Counselling in County Dublin

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Photo of Gabriela Teixeira, MA, NAPCP, Counsellor
Gabriela Teixeira
Counsellor, MA, NAPCP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D06
Do you sometimes feel torn between a part of you that wants one thing, and another part that wants just the opposite? Like a part that wants to be fit and healthy and another one that can’t stop eating? Or do you have a part that does, feels or thinks in a way that another part of you says you shouldn’t, so another part feels guilty about it? Say a procrastinating part that leaves important tasks till the last moment, a self-critical part that beats down the procrastinating part, and a “there’s something wrong with me” part that feels a terrible sense of shame? The good news is that we are more than just the sum of our parts!
Do you sometimes feel torn between a part of you that wants one thing, and another part that wants just the opposite? Like a part that wants to be fit and healthy and another one that can’t stop eating? Or do you have a part that does, feels or thinks in a way that another part of you says you shouldn’t, so another part feels guilty about it? Say a procrastinating part that leaves important tasks till the last moment, a self-critical part that beats down the procrastinating part, and a “there’s something wrong with me” part that feels a terrible sense of shame? The good news is that we are more than just the sum of our parts!
(01) 267 6517 x29 View (01) 267 6517 x29
Photo of Ruth O'Dwyer, MA, IAHIP Assoc, Psychotherapist
Ruth O'Dwyer
Psychotherapist, MA, IAHIP Assoc
Verified Verified
Howth, County Dublin D13
My professional background centres on providing therapeutic support to individuals navigating a broad range of issues. These include but are not limited to, the profound emotions tied to bereavement and loss, managing the complexities of relationship difficulties, and effectively coping with the effects of stress and anxiety. A particular area of specialisation and interest for me is reproductive health. This encompasses a diverse range of experiences and struggles such as fertility concerns, coping with the heartbreaking aftermath of miscarriages or stillbirths, and the emotional turbulence of termination.
My professional background centres on providing therapeutic support to individuals navigating a broad range of issues. These include but are not limited to, the profound emotions tied to bereavement and loss, managing the complexities of relationship difficulties, and effectively coping with the effects of stress and anxiety. A particular area of specialisation and interest for me is reproductive health. This encompasses a diverse range of experiences and struggles such as fertility concerns, coping with the heartbreaking aftermath of miscarriages or stillbirths, and the emotional turbulence of termination.
(01) 267 6517 x23 View (01) 267 6517 x23
Photo of Niamh Duffy, MSc, Psychotherapist
Niamh Duffy
Psychotherapist, MSc
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D02
Are you noticing repetitive patterns of suffering or discontent in your life? Are you overwhelmed and struggling with a difficulty in some aspect of your life? Perhaps you have a curiosity about these repetitive patterns? I offer a place where you can be guided towards being reflective in your discovery of the reasons underlying the struggles you are experiencing. With the support of individual therapy sessions, we can work towards closing the gap between where you are right now and where you want to be.
Are you noticing repetitive patterns of suffering or discontent in your life? Are you overwhelmed and struggling with a difficulty in some aspect of your life? Perhaps you have a curiosity about these repetitive patterns? I offer a place where you can be guided towards being reflective in your discovery of the reasons underlying the struggles you are experiencing. With the support of individual therapy sessions, we can work towards closing the gap between where you are right now and where you want to be.
(01) 267 6517 x46 View (01) 267 6517 x46
Photo of Dave Cosgrove, Pre-Accredited Member IACP, Psychotherapist
Dave Cosgrove
Psychotherapist, Pre-Accredited Member IACP
Verified Verified
Skerries, County Dublin K34
Are you feeling anxious, stressed, unhappy, overwhelmed or struggling with an aspect of your life? Feeling this way can negatively impact on our lives, work, self-esteem and relationships, often leaving us feeling worried, trapped or stuck. Talking with a therapist can help. Dave seeks to provide an open, non-judgmental, safe and compassionate therapeutic space in which clients can discuss and explore their issues or difficult experiences, in order to empower change and facilitate self-understanding, healing and personal growth.
Are you feeling anxious, stressed, unhappy, overwhelmed or struggling with an aspect of your life? Feeling this way can negatively impact on our lives, work, self-esteem and relationships, often leaving us feeling worried, trapped or stuck. Talking with a therapist can help. Dave seeks to provide an open, non-judgmental, safe and compassionate therapeutic space in which clients can discuss and explore their issues or difficult experiences, in order to empower change and facilitate self-understanding, healing and personal growth.
(01) 267 6692 x26 View (01) 267 6692 x26
Photo of Suzanne Hannan, MIACP, Counsellor
Suzanne Hannan
Counsellor, MIACP
Verified Verified
Skerries, County Dublin K34
I never take for granted the fact that clients who come to counselling are at their most vulnerable. For those who are struggling with issues like depression, anxiety, abuse, both physical or mental, anxiety, relationship or sexuality and gender issues, my role in the first place is to listen and to provide a safe and confidential place for my clients to make sense of their experiences. Research has shown that the relationship between therapist and client is very important to the outcome of therapy, so I always check with my clients if they feel what we are doing in our sessions are working for them.
I never take for granted the fact that clients who come to counselling are at their most vulnerable. For those who are struggling with issues like depression, anxiety, abuse, both physical or mental, anxiety, relationship or sexuality and gender issues, my role in the first place is to listen and to provide a safe and confidential place for my clients to make sense of their experiences. Research has shown that the relationship between therapist and client is very important to the outcome of therapy, so I always check with my clients if they feel what we are doing in our sessions are working for them.
085 157 6218 View 085 157 6218
Photo of undefined - Cussen Counselling, MSc, Pre-Accredited Member IACP, Psychotherapist
Cussen Counselling
Psychotherapist, MSc, Pre-Accredited Member IACP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D06
I am a dedicated Counsellor and Psychotherapist with a rich background spanning psychology, digital marketing, and human development, committed to fostering a supportive and compassionate environment for individuals seeking mental and emotional wellness.
I am a dedicated Counsellor and Psychotherapist with a rich background spanning psychology, digital marketing, and human development, committed to fostering a supportive and compassionate environment for individuals seeking mental and emotional wellness.
(01) 267 6570 x12 View (01) 267 6570 x12
Photo of Margaret Weymes, MIACP, Psychotherapist
Margaret Weymes
Psychotherapist, MIACP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D04
At present with a lot of couples reaching out, it appears to be that communication is a universal issue. They need to re-establish how to start a conversation, it can be about raising a child or just finding time to actually listen to each other. Date nights are of course useful because everybody is so busy, either with working at home or getting back into their other social events, sport or indeed trying to catch up with friends. We forget that our partner is also our friend and indeed our best friend.
At present with a lot of couples reaching out, it appears to be that communication is a universal issue. They need to re-establish how to start a conversation, it can be about raising a child or just finding time to actually listen to each other. Date nights are of course useful because everybody is so busy, either with working at home or getting back into their other social events, sport or indeed trying to catch up with friends. We forget that our partner is also our friend and indeed our best friend.
(01) 267 6570 x87 View (01) 267 6570 x87
Photo of Vivienne Coen, MA, MIACP, Psychotherapist
Vivienne Coen
Psychotherapist, MA, MIACP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D06
I have worked and trained in the area of mental health since 2006 and specialise in Freudian and Lacanian Psychoanalysis. I provide psychoanalytic therapy for a wide range of mental health issues for people from all walks of life. As well as working in private practice I have specialised clinical training in a number of mental health facilities including the psychiatric departments of Holles Street national maternity hospital (Ante and Post Natal Psychiatry); St. Vincent’s Hospital Elm Park (general psychiatry), St.Ita’s Portrane (long term patients), and also the National Drug Treatment Centre (Addiction and Dependence).
I have worked and trained in the area of mental health since 2006 and specialise in Freudian and Lacanian Psychoanalysis. I provide psychoanalytic therapy for a wide range of mental health issues for people from all walks of life. As well as working in private practice I have specialised clinical training in a number of mental health facilities including the psychiatric departments of Holles Street national maternity hospital (Ante and Post Natal Psychiatry); St. Vincent’s Hospital Elm Park (general psychiatry), St.Ita’s Portrane (long term patients), and also the National Drug Treatment Centre (Addiction and Dependence).
(01) 568 2872 x68 View (01) 568 2872 x68
Photo of undefined - McEvoy Counselling and Psychotherapy, MIACP, Psychotherapist
McEvoy Counselling and Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MIACP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D13
I am an integrative psychotherapist. This means that I work using various different skills, therapies, methods, and tools and tailor them to each individual client's needs and wants. I work collaboratively with each client to help them to establish and achieve whatever their goals and needs are from therapy. I am client-focused, non-judgemental, flexible, honest, trustworthy, and direct. I work within the client's own frame of reference and within their boundaries. I consider the client's capacity for the direction and time frame of the work. I work with the majority of issues and respect all genders, cultures, nationalities, etc.
I am an integrative psychotherapist. This means that I work using various different skills, therapies, methods, and tools and tailor them to each individual client's needs and wants. I work collaboratively with each client to help them to establish and achieve whatever their goals and needs are from therapy. I am client-focused, non-judgemental, flexible, honest, trustworthy, and direct. I work within the client's own frame of reference and within their boundaries. I consider the client's capacity for the direction and time frame of the work. I work with the majority of issues and respect all genders, cultures, nationalities, etc.
086 383 9418 View 086 383 9418
Photo of Jurata Grzymalowska Miacp, MA, MPSI, Psychologist
Jurata Grzymalowska Miacp
Psychologist, MA, MPSI
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D02
From my perspective, psychotherapy means healing. It is the opening, where individuals begin to experience a more full contact with themselves and the outside world. I help them understand their emotions that signpost their needs. I help them to discover their unfulfilled needs and, together, we look for obstacles and barriers that could prevent people from fully enjoying their lives. One step at a time, they become increasingly ready to lead their lives consciously. They begin to authentically live, rather than continue, their lives.
From my perspective, psychotherapy means healing. It is the opening, where individuals begin to experience a more full contact with themselves and the outside world. I help them understand their emotions that signpost their needs. I help them to discover their unfulfilled needs and, together, we look for obstacles and barriers that could prevent people from fully enjoying their lives. One step at a time, they become increasingly ready to lead their lives consciously. They begin to authentically live, rather than continue, their lives.
(01) 267 6675 x51 View (01) 267 6675 x51
Photo of Michael Rooney, MA, Psychotherapist
Michael Rooney
Psychotherapist, MA
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D07  (Online Only)
You promised you would not watch online porn or live sex cams again. You feel guilt and shame because you want to stop but cant. You visited a sex worker during lockdown and now you are worried you might have put the health of your family at risk. You plan to spend a short time on dating apps and find yourself spending hours on them, unable to put them down, feeling desperate and hopeless. You have an instant attraction when you meet a particular type of person, believing they are the one. You are in recovery for alcohol / drug addiction, but your compulsive sexual acting out behaviours have increased and you feel guilt and shame.
You promised you would not watch online porn or live sex cams again. You feel guilt and shame because you want to stop but cant. You visited a sex worker during lockdown and now you are worried you might have put the health of your family at risk. You plan to spend a short time on dating apps and find yourself spending hours on them, unable to put them down, feeling desperate and hopeless. You have an instant attraction when you meet a particular type of person, believing they are the one. You are in recovery for alcohol / drug addiction, but your compulsive sexual acting out behaviours have increased and you feel guilt and shame.
(042) 959 0698 View (042) 959 0698
Photo of undefined - Evolution Counselling, MIACP, Counsellor
Evolution Counselling
Counsellor, MIACP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D02
Not accepting new clients
Gráinne works with her clients gently, focusing on emotional difficulties in an uncertain life. Her compassionate approach offers her clients a safe, supportive and non-judgmental space to focus on their thoughts and feelings, giving them the time to recover and regain confidence and self-knowledge. Gráinne believes counselling and psychotherapy are robust solutions that can positively transform lives.
Gráinne works with her clients gently, focusing on emotional difficulties in an uncertain life. Her compassionate approach offers her clients a safe, supportive and non-judgmental space to focus on their thoughts and feelings, giving them the time to recover and regain confidence and self-knowledge. Gráinne believes counselling and psychotherapy are robust solutions that can positively transform lives.
(01) 267 6622 x35 View (01) 267 6622 x35
Photo of Patricia McQuaid, MSc, IAHIP Assoc, Psychotherapist
Patricia McQuaid
Psychotherapist, MSc, IAHIP Assoc
Verified Verified
Skerries, County Dublin K34
There are times in our lives when we all need help. You may be experiencing a crisis or have been struggling with something for a very long time. You may be experiencing low moods and anxieties that limit you, carrying wounds from old life experiences that are causing you pain, or you may not yet have the words to describe how you feel. Perhaps now is the time for you to take a step forward. In a confidential and supported space, we will untangle what is distressing and challenging you. We will work together to seek greater awareness and clarity in order to empower you to effect positive change in your life.
There are times in our lives when we all need help. You may be experiencing a crisis or have been struggling with something for a very long time. You may be experiencing low moods and anxieties that limit you, carrying wounds from old life experiences that are causing you pain, or you may not yet have the words to describe how you feel. Perhaps now is the time for you to take a step forward. In a confidential and supported space, we will untangle what is distressing and challenging you. We will work together to seek greater awareness and clarity in order to empower you to effect positive change in your life.
(01) 267 6692 x19 View (01) 267 6692 x19
Photo of undefined - Counselling For Couples, PsychD, MIACP, Psychotherapist
Counselling For Couples
Psychotherapist, PsychD, MIACP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D12
Couples Counselling offers a safe, supportive and confidential environment. Couples Counselling is non-judgemental and allows for us to be heard. It supports healing and wellbeing. The focus of the Therapy is on the relationship. see www.counsellingforcouples.ie for further details.
Couples Counselling offers a safe, supportive and confidential environment. Couples Counselling is non-judgemental and allows for us to be heard. It supports healing and wellbeing. The focus of the Therapy is on the relationship. see www.counsellingforcouples.ie for further details.
086 375 1327 View 086 375 1327
Photo of Mark Mc Caffrey, MSc, Pre-Accredited Member IACP, Psychotherapist
Mark Mc Caffrey
Psychotherapist, MSc, Pre-Accredited Member IACP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Dublin, County Dublin D11
Do you find yourself regularly wishing you could be somewhere else, that the grass is always greener in other places, no matter where you are? Are you looking for a fresh start or a new direction with which to create a different and more enjoyable outlook? Low mood? Mood swings? Confusing anxiety? MH Disorder? Trauma - PTSD? Relationship fatigue? Food/alcohol/drug consumption concerns? Change is doable, change is accessible, change can start now. A fresh journey awaits, a journey towards greener grass which is often located closer to home than you currently think.
Do you find yourself regularly wishing you could be somewhere else, that the grass is always greener in other places, no matter where you are? Are you looking for a fresh start or a new direction with which to create a different and more enjoyable outlook? Low mood? Mood swings? Confusing anxiety? MH Disorder? Trauma - PTSD? Relationship fatigue? Food/alcohol/drug consumption concerns? Change is doable, change is accessible, change can start now. A fresh journey awaits, a journey towards greener grass which is often located closer to home than you currently think.
085 287 1709 View 085 287 1709
Photo of Marcela Bonturi, MPSI, Psychologist
Marcela Bonturi
Psychologist, MPSI
Verified Verified
Malahide, County Dublin K36  (Online Only)
My job is to help my patients to accept who they are, to learn how to get a better understanding about themselves & to navigate their emotions from a better place .
My job is to help my patients to accept who they are, to learn how to get a better understanding about themselves & to navigate their emotions from a better place .
(01) 267 6595 x70 View (01) 267 6595 x70
Photo of Edel Bose, MIAHIP, Psychotherapist
Edel Bose
Psychotherapist, MIAHIP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D02
Greetings! I'm Edel, a dedicated psychotherapist committed to providing a compassionate and transformative space for individuals seeking support and growth. With a foundation in Integrative and Humanistic Psychotherapy, and accredited with the Irish Association of Humanistic & Integrative Psychotherapy (IAHIP), I believe in the healing power of genuine connection and empathetic understanding.
Greetings! I'm Edel, a dedicated psychotherapist committed to providing a compassionate and transformative space for individuals seeking support and growth. With a foundation in Integrative and Humanistic Psychotherapy, and accredited with the Irish Association of Humanistic & Integrative Psychotherapy (IAHIP), I believe in the healing power of genuine connection and empathetic understanding.
(061) 572 524 x52 View (061) 572 524 x52
Photo of John Sheridan, MSc, IAHIP Assoc, Psychotherapist
John Sheridan
Psychotherapist, MSc, IAHIP Assoc
Verified Verified
Glenageary, County Dublin A96
I see clients in Ballybrack, Glenageary and in Sandyford Wellness Centre, Dublin 18. I also provide online therapy by Zoom and Google Meet. I am a trained psychotherapist, with a Masters (MSc) in Integrative Counselling and Psychotherapy from University College Cork. The way I work is person-centred, placing you and your life-issues at the centre of therapy. I work utilising a “stress model” from a humanistic & relational framework. This promotes self-awareness for clients and empowers them to identify the causes of harmful stressors, while developing self-care and self-safety practices so as to bring a sense of balance.......
I see clients in Ballybrack, Glenageary and in Sandyford Wellness Centre, Dublin 18. I also provide online therapy by Zoom and Google Meet. I am a trained psychotherapist, with a Masters (MSc) in Integrative Counselling and Psychotherapy from University College Cork. The way I work is person-centred, placing you and your life-issues at the centre of therapy. I work utilising a “stress model” from a humanistic & relational framework. This promotes self-awareness for clients and empowers them to identify the causes of harmful stressors, while developing self-care and self-safety practices so as to bring a sense of balance.......
086 816 2473 View 086 816 2473
Photo of Jason Brennan, MA, MIAHIP, Psychotherapist
Jason Brennan
Psychotherapist, MA, MIAHIP
Verified Verified
Malahide, County Dublin K36
Hi, my name is Jason Brennan and I have been a therapist and coach for nearly 30 years. I specialise in anxiety, depression, stress management and life challenges, as well as confidence and self esteem building. I am also the founder and president of the Irish Transactional Analysis Association. I have helped hundreds of people improve their lives and find out more about what they want to achieve. If you are interested in working together, or would like to know more, just reach out. Thanks Jason
Hi, my name is Jason Brennan and I have been a therapist and coach for nearly 30 years. I specialise in anxiety, depression, stress management and life challenges, as well as confidence and self esteem building. I am also the founder and president of the Irish Transactional Analysis Association. I have helped hundreds of people improve their lives and find out more about what they want to achieve. If you are interested in working together, or would like to know more, just reach out. Thanks Jason
(01) 267 6527 x92 View (01) 267 6527 x92
Photo of Remedy Clinic, MIACP, Psychotherapist
Remedy Clinic
Psychotherapist, MIACP
Verified Verified
Dublin, County Dublin D02
Fostering Personal Well-being & Growth. At Remedy Clinic, we’re a therapy clinic catering to all clients with affordable Counselling and Psychotherapy. Founded in 2017, we’re a modern psychotherapy, counselling, and wellness consultancy service provider located in Dublin. A comfortable modern space designed for our clients. As the leading provider of counselling services, Dublin, and psychotherapy, Dublin, we’re dedicated to providing a comfortable and safe environment where problems & personal issues can be explored to support healthy, positive change.
Fostering Personal Well-being & Growth. At Remedy Clinic, we’re a therapy clinic catering to all clients with affordable Counselling and Psychotherapy. Founded in 2017, we’re a modern psychotherapy, counselling, and wellness consultancy service provider located in Dublin. A comfortable modern space designed for our clients. As the leading provider of counselling services, Dublin, and psychotherapy, Dublin, we’re dedicated to providing a comfortable and safe environment where problems & personal issues can be explored to support healthy, positive change.
(01) 267 6552 x60 View (01) 267 6552 x60

See more therapy options for County Dublin

How does your Counsellor compare?

Average cost per session

€70

Counsellors in County Dublin who prioritize treating:

82% Anxiety
75% Depression
70% Self Esteem
69% Relationship Issues
69% Stress
58% Bereavement
58% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

88% Laya
82% VHI
79% Irish Life

How Counsellors in County Dublin see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
24% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in County Dublin?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, eircode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or eircode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Most Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are accredited members of the main professional associations, mainly the Irish Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy (IACP) and the Irish Council for Psychotherapy (ICP). Most Psychologists are accredited members of the Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement in Ireland, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in Ireland. Psychologists have earned a doctoral degree in psychology and many are accredited members of the Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI). Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a doctoral degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the IACP or ICP, they must complete a minimum of an NFQ Level 7 programme with 100 hours of clinical experience and a minimum of 450 hours of post-training clinical experience under clinical supervision.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in Ireland could cost between €50 – €90 when seeing a counsellor and €75 - €120 or more when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The National Counselling Service (NCS) is a government-funded service that provides short to medium term counselling and psychotherapy for free to individuals who have experienced trauma or abuse. The service can be accessed by GP referral or self-referral.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your eircode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the IACP, the ICP, or PSI are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a child is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.