Photo of Paula-Jane Buckland, Counsellor in 3057, VIC
Paula-Jane Buckland
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified Verified
Paula-Jane is an accredited mental health counsellor and sex therapist working with individuals and intimate couples; providing care for a diverse range of issues and concerns. The greatest joy of her role is seeing people leaving her care feeling content, lighter and calm within themselves and hope for their future. Paula-Jane is committed to holding a space that is calm accepting trusting safe and welcoming, allowing you to feel at ease and move at a pace comfortable to you. Welcoming all people from different communities, lifestyles and abilities.
Paula-Jane is an accredited mental health counsellor and sex therapist working with individuals and intimate couples; providing care for a diverse range of issues and concerns. The greatest joy of her role is seeing people leaving her care feeling content, lighter and calm within themselves and hope for their future. Paula-Jane is committed to holding a space that is calm accepting trusting safe and welcoming, allowing you to feel at ease and move at a pace comfortable to you. Welcoming all people from different communities, lifestyles and abilities.
(03) 8338 4767 View (03) 8338 4767
Photo of Cara Brough, Psychotherapist in 3057, VIC
Cara Brough
Psychotherapist, AASW
Verified Verified
People often come to psychotherapy because they are burdened by thoughts, behaviours, feelings, or patterns of relating that make their lives difficult and cause them to suffer. In my psychoanalytic practice it is through speaking freely, and being listened to with careful attention, that people can find new possibilities with the difficulties and impasses that have characterised their lives so far. My approach does not impose norms of relating, functioning or being but meets each person, one by one, in their unique experience of living and in the context of their history and circumstances.
People often come to psychotherapy because they are burdened by thoughts, behaviours, feelings, or patterns of relating that make their lives difficult and cause them to suffer. In my psychoanalytic practice it is through speaking freely, and being listened to with careful attention, that people can find new possibilities with the difficulties and impasses that have characterised their lives so far. My approach does not impose norms of relating, functioning or being but meets each person, one by one, in their unique experience of living and in the context of their history and circumstances.
(03) 7003 2130 View (03) 7003 2130
Photo of Jessica Hack, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Jessica Hack
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
I am experienced in working with adults in private practice, public mental health, emergency departments, and crisis teams. I support individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, difficulties managing their emotion, conflict in relationships and problematic patterns of communication, thoughts of suicide and self-harm, stress, trauma, significant life changes, and those with psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders. I am also a board-approved supervisor and passionate about supporting provisional and early career psychologists with an interest in risk assessment, safety planning, and acute mental health.
I am experienced in working with adults in private practice, public mental health, emergency departments, and crisis teams. I support individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, difficulties managing their emotion, conflict in relationships and problematic patterns of communication, thoughts of suicide and self-harm, stress, trauma, significant life changes, and those with psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders. I am also a board-approved supervisor and passionate about supporting provisional and early career psychologists with an interest in risk assessment, safety planning, and acute mental health.
(03) 7003 2147 View (03) 7003 2147
Photo of Dr Ilvana Dzafic, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Dr Ilvana Dzafic
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Brunswick East, VIC 3057  (Online Only)
Dr Ilvana's therapeutic approach is marked by empathy, knowledge and individualized care. With expertise spanning psychosis, personality disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, OCD, ASD, ADHD, grief and trauma. Navigating symptoms and conditions with sensitivity and understanding, she ensures clients receive personalised support. In Dr Ilvana's Telehealth sessions, individuals encounter a safe, non-judgmental space where their perspectives are heard and valued. By incorporating established methods into practice, she ensures that clients receive not only empathetic support but also effective techniques and strategies.
Dr Ilvana's therapeutic approach is marked by empathy, knowledge and individualized care. With expertise spanning psychosis, personality disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, OCD, ASD, ADHD, grief and trauma. Navigating symptoms and conditions with sensitivity and understanding, she ensures clients receive personalised support. In Dr Ilvana's Telehealth sessions, individuals encounter a safe, non-judgmental space where their perspectives are heard and valued. By incorporating established methods into practice, she ensures that clients receive not only empathetic support but also effective techniques and strategies.
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Photo of Q Soma Counselling, Counsellor in 3057, VIC
Q Soma Counselling
Counsellor, MA, ACA-L3
Verified Verified
Not accepting new clients
The people I support often identify as LGBTIAQ+, may be questioning around their gender, or may experience substance dependency in the context of chemsex / PnP experiences. Many of my clients are also neurodivergent and/or have experienced various forms of trauma and family violence which I am passionate in working alongside kindly, gently and safely. I am also fiercely sex and sex-worker positive! My current fees are low until June 2024 www.queersomacounselling.com
The people I support often identify as LGBTIAQ+, may be questioning around their gender, or may experience substance dependency in the context of chemsex / PnP experiences. Many of my clients are also neurodivergent and/or have experienced various forms of trauma and family violence which I am passionate in working alongside kindly, gently and safely. I am also fiercely sex and sex-worker positive! My current fees are low until June 2024 www.queersomacounselling.com
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Photo of Katrina Lindblom, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Katrina Lindblom
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
I am a compassionate and caring Clinical Psychologist who enjoys working with adolescents and adults experiencing anxiety disorders, OCD, depression, trauma, low self-esteem, interpersonal issues and difficulties managing in everyday life.
I am a compassionate and caring Clinical Psychologist who enjoys working with adolescents and adults experiencing anxiety disorders, OCD, depression, trauma, low self-esteem, interpersonal issues and difficulties managing in everyday life.
(03) 7003 2257 View (03) 7003 2257
Photo of Joy Herman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 3057, VIC
Joy Herman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, AMHSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Not accepting new clients
Are you feeling overwhelmed, irritable, reactive, disconnected and overstimulated? You may notice there is often a sense of urgency and you have difficulty relaxing. Your nervous system might feel dysregulated and you don’t feel good in your skin. Does living the life you want and being authentic feel impossible.  Do relationship’s feel difficult? You might put everyone else before yourself. Being authentic is complicated, it can feel like being true to yourself can impact relationships. Asking for your needs to be met often doesn’t happen. You don't often feel seen in relationships.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, irritable, reactive, disconnected and overstimulated? You may notice there is often a sense of urgency and you have difficulty relaxing. Your nervous system might feel dysregulated and you don’t feel good in your skin. Does living the life you want and being authentic feel impossible.  Do relationship’s feel difficult? You might put everyone else before yourself. Being authentic is complicated, it can feel like being true to yourself can impact relationships. Asking for your needs to be met often doesn’t happen. You don't often feel seen in relationships.
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Photo of Jay Marinis, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Jay Marinis
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Waitlist for new clients
In therapy, the environment Jay creates is compassionate, animated and genuine. They consider themselves to be an active and lively practitioner with a dedicated therapeutic presence. During sessions, you can anticipate receiving unwavering acceptance and support, regardless of your circumstances.
In therapy, the environment Jay creates is compassionate, animated and genuine. They consider themselves to be an active and lively practitioner with a dedicated therapeutic presence. During sessions, you can anticipate receiving unwavering acceptance and support, regardless of your circumstances.
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Photo of Samantha Duroska - Clinical Psychologist, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Samantha Duroska - Clinical Psychologist
Psychologist, MSc, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
You feel like you're caught in a relentless cycle of depression and anxiety. You might often wake up feeling deep dread or suddenly feel anxious without a clear reason. You're not alone, though it can feel like it. Your struggles with these feelings might have started from things that happened when you were younger, which still affect how you react today. Understanding this is an important step toward managing your emotions better.
You feel like you're caught in a relentless cycle of depression and anxiety. You might often wake up feeling deep dread or suddenly feel anxious without a clear reason. You're not alone, though it can feel like it. Your struggles with these feelings might have started from things that happened when you were younger, which still affect how you react today. Understanding this is an important step toward managing your emotions better.
(03) 8338 1208 View (03) 8338 1208
Photo of Dr Milanda Matthews, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Dr Milanda Matthews
Psychologist, PsyBA Endorsed
Verified Verified
People come to therapy for a range of reasons. There might be recurrent problems in relationships or work, there might be disturbing feelings within, or behaviours that are defeating or destructive. Many people find that their usual ways of coping don’t seem to work for them anymore. Whatever the issue, undertaking psychotherapy is an opportunity for you to really understand the underlying drivers of the problem, in the context of your unique life history, and to find a way to transform your suffering. New possibilities for living with greater freedom and creativity might then appear.
People come to therapy for a range of reasons. There might be recurrent problems in relationships or work, there might be disturbing feelings within, or behaviours that are defeating or destructive. Many people find that their usual ways of coping don’t seem to work for them anymore. Whatever the issue, undertaking psychotherapy is an opportunity for you to really understand the underlying drivers of the problem, in the context of your unique life history, and to find a way to transform your suffering. New possibilities for living with greater freedom and creativity might then appear.
(03) 9118 9071 View (03) 9118 9071
Photo of Nelly Uhlenkott, Psychotherapist in 3057, VIC
Nelly Uhlenkott
Psychotherapist, MA, AASW
Verified Verified
People come to see me for a lot of different reasons. For instance, you might be experiencing depression or anxiety, having relationship difficulties (whether you're single or partnered), going through a major life transition or loss, or wondering about the overall direction of your life. You may have a sense that there's something more to life -- that you could be living a richer life, and thriving more than you are right now. I'm here to support you and examine what's working and not, whether you're seeking a major transformation, or simply a deeper understanding of your life patterns.
People come to see me for a lot of different reasons. For instance, you might be experiencing depression or anxiety, having relationship difficulties (whether you're single or partnered), going through a major life transition or loss, or wondering about the overall direction of your life. You may have a sense that there's something more to life -- that you could be living a richer life, and thriving more than you are right now. I'm here to support you and examine what's working and not, whether you're seeking a major transformation, or simply a deeper understanding of your life patterns.
(03) 8595 5018 View (03) 8595 5018
Photo of Darian Winspear, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Darian Winspear
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Hi, I'm Darian! I bring a warm, genuine, and empathetic approach to therapy. It's important to me to take time to develop a trusting and supportive therapeutic dynamic. I provide therapy and autism assessment services. I place an emphasis on working collaboratively and will work with you to help you achieve your desired goals, develop personal insights, and provide strategies and support to help you manage your mental health issues. I am LGBTIQA+ inclusive, neurodiversity affirming, culturally sensitive, and trauma informed. My website is www.moodpsychology.com.au
Hi, I'm Darian! I bring a warm, genuine, and empathetic approach to therapy. It's important to me to take time to develop a trusting and supportive therapeutic dynamic. I provide therapy and autism assessment services. I place an emphasis on working collaboratively and will work with you to help you achieve your desired goals, develop personal insights, and provide strategies and support to help you manage your mental health issues. I am LGBTIQA+ inclusive, neurodiversity affirming, culturally sensitive, and trauma informed. My website is www.moodpsychology.com.au
(03) 8338 4670 View (03) 8338 4670
Photo of Shiao-Hua Kwong, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Shiao-Hua Kwong
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
I am a clinical psychologist and a client-centred and trauma-informed therapist who works from a standpoint of compassion and curiosity. A migrant from Asia, fluent in English, Mandarin and Cantonese, I have firsthand experience of uprooting from what is familiar and reestablishing in a new environment. I also bring into the therapy room an experience of major career change. I feel privileged to be able to help people make personal recovery from life-changing circumstances, in rebuilding hope, redefining self-identity, assuming / re-assuming responsibilities, and leading a meaningful life.
I am a clinical psychologist and a client-centred and trauma-informed therapist who works from a standpoint of compassion and curiosity. A migrant from Asia, fluent in English, Mandarin and Cantonese, I have firsthand experience of uprooting from what is familiar and reestablishing in a new environment. I also bring into the therapy room an experience of major career change. I feel privileged to be able to help people make personal recovery from life-changing circumstances, in rebuilding hope, redefining self-identity, assuming / re-assuming responsibilities, and leading a meaningful life.
(03) 9111 2663 View (03) 9111 2663
Photo of Kate Kneipp, Counsellor in 3057, VIC
Kate Kneipp
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I utilise a person-centred approach to help clients adjust to and cope with difficulties that are arising in their life. I believe you are the expert on your own life and I enjoy collaborating with clients to evoke meaningful change. I can assist clients who are experiencing: stress, anxiety, depression, women's health issues (coping with endometriosis, fibroids, fertility and other reproductive health concerns), life transitions, grief and loss, addiction and substance use issues, and relationship concerns.
I utilise a person-centred approach to help clients adjust to and cope with difficulties that are arising in their life. I believe you are the expert on your own life and I enjoy collaborating with clients to evoke meaningful change. I can assist clients who are experiencing: stress, anxiety, depression, women's health issues (coping with endometriosis, fibroids, fertility and other reproductive health concerns), life transitions, grief and loss, addiction and substance use issues, and relationship concerns.
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Photo of TAM Therapy, Counsellor in 3057, VIC
TAM Therapy
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
If you are struggling, feeling overwhelmed or anxious, therapy can help you find more clarity and balance, providing an opportunity to work through your immediate life challenges or explore issues on a deeper level in a calm, supportive and non-judgemental space. Marianne Trinder is an accredited counsellor and psychotherapist, as well as a mindfulness instructor, with over twenty five years of experience in mindfulness practice. TAM (Talk And Mindfulness) Therapy, brings together Marianne’s skills and experience in scientifically-backed, talk-based therapy as well as mindfulness practices.
If you are struggling, feeling overwhelmed or anxious, therapy can help you find more clarity and balance, providing an opportunity to work through your immediate life challenges or explore issues on a deeper level in a calm, supportive and non-judgemental space. Marianne Trinder is an accredited counsellor and psychotherapist, as well as a mindfulness instructor, with over twenty five years of experience in mindfulness practice. TAM (Talk And Mindfulness) Therapy, brings together Marianne’s skills and experience in scientifically-backed, talk-based therapy as well as mindfulness practices.
(03) 7003 2066 View (03) 7003 2066
Photo of Manisha Abraham, Counsellor in 3057, VIC
Manisha Abraham
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified Verified
Manisha (she/they) is a queer Sri Lankan, Fijian-Indian woman who was born and raised in Aotearoa New Zealand. Raised in a bicultural haven, Manisha champions the belief that what's good for Māori is beneficial for all, a guiding principle intricately woven into her life and therapeutic practice. Driven by a heartfelt commitment to decolonising therapy, Manisha envisions a therapeutic space where each client thrives individually and collectively. As a person-centred narrative therapist, her journey involves a constant dance of unlearning and relearning within a decolonised framework.
Manisha (she/they) is a queer Sri Lankan, Fijian-Indian woman who was born and raised in Aotearoa New Zealand. Raised in a bicultural haven, Manisha champions the belief that what's good for Māori is beneficial for all, a guiding principle intricately woven into her life and therapeutic practice. Driven by a heartfelt commitment to decolonising therapy, Manisha envisions a therapeutic space where each client thrives individually and collectively. As a person-centred narrative therapist, her journey involves a constant dance of unlearning and relearning within a decolonised framework.
(03) 7003 2416 View (03) 7003 2416
Photo of Melody Howlett, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 3057, VIC
Melody Howlett
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified Verified
Brunswick East, VIC 3057  (Online Only)
Please note I am only seeing couples online currently on Monday and Thursday evenings. I support couples of all ages, stages, personalities and abilities in relationships to better relate to, understand and communicate with one another and increase their sense of connection. I specialise and am trained in Gottman Therapy which was developed by psychologists, John and Julie Gottman 50 years of work researching and supporting couples to live more connected and fulfilling lives together.
Please note I am only seeing couples online currently on Monday and Thursday evenings. I support couples of all ages, stages, personalities and abilities in relationships to better relate to, understand and communicate with one another and increase their sense of connection. I specialise and am trained in Gottman Therapy which was developed by psychologists, John and Julie Gottman 50 years of work researching and supporting couples to live more connected and fulfilling lives together.
(03) 7020 2723 View (03) 7020 2723
Photo of Claire Raworth Counselling, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 3057, VIC
Claire Raworth Counselling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
I am an empathetic, compassionate and experienced counsellor who utilises a range of evidence-based therapeutic approaches to assist you to make positive changes in your life. I have been a social worker for many years and in that time have provided counselling and support to a wide range of people. I can support you with various issues such as life transitions, work stress, relationship and parenting challenges, grief & loss, anxiety and depression. I am a fully Accredited Mental Health Social Worker and so you can claim a rebate from Medicare for my services of $81.90.
I am an empathetic, compassionate and experienced counsellor who utilises a range of evidence-based therapeutic approaches to assist you to make positive changes in your life. I have been a social worker for many years and in that time have provided counselling and support to a wide range of people. I can support you with various issues such as life transitions, work stress, relationship and parenting challenges, grief & loss, anxiety and depression. I am a fully Accredited Mental Health Social Worker and so you can claim a rebate from Medicare for my services of $81.90.
(03) 8338 4975 View (03) 8338 4975
Photo of Sherridan J Green, Psychotherapist in 3057, VIC
Sherridan J Green
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified Verified
Sherridan is a Gestalt therapist and EMDR therapist, her personal style as a therapist is attentive, compassionate, and supportive. You will experience being listened to and responded to with curiosity and authenticity. She provides a safe and welcoming space for you to explore your deepest concerns. Sherridan supports individuals and couples on journeys of self-discovery through understanding vital areas of their lives, including emotional development, identity, responses to the world, awareness, process of enquiry, living skills, and capacity for self-responsibility.
Sherridan is a Gestalt therapist and EMDR therapist, her personal style as a therapist is attentive, compassionate, and supportive. You will experience being listened to and responded to with curiosity and authenticity. She provides a safe and welcoming space for you to explore your deepest concerns. Sherridan supports individuals and couples on journeys of self-discovery through understanding vital areas of their lives, including emotional development, identity, responses to the world, awareness, process of enquiry, living skills, and capacity for self-responsibility.
(03) 9118 9081 View (03) 9118 9081
Photo of Philippa Page, Psychologist in 3057, VIC
Philippa Page
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Waitlist for new clients
I am a registered psychologist who works with adolescents (16 and up) and adults. I pride myself on making all clients feel welcome and comfortable in the therapeutic space. I like to take the time to deeply understand each individual client in order to cater my therapeutic approach to the individual. I see the client as the expert in the room and tap into their knowledge of themselves and their presenting issues to collaboratively work through and understand the issue together. I endeavour to help clients develop long lasting strategies and insight into themselves to be able to use and apply outside of the therapeutic space.
I am a registered psychologist who works with adolescents (16 and up) and adults. I pride myself on making all clients feel welcome and comfortable in the therapeutic space. I like to take the time to deeply understand each individual client in order to cater my therapeutic approach to the individual. I see the client as the expert in the room and tap into their knowledge of themselves and their presenting issues to collaboratively work through and understand the issue together. I endeavour to help clients develop long lasting strategies and insight into themselves to be able to use and apply outside of the therapeutic space.
(03) 9068 5157 View (03) 9068 5157

See more therapy options for 3057

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in 3057

60+

Average cost per session

$189

Counsellors in 3057 who prioritize treating:

86% Depression
86% Anxiety
80% Stress
78% Self Esteem
74% Trauma and PTSD
69% Relationship Issues
66% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% Medicare Rebates
38% NDIS
33% Bupa

How Counsellors in 3057 see their clients

90% In Person and Online
10% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
16% Male
4% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in 3057?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.