Photo of Ketashia Berrien, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Ketashia Berrien
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
Making a commitment to therapy can definitely be a heavy ask but I’d be honored if you took a chance with me and allowed me to take that journey with you. I would love to support you in the way that my friends and family members have told me that I’ve supported them during periods of transition, relationship qualms, or crisis. Because of them, I believed in myself and took the long hard journey to gain the credentials to assist others in a similar way. I am committed to seeing you reach the win you imagine – let’s reach that finish line together
Making a commitment to therapy can definitely be a heavy ask but I’d be honored if you took a chance with me and allowed me to take that journey with you. I would love to support you in the way that my friends and family members have told me that I’ve supported them during periods of transition, relationship qualms, or crisis. Because of them, I believed in myself and took the long hard journey to gain the credentials to assist others in a similar way. I am committed to seeing you reach the win you imagine – let’s reach that finish line together
(616) 449-2296 View (616) 449-2296
Photo of Atha Jiva Mindful Therapy And Wellness, Pre-Licensed Professional in 48203, MI
Atha Jiva Mindful Therapy And Wellness
Pre-Licensed Professional, LLPC, CRC, MA, IAYT, cHYP
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
I have experience working with a range of client concerns such as Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Stress and Anger Management, Depression, Panic Attacks, Chronic Pain, Couple and Relationship Counseling as well as Career Counseling. I encourage clients to unpack and release emotional, mental, and physical discomfort and trauma with a range of clinical as well as holistic interventions. Together in the therapeutic alliance, my clients are supported to break through old patterns of thinking and reacting that impact their mental health and impede their personal and professional growth.
I have experience working with a range of client concerns such as Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Stress and Anger Management, Depression, Panic Attacks, Chronic Pain, Couple and Relationship Counseling as well as Career Counseling. I encourage clients to unpack and release emotional, mental, and physical discomfort and trauma with a range of clinical as well as holistic interventions. Together in the therapeutic alliance, my clients are supported to break through old patterns of thinking and reacting that impact their mental health and impede their personal and professional growth.
(313) 710-8999 View (313) 710-8999
Photo of Angela R Dawson, Licensed Professional Counselor in 48203, MI
Angela R Dawson
Licensed Professional Counselor, Psy'D, LLPC, ADS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203
I most recently earned my Doctoral degree in Psychology, with that I also hold a Limited License with the State of Michigan for Clinical Mental Health Counseling; in addition to being a State of Michigan Certified Peer Recovery Mentor, with 20 years experience working with children and families. I specialize in working with defiant children. I also provide therapy for individuals, couples and families.
I most recently earned my Doctoral degree in Psychology, with that I also hold a Limited License with the State of Michigan for Clinical Mental Health Counseling; in addition to being a State of Michigan Certified Peer Recovery Mentor, with 20 years experience working with children and families. I specialize in working with defiant children. I also provide therapy for individuals, couples and families.
(248) 782-7701 View (248) 782-7701
Photo of Efrion Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Efrion Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
Are you stuck in this thing called life but not really living a fulfilling existence? We all experience highs, lows and everything in between. Life experiences range from issues with family, work, intimate relationships, friends, children, trauma, general dissatisfaction and everything in-between. If you’ve experienced being stuck in any of these areas and need help to move forward, then I believe I can assist you in that journey toward wholeness, peace and stability.
Are you stuck in this thing called life but not really living a fulfilling existence? We all experience highs, lows and everything in between. Life experiences range from issues with family, work, intimate relationships, friends, children, trauma, general dissatisfaction and everything in-between. If you’ve experienced being stuck in any of these areas and need help to move forward, then I believe I can assist you in that journey toward wholeness, peace and stability.
(313) 942-4151 View (313) 942-4151
Photo of Ashley N. Craft, Limited Licensed Psychologist in 48203, MI
Ashley N. Craft
Limited Licensed Psychologist, PsyD, LLP
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203
Not accepting new clients
I am a generalist practitioner who serves individuals based on their unique needs. I recognize each client as an individual while also acknowledging the role of multi-sectored factors that contribute to their way of being. My goal is to assist clients with healthily navigating those experiences through the development of skills that promote self-actualization, autonomy, and longstanding application. I approach each client with empathy, compassion, and openness. You are the expert in your life. I am merely here to assist you in further developing that role in a sustainable way.
I am a generalist practitioner who serves individuals based on their unique needs. I recognize each client as an individual while also acknowledging the role of multi-sectored factors that contribute to their way of being. My goal is to assist clients with healthily navigating those experiences through the development of skills that promote self-actualization, autonomy, and longstanding application. I approach each client with empathy, compassion, and openness. You are the expert in your life. I am merely here to assist you in further developing that role in a sustainable way.
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Photo of Dr. Shantel Crosby, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Dr. Shantel Crosby
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
My practice, West Rose Therapy & Consultation, LLC, is currently accepting clients in KY & MI via telehealth videoconferencing only! I work with individual adults dealing with conflict, depression, anxiety, past/present trauma, relationship or family issues, or difficult life transitions. West Rose also has clinicians available to offer reduced fee services (i.e., $75 per session) for individual adult and adolescent clients.
My practice, West Rose Therapy & Consultation, LLC, is currently accepting clients in KY & MI via telehealth videoconferencing only! I work with individual adults dealing with conflict, depression, anxiety, past/present trauma, relationship or family issues, or difficult life transitions. West Rose also has clinicians available to offer reduced fee services (i.e., $75 per session) for individual adult and adolescent clients.
(502) 306-0692 View (502) 306-0692
Photo of Sherri A Gatson Lcsw, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Sherri A Gatson Lcsw
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203
Empowering individuals and families towards real change. Inner Change,LLC works with individuals, families and groups focusing on the individual strengths and inner resources to improve personal outcomes. Inner Change, LLC is an evidence based therapeutic counseling and education center serving the needs of anyone seeking support towards real change.
Empowering individuals and families towards real change. Inner Change,LLC works with individuals, families and groups focusing on the individual strengths and inner resources to improve personal outcomes. Inner Change, LLC is an evidence based therapeutic counseling and education center serving the needs of anyone seeking support towards real change.
(248) 782-7701 View (248) 782-7701
Photo of DDC Counseling and Consulting, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in 48203, MI
DDC Counseling and Consulting, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, PMP
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203
My counseling philosophy is difficult doesn't mean impossible. I believe counseling involves helping you move from your current state towards what you are capable of becoming. This can be accomplished through a counseling relationship that (1) is genuine and real (2) enables you to experience acceptance and care, and (3) helps you to feel understood.
My counseling philosophy is difficult doesn't mean impossible. I believe counseling involves helping you move from your current state towards what you are capable of becoming. This can be accomplished through a counseling relationship that (1) is genuine and real (2) enables you to experience acceptance and care, and (3) helps you to feel understood.
(313) 462-2606 View (313) 462-2606
Photo of Kori Loewe, Licensed Professional Counselor in 48203, MI
Kori Loewe
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, CAADC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
You're a helping professional or creative who needs help. You appear high functioning and your symptoms aren’t constant but they can be intense. You're scared that you’ve just been fooling everyone since they have no idea what a mess you really are. This has been going on so long, it’s hard to even remember a time before it. You know one thing for sure though: you want to feel better. You’re ready to let go of the anger. You’re ready to have better ways to cope and react to your triggers. But most of all, you’re ready to actually move on and live a happy life.
You're a helping professional or creative who needs help. You appear high functioning and your symptoms aren’t constant but they can be intense. You're scared that you’ve just been fooling everyone since they have no idea what a mess you really are. This has been going on so long, it’s hard to even remember a time before it. You know one thing for sure though: you want to feel better. You’re ready to let go of the anger. You’re ready to have better ways to cope and react to your triggers. But most of all, you’re ready to actually move on and live a happy life.
(248) 213-8621 View (248) 213-8621
Photo of Deborah E Boyer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Deborah E Boyer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203
Waitlist for new clients
I consider therapy a gift where you are able to detox from family pain and drama, remove the obstacles to your own growth and happiness -- and live the life you were meant to live. In our work together you will begin to know your self. Deep within each of us is the longing for happiness. Happiness does not depend on outer circumstances or how other people behave, it’s created with our innermost feelings and sense of well-being. My practice offers individual, couples and family sessions for all ages, with night and weekend appointments available. My office is located on the first floor of the beautiful Park Shelton building.
I consider therapy a gift where you are able to detox from family pain and drama, remove the obstacles to your own growth and happiness -- and live the life you were meant to live. In our work together you will begin to know your self. Deep within each of us is the longing for happiness. Happiness does not depend on outer circumstances or how other people behave, it’s created with our innermost feelings and sense of well-being. My practice offers individual, couples and family sessions for all ages, with night and weekend appointments available. My office is located on the first floor of the beautiful Park Shelton building.
(248) 213-7628 View (248) 213-7628
Photo of Dante D Dixson, Psychologist in 48203, MI
Dante D Dixson
Psychologist, PhD, LP
Verified Verified
Highland Park, MI 48203
The point of therapy is to help clients increase their life satisfaction. My approach is to partner with my clients in helping them to gain a better understanding of their concerns, as well as provide them a space to explore ways to successfully navigate their concerns. With me, therapy is a team effort! So if you think you are ready to begin…give me a call!
The point of therapy is to help clients increase their life satisfaction. My approach is to partner with my clients in helping them to gain a better understanding of their concerns, as well as provide them a space to explore ways to successfully navigate their concerns. With me, therapy is a team effort! So if you think you are ready to begin…give me a call!
(248) 794-1908 View (248) 794-1908
Photo of Arbor Wellness Center, Registered Psychotherapist in 48203, MI
Arbor Wellness Center
Registered Psychotherapist, MA, TLLP, CTRS
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
I have experience working with children and adolescents in an inpatient psychiatric setting as well as in ABA settings. I have helped clients to address anxiety, depression, ADHD, social skill deficits, oppositional defiant disorder, relational conflict, trauma, and self-esteem issues. I am passionate about working with the emerging adult and adolescent population as it is a transformative time of growth and discovery. I want to be able to journey with you through major life transitions using trauma-informed care where needed. I believe in building a strong therapeutic relationship with unconditional positive regard.
I have experience working with children and adolescents in an inpatient psychiatric setting as well as in ABA settings. I have helped clients to address anxiety, depression, ADHD, social skill deficits, oppositional defiant disorder, relational conflict, trauma, and self-esteem issues. I am passionate about working with the emerging adult and adolescent population as it is a transformative time of growth and discovery. I want to be able to journey with you through major life transitions using trauma-informed care where needed. I believe in building a strong therapeutic relationship with unconditional positive regard.
(734) 985-2926 View (734) 985-2926
Photo of Charity M Loring, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Charity M Loring
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, BSW, MSW, LMSW, CMHP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
We all need emotional support in our lives. I respect the fact that it takes a level of bravery to step outside one's comfort zone to seek help in times of trouble. Getting therapy does not mean that you are "crazy". Instead, therapy can be empowering, and exercises our emotional potential. I provide an objective perspective and empathy that you may not typically receive from friends or family. I am honored to work with those who are attempting to seek help in bettering their lives.
We all need emotional support in our lives. I respect the fact that it takes a level of bravery to step outside one's comfort zone to seek help in times of trouble. Getting therapy does not mean that you are "crazy". Instead, therapy can be empowering, and exercises our emotional potential. I provide an objective perspective and empathy that you may not typically receive from friends or family. I am honored to work with those who are attempting to seek help in bettering their lives.
(734) 984-5378 View (734) 984-5378
Photo of Cal Robinson Phd, Psychologist in 48203, MI
Cal Robinson Phd
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
You may feel like you've tried everything and still haven’t found relief. That takes a toll. My specialty as a health psychologist focuses on chronic pain management, helping people manage the severity of their pain along with the frustration, sadness, exhaustion, and grief that come along with chronic pain. When it comes to managing pain, having a therapist who specializes in pain matters. I find fulfillment in helping patients like you achieve better quality of life, achieve lasting health improvements, and reach personal goals that otherwise couldn't be met.
You may feel like you've tried everything and still haven’t found relief. That takes a toll. My specialty as a health psychologist focuses on chronic pain management, helping people manage the severity of their pain along with the frustration, sadness, exhaustion, and grief that come along with chronic pain. When it comes to managing pain, having a therapist who specializes in pain matters. I find fulfillment in helping patients like you achieve better quality of life, achieve lasting health improvements, and reach personal goals that otherwise couldn't be met.
(313) 930-8657 View (313) 930-8657
Photo of Cortney Ann McLellan, Licensed Professional Counselor in 48203, MI
Cortney Ann McLellan
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
Looking for therapy, or clinical supervision for LLPCs in Michigan? I got you covered. I believe building rapport with my clients is the most important part of therapy as well as supervision, and that can lead to long term success. I know you may be feeling nervous and not sure what to do, but I am here to help. I am eclectic and authentic in my approach and I believe that makes it feel more like you are talking to a "normal person" not a robot or a clinician. I believe that helps me to walk along side you to help get to a better more fulfilling life.
Looking for therapy, or clinical supervision for LLPCs in Michigan? I got you covered. I believe building rapport with my clients is the most important part of therapy as well as supervision, and that can lead to long term success. I know you may be feeling nervous and not sure what to do, but I am here to help. I am eclectic and authentic in my approach and I believe that makes it feel more like you are talking to a "normal person" not a robot or a clinician. I believe that helps me to walk along side you to help get to a better more fulfilling life.
(810) 374-4064 View (810) 374-4064
Photo of Jada Perry in 48203, MI
Jada Perry
L, P, C
Verified Verified
Highland Park, MI 48203  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
For the strong person that is “tired” of carrying the load, you no longer have to do it alone. I have a profound love for assisting others through their hardships and emotional battles. I use my compassion and creativity to assist clients with overcoming the challenges that arise due to unresolved trauma, anxiety, relationship issues, and depression. My goal is to encourage my clients to face their inner turmoil and learn to address their inner wounds with love and self-compassion. Together, we will develop goals that best fit your overall concerns and go at a pace that best fits your needs.
For the strong person that is “tired” of carrying the load, you no longer have to do it alone. I have a profound love for assisting others through their hardships and emotional battles. I use my compassion and creativity to assist clients with overcoming the challenges that arise due to unresolved trauma, anxiety, relationship issues, and depression. My goal is to encourage my clients to face their inner turmoil and learn to address their inner wounds with love and self-compassion. Together, we will develop goals that best fit your overall concerns and go at a pace that best fits your needs.
(810) 202-8389 View (810) 202-8389
Photo of Valeria Martinez-Kaigi, Psychologist in 48203, MI
Valeria Martinez-Kaigi
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
My patients often feel like they've tried everything and still haven’t found relief. That takes a toll. My specialty as a health psychologist focuses on chronic pain management, helping people manage the severity of their pain along with the frustration, sadness, exhaustion, and grief that come along with chronic pain. When it comes to managing pain, having a therapist who specializes in pain matters. I find fulfillment in helping patients like you achieve better quality of life, achieve lasting health improvements, and reach personal goals that otherwise couldn't be met.
My patients often feel like they've tried everything and still haven’t found relief. That takes a toll. My specialty as a health psychologist focuses on chronic pain management, helping people manage the severity of their pain along with the frustration, sadness, exhaustion, and grief that come along with chronic pain. When it comes to managing pain, having a therapist who specializes in pain matters. I find fulfillment in helping patients like you achieve better quality of life, achieve lasting health improvements, and reach personal goals that otherwise couldn't be met.
(832) 996-2742 View (832) 996-2742
Photo of Lindsey Farlow, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Lindsey Farlow
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
Lindsey is a licensed social worker who has experience with various populations and challenges. She specializes in relationship building in regards to family, couple/martial, and sibling bonds. Lindsey utilizes individual and group training interventions in order for families to implement positive behavioral techniques for challenging behaviors and obtain psycho-education of various diagnoses and interventions. She is trained in evidence-based treatments including CBT, DBT, Positive Family Interventions, Zones of Regulation, Motivational Interviewing, TF-CBT, Empowerment Theory, Crisis and Suicide Preventions.
Lindsey is a licensed social worker who has experience with various populations and challenges. She specializes in relationship building in regards to family, couple/martial, and sibling bonds. Lindsey utilizes individual and group training interventions in order for families to implement positive behavioral techniques for challenging behaviors and obtain psycho-education of various diagnoses and interventions. She is trained in evidence-based treatments including CBT, DBT, Positive Family Interventions, Zones of Regulation, Motivational Interviewing, TF-CBT, Empowerment Theory, Crisis and Suicide Preventions.
(616) 585-0292 View (616) 585-0292
Tracy L. Boudrie
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203
I am a Clinician and the Behavioral Health Director for a clinic providing culturally competent care to people from all walks of life looking for support to reach their goals/potential. We provide support for issues such as sadness, depression, or anxiety, and are looking for someone to help you find your own personal resolutions. We work as a team to help you find the BEST options for YOU to work through your concerns, reach your goals, and get to living your Best Life! We would be honored if you allowed us to walk your path with you to find your Ideal space where calm and tranquility permeate.
I am a Clinician and the Behavioral Health Director for a clinic providing culturally competent care to people from all walks of life looking for support to reach their goals/potential. We provide support for issues such as sadness, depression, or anxiety, and are looking for someone to help you find your own personal resolutions. We work as a team to help you find the BEST options for YOU to work through your concerns, reach your goals, and get to living your Best Life! We would be honored if you allowed us to walk your path with you to find your Ideal space where calm and tranquility permeate.
(313) 986-1154 View (313) 986-1154
Photo of Dominique A Hamilton ( Not Accepting New Clients Until 3-2024), Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 48203, MI
Dominique A Hamilton ( Not Accepting New Clients Until 3-2024)
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203
Not accepting new clients
Throughout the course of our lives we will all experience life events that may cause stress, trauma or even grief. As a result of these events, it’s natural for them to weigh heavily on your mental and emotional well being. It is also very common to feel as if your life is unraveling and that you have no way of piecing things back together. With a concentration on Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), Strength Based treatments, and Trauma Informed Care I strive to assist clients with mapping out their own unique journey to healing.
Throughout the course of our lives we will all experience life events that may cause stress, trauma or even grief. As a result of these events, it’s natural for them to weigh heavily on your mental and emotional well being. It is also very common to feel as if your life is unraveling and that you have no way of piecing things back together. With a concentration on Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), Strength Based treatments, and Trauma Informed Care I strive to assist clients with mapping out their own unique journey to healing.
(248) 712-3405 View (248) 712-3405

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 48203

40+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 48203 who prioritize treating:

98% Anxiety
95% Depression
83% Stress
80% Relationship Issues
80% Self Esteem
78% Trauma and PTSD
78% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

97% BlueCross and BlueShield
61% Aetna
58% Blue Care Network

How Therapists in 48203 see their clients

60% Online Only
40% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

87% Female
13% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 48203?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.