubbock, TX
Timothy James White
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LSOTP, ASAT, APTT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79423
Are you hurting? Are you or a loved one struggling with compulsive or addictive behavior? Has some tragedy or family revelation blindsided you and now you are wondering what to do next? Please reach out to Tim with Dr. White and Associates, P.C. He is passionate about providing counseling for individuals, couples, and families. His desire is to help you and yours find flourishing and abundant life. He is standing by to serve your needs in addiction and recovery, anxiety and depression, and general couples therapy. Whatever is troubling you in life call Tim at Dr. White and Assoc. and see what he can do for you.
Are you hurting? Are you or a loved one struggling with compulsive or addictive behavior? Has some tragedy or family revelation blindsided you and now you are wondering what to do next? Please reach out to Tim with Dr. White and Associates, P.C. He is passionate about providing counseling for individuals, couples, and families. His desire is to help you and yours find flourishing and abundant life. He is standing by to serve your needs in addiction and recovery, anxiety and depression, and general couples therapy. Whatever is troubling you in life call Tim at Dr. White and Assoc. and see what he can do for you.
(806) 452-2406 View (806) 452-2406
Photo of Lisa Wilson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Lisa Wilson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LCDC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79416
Hello! Are you grappling with anxiety, depression, or trying to navigate life's changes? Do you need assistance with coping strategies or emotional regulation? I'm here to help, I am a bilingual clinician proficient in both English and Spanish.
Hello! Are you grappling with anxiety, depression, or trying to navigate life's changes? Do you need assistance with coping strategies or emotional regulation? I'm here to help, I am a bilingual clinician proficient in both English and Spanish.
(806) 542-3274 View (806) 542-3274
Photo of Kellye Joyce Wilhite, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lubbock, TX
Kellye Joyce Wilhite
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LCDC, LPC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Lubbock, TX 79423
Waitlist for new clients
I help empower women, men, teens and couples to find their healing from a Christian perspective. Whether you are struggling with addiction, grief, infidelity, codependency or past trauma I believe God can deliver you. I can help walk with you on your journey towards recovery from all of those and many more issues. I help my clients to find their voice and learn their worth and not continue to let the challenges of the world knock them down.
I help empower women, men, teens and couples to find their healing from a Christian perspective. Whether you are struggling with addiction, grief, infidelity, codependency or past trauma I believe God can deliver you. I can help walk with you on your journey towards recovery from all of those and many more issues. I help my clients to find their voice and learn their worth and not continue to let the challenges of the world knock them down.
(806) 391-7057 View (806) 391-7057

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Lubbock, TX

300+

Average cost per session

$120

Therapists in Lubbock, TX who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
89% Depression
77% Self Esteem
73% Relationship Issues
72% Coping Skills
69% Trauma and PTSD
68% Grief

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
74% Aetna
73% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Lubbock, TX see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
21% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Lubbock?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.