Counselling in Parkdale, VIC

Photo of Ashley Ogilvie, Psychotherapist in Parkdale, VIC
Ashley Ogilvie
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
I'm Ashley, i’m a psychotherapist, counsellor and arts therapist. I work in Parkdale, SE Melbourne VIC 3195. I am both, a school counsellor and a private practitioner. I offer a non judgemental and authentic space. We can unpack challenges that you are facing, create goals and you will feel supported whilst implementing change. I have a client centred, integrative approach, enabling me to support each clients unique needs and passionate about ADHD coaching. If you aren’t sure what’s going on with you or your young person please get in touch for a free consult.
I'm Ashley, i’m a psychotherapist, counsellor and arts therapist. I work in Parkdale, SE Melbourne VIC 3195. I am both, a school counsellor and a private practitioner. I offer a non judgemental and authentic space. We can unpack challenges that you are facing, create goals and you will feel supported whilst implementing change. I have a client centred, integrative approach, enabling me to support each clients unique needs and passionate about ADHD coaching. If you aren’t sure what’s going on with you or your young person please get in touch for a free consult.
(03) 8771 4024 View (03) 8771 4024
Photo of Tranquil Place - Counselling & Psychotherapy, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Tranquil Place - Counselling & Psychotherapy
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified
1 Endorsed
Parkdale, VIC 3195
It’s Never Too Late for a New Beginning! Hi, I’m Sarah - Life can present us with many personal challenges. Do you feel anxious, lonely or depressed? Burnt-out or overwhelmed? Do you feel unheard or unable to express your needs in your relationships with your partner, family or friends? Maybe you are not sure what it is, but something doesn’t feel quite right? We all need help at some time to work through things. I understand that taking that first step to seek help can be hard - but the rewards can be great.
It’s Never Too Late for a New Beginning! Hi, I’m Sarah - Life can present us with many personal challenges. Do you feel anxious, lonely or depressed? Burnt-out or overwhelmed? Do you feel unheard or unable to express your needs in your relationships with your partner, family or friends? Maybe you are not sure what it is, but something doesn’t feel quite right? We all need help at some time to work through things. I understand that taking that first step to seek help can be hard - but the rewards can be great.
(03) 8771 5856 View (03) 8771 5856
Photo of Dr Lyndel Cuesta, Psychologist in Parkdale, VIC
Dr Lyndel Cuesta
Psychologist, PhD, MAPS
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
I enjoy helping young professionals and uni students (aged 21 - 40 years) to gain a greater sense of control over their experience of anxiety and feel more calm more often. Maybe you have always struggled with things like worry, stress, or anxiety. Or maybe this is your first experience of not being able to "fix it" yourself. When we learn how to constructively deal with our mental health challenges, we feel more at ease, more energized, and better able to pursue those things in life that nourish us and bring us joy; enabling us to thrive.
I enjoy helping young professionals and uni students (aged 21 - 40 years) to gain a greater sense of control over their experience of anxiety and feel more calm more often. Maybe you have always struggled with things like worry, stress, or anxiety. Or maybe this is your first experience of not being able to "fix it" yourself. When we learn how to constructively deal with our mental health challenges, we feel more at ease, more energized, and better able to pursue those things in life that nourish us and bring us joy; enabling us to thrive.
0432 662 447 View 0432 662 447
Photo of Lukas Winward Counselling, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Lukas Winward Counselling
Counsellor, ACA-L4
Verified
1 Endorsed
Parkdale, VIC 3195
I relish the opportunity to work with teens and young people aged between 8 to 25 years old and their families. My approach is a blend of Counselling, Mentoring and Coaching and I focus on building a strong therapeutic relationship. I use outreach (I come to you) as a tool to help connect and I like walking and talking sessions. I am very passionate about working and collaborating with young people and believe that early intervention is key to positive outcomes. I look to build capacity and work on building a strong and diverse took kit of coping strategies. I offer a tap in tap out service. Hit me up for more info.
I relish the opportunity to work with teens and young people aged between 8 to 25 years old and their families. My approach is a blend of Counselling, Mentoring and Coaching and I focus on building a strong therapeutic relationship. I use outreach (I come to you) as a tool to help connect and I like walking and talking sessions. I am very passionate about working and collaborating with young people and believe that early intervention is key to positive outcomes. I look to build capacity and work on building a strong and diverse took kit of coping strategies. I offer a tap in tap out service. Hit me up for more info.
(03) 8771 5601 View (03) 8771 5601
Photo of Nicky Angelone, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Nicky Angelone
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
1 Endorsed
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Hi, I'm Nicky, a registered clinical counsellor (PACFA) and yoga teacher specialising in supporting corporate women experiencing stress, overwhelm, anxiety, burnout, grief and loss, chronic pain, and career and life transitions. I understand the unique pressures that come with working in corporate environments, as well as the challenges that life can bring.
Hi, I'm Nicky, a registered clinical counsellor (PACFA) and yoga teacher specialising in supporting corporate women experiencing stress, overwhelm, anxiety, burnout, grief and loss, chronic pain, and career and life transitions. I understand the unique pressures that come with working in corporate environments, as well as the challenges that life can bring.
(03) 7500 5911 View (03) 7500 5911
Photo of Vivienne Interrigi, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Vivienne Interrigi
Counsellor, MA, ACA-L4
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
I am passionate about working with clients who are wanting to find that different path in life. As a family therapist, I have worked with families to focus on parenting, family dynamics, finding different ways or building relationships with each other. I enjoy working with couples who are wanting to explore the potentials of their relationship and to work out where their next steps are. As an ACA Clinical Supervisor, I run individual and group supervision for counsellors - to find a safe space to have a growth mindset to continually learn how to build up their therapeutic skills.
I am passionate about working with clients who are wanting to find that different path in life. As a family therapist, I have worked with families to focus on parenting, family dynamics, finding different ways or building relationships with each other. I enjoy working with couples who are wanting to explore the potentials of their relationship and to work out where their next steps are. As an ACA Clinical Supervisor, I run individual and group supervision for counsellors - to find a safe space to have a growth mindset to continually learn how to build up their therapeutic skills.
(03) 7500 5338 View (03) 7500 5338
Photo of Samantha McLean, Psychologist in Parkdale, VIC
Samantha McLean
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
At Planting Seeds Psychology we offer psychological support to children, adolescents and their families with expertise across a range of difficulties. We take a warm, caring, and holistic approach to therapy and tailor our treatment to your individual needs. We are here to help you take the first step, which is often the hardest. I have been working with children and adolescents for over 3 years in the field.
At Planting Seeds Psychology we offer psychological support to children, adolescents and their families with expertise across a range of difficulties. We take a warm, caring, and holistic approach to therapy and tailor our treatment to your individual needs. We are here to help you take the first step, which is often the hardest. I have been working with children and adolescents for over 3 years in the field.
(03) 8771 5602 View (03) 8771 5602
Photo of Toni Gunn, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Toni Gunn
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
I am passionate about helping others and believe that every day is an opportunity to put steps into place to be the best version of yourself and to start living the way you want to. I thrive on being able to support, encourage and empower people at different stages of life. Having spent my working life in the health and wellness industry, I know how important mental health and mindset are and their impact on all areas of our life. I work with individuals and couples on a wide range of issues, and draw upon a range of evidence-based psychological treatments to ensure a tailored approach for each person’s goals.
I am passionate about helping others and believe that every day is an opportunity to put steps into place to be the best version of yourself and to start living the way you want to. I thrive on being able to support, encourage and empower people at different stages of life. Having spent my working life in the health and wellness industry, I know how important mental health and mindset are and their impact on all areas of our life. I work with individuals and couples on a wide range of issues, and draw upon a range of evidence-based psychological treatments to ensure a tailored approach for each person’s goals.
(03) 7500 5533 View (03) 7500 5533
Photo of Hypfocus Therapies - Georgina Mitchell, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Hypfocus Therapies - Georgina Mitchell
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Are you ready for Positive Change? Welcome to Hypfocus Hypnotherapy, my name is Georgina Mitchell and I'm the owner of the practice! If you're ready to transform your life and overcome the challenges that are keeping you stuck and holding you back, I'm here to facilitate that change. As a highly trained Clinical Hypnotherapist, Professional Counsellor, Psychotherapist and EFT practitioner, I specialise in empowering individuals to achieve their desired goals.
Are you ready for Positive Change? Welcome to Hypfocus Hypnotherapy, my name is Georgina Mitchell and I'm the owner of the practice! If you're ready to transform your life and overcome the challenges that are keeping you stuck and holding you back, I'm here to facilitate that change. As a highly trained Clinical Hypnotherapist, Professional Counsellor, Psychotherapist and EFT practitioner, I specialise in empowering individuals to achieve their desired goals.
(03) 7500 5667 View (03) 7500 5667
Naomi Newton
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Hello! I am located in the beachside suburbs of Bayside Melbourne in a lovely small psychology practice in Beaumaris. I primarily work with children and young people under 25, however I do also provide assessment & intervention for support for adults who want support around anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Tourette’s/tics. I offer a warm and inviting style of therapy, and ensure we are working together on your goals. My practice is neuro and gender affirming. Please visit www.naominewton.com for further information.
Hello! I am located in the beachside suburbs of Bayside Melbourne in a lovely small psychology practice in Beaumaris. I primarily work with children and young people under 25, however I do also provide assessment & intervention for support for adults who want support around anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Tourette’s/tics. I offer a warm and inviting style of therapy, and ensure we are working together on your goals. My practice is neuro and gender affirming. Please visit www.naominewton.com for further information.
0412 227 455 View 0412 227 455
Photo of Stacey Tuffin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Parkdale, VIC
Stacey Tuffin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195  (Online Only)
I have over 15 years experience working with individuals affected by loss, grief and trauma following sudden life events. This has included adult and paediatric palliative care, fertility and IVF, and supporting individuals experiencing the loss of a missing person. I have extensive practical experience sitting with individuals during very difficult situations and understand the need to build a trusting relationship in session. I have been one of only a handful of counsellors to work in the missing persons sector and understand the trauma and loss experienced by families.
I have over 15 years experience working with individuals affected by loss, grief and trauma following sudden life events. This has included adult and paediatric palliative care, fertility and IVF, and supporting individuals experiencing the loss of a missing person. I have extensive practical experience sitting with individuals during very difficult situations and understand the need to build a trusting relationship in session. I have been one of only a handful of counsellors to work in the missing persons sector and understand the trauma and loss experienced by families.
(03) 9002 0440 View (03) 9002 0440
Photo of Hannah Hawkes, Psychologist in Parkdale, VIC
Hannah Hawkes
Psychologist, MSc, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Not accepting new clients
I'm a Clinical Psychologist, Board Approved Supervisor and Accredited EMDR Practitioner. I love working with adolescents and adults. We can all face difficulties like anxiety, stress and depression at one time and we may need help to navigate these times. I also have a passion for working with people who have experienced trauma, including PTSD and attachment trauma/childhood difficulties. I have lots of experience with first responders and veterans. I use EMDR amongst other approaches, like parts work. I think I am warm, empathic, approachable and down to earth and it is important to me that you feel comfortable and safe.
I'm a Clinical Psychologist, Board Approved Supervisor and Accredited EMDR Practitioner. I love working with adolescents and adults. We can all face difficulties like anxiety, stress and depression at one time and we may need help to navigate these times. I also have a passion for working with people who have experienced trauma, including PTSD and attachment trauma/childhood difficulties. I have lots of experience with first responders and veterans. I use EMDR amongst other approaches, like parts work. I think I am warm, empathic, approachable and down to earth and it is important to me that you feel comfortable and safe.
(03) 7500 5318 View (03) 7500 5318
Photo of Compass Counselling, Psychotherapy, Clinical Hypno, Psychotherapist in Parkdale, VIC
Compass Counselling, Psychotherapy, Clinical Hypno
Psychotherapist, ACA-L2
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Are you seeking professional support to overcome challenges, achieve personal growth, or navigate the complexities of caregiving? I am ready to accompany you on your journey towards greater well-being and fulfillment. As a client working with me, you can expect a range of valuable services and support to address your specific needs and goals. I will work closely with you to understand your unique challenges, concerns, and aspirations. Tailoring my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs, whether it's through clinical hypnotherapy, counselling, psychotherapy, or a combination of modalities.
Are you seeking professional support to overcome challenges, achieve personal growth, or navigate the complexities of caregiving? I am ready to accompany you on your journey towards greater well-being and fulfillment. As a client working with me, you can expect a range of valuable services and support to address your specific needs and goals. I will work closely with you to understand your unique challenges, concerns, and aspirations. Tailoring my therapeutic approach to meet your specific needs, whether it's through clinical hypnotherapy, counselling, psychotherapy, or a combination of modalities.
(03) 8771 4056 View (03) 8771 4056
Photo of Dr Chris Trewavas, Psychologist in Parkdale, VIC
Dr Chris Trewavas
Psychologist, PsychD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195  (Online Only)
My primary therapeutic goals are empowerment and personal growth. I tend to take a practical approach, using evidence-based health care strategies that provide people with a set of skills they can take away with them and apply in everyday life.
My primary therapeutic goals are empowerment and personal growth. I tend to take a practical approach, using evidence-based health care strategies that provide people with a set of skills they can take away with them and apply in everyday life.
(03) 7500 5866 View (03) 7500 5866
Photo of Katherine Shaw, Psychologist in Parkdale, VIC
Katherine Shaw
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Katherine is an experienced and registered psychologist with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency (AHPRA). She has experience working with adolescents and adults across educational and private settings in South-East Melbourne.
Katherine is an experienced and registered psychologist with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency (AHPRA). She has experience working with adolescents and adults across educational and private settings in South-East Melbourne.
(03) 8797 5309 View (03) 8797 5309
Photo of Thrive Well Therapy, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Thrive Well Therapy
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Hi! I'm Lauren, your wellbeing counsellor and coach. Do you find yourself struggling with anxiety and are searching for a way to improve how you feel? Do you want freedom from the overwhelming sensations, the feelings of uncertainty and the never ending loop of thoughts running through your head? I understand. I also know that there is a way to break through these patterns and how you can rediscover joy and ease in your life.
Hi! I'm Lauren, your wellbeing counsellor and coach. Do you find yourself struggling with anxiety and are searching for a way to improve how you feel? Do you want freedom from the overwhelming sensations, the feelings of uncertainty and the never ending loop of thoughts running through your head? I understand. I also know that there is a way to break through these patterns and how you can rediscover joy and ease in your life.
View
Photo of Melissa Thompson, Psychotherapist in Parkdale, VIC
Melissa Thompson
Psychotherapist, MC, PACFA
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Trying to find a therapist through an online site is a daunting task, but the fact that you're looking means that you're that much closer to feeling better. We all feel overwhelmed at times during our lives. There's no reason to feel alone. I'm here to sit beside you as we uncover and explore your inner resources together.
Trying to find a therapist through an online site is a daunting task, but the fact that you're looking means that you're that much closer to feeling better. We all feel overwhelmed at times during our lives. There's no reason to feel alone. I'm here to sit beside you as we uncover and explore your inner resources together.
(03) 7500 5860 View (03) 7500 5860
Photo of Gwyn Rees, Psychologist in Parkdale, VIC
Gwyn Rees
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
I am a clinical psychologist specializing in perinatal mental health. I am passionate about helping people cope with difficulties related to fertility, pregnancy loss, infant loss, birth trauma, pre and postnatal anxiety, depression as well as the transition to parenting. The journey to becoming a parent can be a turbulent time and I believe parenting is one of the most demanding jobs there is. This time can also offer the opportunity for self-discovery and growth. I aim to provide a warm, respectful and non-judgmental space to allow you to feel comfortable to share, reflect and grow.
I am a clinical psychologist specializing in perinatal mental health. I am passionate about helping people cope with difficulties related to fertility, pregnancy loss, infant loss, birth trauma, pre and postnatal anxiety, depression as well as the transition to parenting. The journey to becoming a parent can be a turbulent time and I believe parenting is one of the most demanding jobs there is. This time can also offer the opportunity for self-discovery and growth. I aim to provide a warm, respectful and non-judgmental space to allow you to feel comfortable to share, reflect and grow.
(03) 7500 5747 View (03) 7500 5747
Photo of The Neuroaffirmation Station (Belinda Maher), Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Parkdale, VIC
The Neuroaffirmation Station (Belinda Maher)
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Parkdale, VIC 3195
Belinda Maher is a neurodiverse child and family mental health social worker, specialising in supporting neurodivergent young people and their families/carers. Passionate about working from a trauma-informed and neuroaffirming lens, Belinda’s therapeutic framework is informed by her extensive experiences as an educator, a trauma therapist and as a senior clinician in a neuropsychiatry unit at a children’s hospital. She has also worked for the Victorian Department of Education as a Mental Health Practitioner in an SDS (Special Developmental School).
Belinda Maher is a neurodiverse child and family mental health social worker, specialising in supporting neurodivergent young people and their families/carers. Passionate about working from a trauma-informed and neuroaffirming lens, Belinda’s therapeutic framework is informed by her extensive experiences as an educator, a trauma therapist and as a senior clinician in a neuropsychiatry unit at a children’s hospital. She has also worked for the Victorian Department of Education as a Mental Health Practitioner in an SDS (Special Developmental School).
(03) 8771 4745 View (03) 8771 4745
Photo of Paula Rogers Counselling, Counsellor in Parkdale, VIC
Paula Rogers Counselling
Counsellor, MPsych, ACA-L2
Verified
Parkdale, VIC 3195
All people of all ages can experience difficult times in their life. These may have been caused by an event that has caused distress, issues with family, friendships, relationships, the work place, health issues and countless other situations. Sometimes events have happened long ago and continue to trouble us and impact our life, or the situation may be more recent. It can be difficult to share what is happening. Often we don't want to burden or worry those who care for us; or we may feel uncomfortable talking to people we know. Counselling provides support toward finding resolutions and living life in the best way possible.
All people of all ages can experience difficult times in their life. These may have been caused by an event that has caused distress, issues with family, friendships, relationships, the work place, health issues and countless other situations. Sometimes events have happened long ago and continue to trouble us and impact our life, or the situation may be more recent. It can be difficult to share what is happening. Often we don't want to burden or worry those who care for us; or we may feel uncomfortable talking to people we know. Counselling provides support toward finding resolutions and living life in the best way possible.
(03) 6144 6018 View (03) 6144 6018

See more therapy options for Parkdale

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Parkdale, VIC

20+

Average cost per session

$170

Counsellors in Parkdale, VIC who prioritize treating:

95% Stress
90% Anxiety
70% Depression
70% Self Esteem
65% Life Transitions
60% Parenting
60% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% Bupa
67% Medibank Private
50% AHM Health

How Counsellors in Parkdale, VIC see their clients

90% In Person and Online
10% Online Only

Gender breakdown

90% Female
10% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Parkdale?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.