Counselling in McDowall, QLD

Photo of North Brisbane Psychologists , Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
North Brisbane Psychologists
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA - Org. Psych.
Verified
McDowall, QLD 4053
We are a team of 40 dedicated and nonjudgmental practitioners. We work with adults, kids, teens, families and couples. We help our clients find better ways to manage anxiety, depression, stress and burnout, addiction, trauma, and relationship conflicts. We offer various therapies including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), EMDR, Schema Therapy, Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT), the Gottman Method, Nonviolent Communication (NVC) mediation, and Emotion Focussed Couples Therapy.
We are a team of 40 dedicated and nonjudgmental practitioners. We work with adults, kids, teens, families and couples. We help our clients find better ways to manage anxiety, depression, stress and burnout, addiction, trauma, and relationship conflicts. We offer various therapies including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), EMDR, Schema Therapy, Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT), the Gottman Method, Nonviolent Communication (NVC) mediation, and Emotion Focussed Couples Therapy.
(07) 3485 0793 View (07) 3485 0793
Photo of Healing Connections Psychology, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Healing Connections Psychology
Psychologist, PsychD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
McDowall, QLD 4053
We are innately equipped for both struggle and connection, essential for enhancing our life experiences in areas like relationships, work, parenting, and beyond. Recognising the impact of adversity, it's important to understand how it shapes our emotional experiences and reactions. Adversity manifests in various ways, influencing our ability to express and process emotions across the spectrum - from joy and happiness to sadness and fear. Our team provides a supportive space that fosters a safe, warm, and empathetic environment where you can openly explore and discuss your personal experiences, through trauma-informed perspectives.
We are innately equipped for both struggle and connection, essential for enhancing our life experiences in areas like relationships, work, parenting, and beyond. Recognising the impact of adversity, it's important to understand how it shapes our emotional experiences and reactions. Adversity manifests in various ways, influencing our ability to express and process emotions across the spectrum - from joy and happiness to sadness and fear. Our team provides a supportive space that fosters a safe, warm, and empathetic environment where you can openly explore and discuss your personal experiences, through trauma-informed perspectives.
(07) 3062 8591 View (07) 3062 8591
Photo of Jess Sexton, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in McDowall, QLD
Jess Sexton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified
1 Endorsed
McDowall, QLD 4053
Jess works with Animal Assistive Therapy (AAT) with her therapy dog Pikelet to assist children and adults to manage a range of mental health conditions or situations including trauma, difficulties managing emotions, poor sense of self, stress, anxiety, depression, relationship challenges, parenting, grief and loss, life transitions and adjustments.
Jess works with Animal Assistive Therapy (AAT) with her therapy dog Pikelet to assist children and adults to manage a range of mental health conditions or situations including trauma, difficulties managing emotions, poor sense of self, stress, anxiety, depression, relationship challenges, parenting, grief and loss, life transitions and adjustments.
(07) 3214 3651 View (07) 3214 3651
Photo of Kylie Warren, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Kylie Warren
Psychologist, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
McDowall, QLD 4053
I am a Clinical Psychologist based in North Brisbane (Everton Park). I am passionate about helping individuals of all ages achieve their full potential and lead fulfilling lives. Whether you're seeking therapy, assessment, or simply looking for support and guidance on your personal journey, I am here to help. My approach to therapy is based on the belief that every individual has the capacity for growth and change. Through a collaborative and non-judgmental approach, I aim to help you gain insight into your thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and develop the skills and strategies you need to lead a more fulfilling life.
I am a Clinical Psychologist based in North Brisbane (Everton Park). I am passionate about helping individuals of all ages achieve their full potential and lead fulfilling lives. Whether you're seeking therapy, assessment, or simply looking for support and guidance on your personal journey, I am here to help. My approach to therapy is based on the belief that every individual has the capacity for growth and change. Through a collaborative and non-judgmental approach, I aim to help you gain insight into your thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and develop the skills and strategies you need to lead a more fulfilling life.
(07) 3179 6934 View (07) 3179 6934
Photo of Heather Joy Murr, Counsellor in McDowall, QLD
Heather Joy Murr
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified
McDowall, QLD 4053
As a professional counsellor, and a registered member of PACFA, Heather is not only trained/experienced in a range of evidence-based counselling and psychotherapeutic approaches, but also is dedicated to maintaining the highest possible standard of professional practice, and care. While using a Trauma Informed, Strengths Based, and Person Centred approach, it is Heather's genuinely non judgmental, kind and empathic nature, which is always central to her practice. It is this which lays at the core in the support she provides to her clients, to help them address their issues, meet their needs, and achieve their goals.
As a professional counsellor, and a registered member of PACFA, Heather is not only trained/experienced in a range of evidence-based counselling and psychotherapeutic approaches, but also is dedicated to maintaining the highest possible standard of professional practice, and care. While using a Trauma Informed, Strengths Based, and Person Centred approach, it is Heather's genuinely non judgmental, kind and empathic nature, which is always central to her practice. It is this which lays at the core in the support she provides to her clients, to help them address their issues, meet their needs, and achieve their goals.
(07) 3608 1027 View (07) 3608 1027
Photo of Mindful Psychologist, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Mindful Psychologist
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified
McDowall, QLD 4053
I especially connect with and enjoy providing support to people who struggle because they are highly-sensitive (hsperson.com), perfectionists, over-thinkers, anxious/worriers, or they have a history of trauma (from childhood, or from adult experiences, such as military service, miscarriage, violent assault, workplace bullying). I enjoy complex presentations, where there may be PTSD, anxiety, attachment issues, perfectionism, where the person's goal is to create an inner peace, fulfilment and live a more contented life. With couples, I can help you learn how to communicate effectively, resolve conflicts and improve your connection.
I especially connect with and enjoy providing support to people who struggle because they are highly-sensitive (hsperson.com), perfectionists, over-thinkers, anxious/worriers, or they have a history of trauma (from childhood, or from adult experiences, such as military service, miscarriage, violent assault, workplace bullying). I enjoy complex presentations, where there may be PTSD, anxiety, attachment issues, perfectionism, where the person's goal is to create an inner peace, fulfilment and live a more contented life. With couples, I can help you learn how to communicate effectively, resolve conflicts and improve your connection.
(07) 2000 4279 View (07) 2000 4279

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Jessica van der Torre, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Jessica van der Torre
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Bowen Hills, QLD 4006
Jessica van der Torre enjoys an individualised and client-centered approach, collaborating together with her clients towards their treatment goals. She is warm, gentle and supportive in her style. It is important to her that clients feel that sessions are conducted in a safe, positive and nonjudgmental atmosphere in order to work towards positive change.
Jessica van der Torre enjoys an individualised and client-centered approach, collaborating together with her clients towards their treatment goals. She is warm, gentle and supportive in her style. It is important to her that clients feel that sessions are conducted in a safe, positive and nonjudgmental atmosphere in order to work towards positive change.
(07) 4243 4681 View (07) 4243 4681
Photo of Haritha Jonnalagadda, Counsellor in McDowall, QLD
Haritha Jonnalagadda
Counsellor, MC, ACA-L4
Verified
Chermside, QLD 4032
Haritha works with adults over 21 wanting to recover from developmental/complex trauma, relational trauma, pain, Trauma related dissociation, Depression & Anxiety Chronic Stress & Chronic Pain, Emotional & Somatic Pains, Joint/Muscular Pains, Repetitive Injuries Chronic Health Conditions, Poor relationship with movement & body, Postural Issues & Pain Functional Movement restrictions.
Haritha works with adults over 21 wanting to recover from developmental/complex trauma, relational trauma, pain, Trauma related dissociation, Depression & Anxiety Chronic Stress & Chronic Pain, Emotional & Somatic Pains, Joint/Muscular Pains, Repetitive Injuries Chronic Health Conditions, Poor relationship with movement & body, Postural Issues & Pain Functional Movement restrictions.
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Photo of Sam Howard-van Beek, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in McDowall, QLD
Sam Howard-van Beek
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified
Enoggera, QLD 4051
Are you stressed out, anxious, always rushing about and feeling overwhelmed by the demands on you within your life. Someone always needs something from you - the kids, partners, ageing parents, friends, family. You would like things to be different, You would like to be less stressed, calmer and happier - but you do not know where to start or even if making change is really possible. I have found that time in nature gifts us with profound benefits. It decreases anxiety and stress, by calming our nervous system. Time in nature improves our mood, increases self-esteem and offers a sense of belonging. Nature is central to my practice.
Are you stressed out, anxious, always rushing about and feeling overwhelmed by the demands on you within your life. Someone always needs something from you - the kids, partners, ageing parents, friends, family. You would like things to be different, You would like to be less stressed, calmer and happier - but you do not know where to start or even if making change is really possible. I have found that time in nature gifts us with profound benefits. It decreases anxiety and stress, by calming our nervous system. Time in nature improves our mood, increases self-esteem and offers a sense of belonging. Nature is central to my practice.
(07) 3113 9112 View (07) 3113 9112
Photo of Jane Correnti, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Jane Correnti
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Nundah, QLD 4012
Welcome. I have availability for ADHD assessments available for 11 years and above. I also offer therapy and psychoeducation.
Welcome. I have availability for ADHD assessments available for 11 years and above. I also offer therapy and psychoeducation.
(07) 2100 4351 View (07) 2100 4351
Photo of Larne Wellington - Positive Families Psychology, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Larne Wellington - Positive Families Psychology
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Ashgrove, QLD 4060
Larne is an experienced and accomplished Child, Adult, and Family Psychologist, Family Dispute Resolution Practitioner, and Parent Coordinator. She is the founder and Principal Psychologist at Positive Families Psychology and the creator of the Confident Kids and Teens program. With over 15 years of dedicated experience in psychology and mediation, Larne possesses exceptional knowledge in child development and adult mental health.
Larne is an experienced and accomplished Child, Adult, and Family Psychologist, Family Dispute Resolution Practitioner, and Parent Coordinator. She is the founder and Principal Psychologist at Positive Families Psychology and the creator of the Confident Kids and Teens program. With over 15 years of dedicated experience in psychology and mediation, Larne possesses exceptional knowledge in child development and adult mental health.
(07) 3132 0759 View (07) 3132 0759
Photo of Holistic Wellness Psychology, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Holistic Wellness Psychology
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Ed. Psych.
Verified
Everton Park, QLD 4053
Johanna Badenhorst is a Brisbane-based holistic psychologist who supports clients with general wellbeing, perinatal and infant mental health, and women's health concerns. Clients may be experiencing various issues such as anxiety, depression, OCD, trauma, adjustment difficulties, ADHD or Autism, an eating disorder, or parenting concerns. They may seek to address emotional struggles, healthy parent-child attachment, and enhance their own self-care practices. Client goals may include finding effective coping strategies, improving emotional resilience, fostering a positive parenting experience, and optimising their mental health.
Johanna Badenhorst is a Brisbane-based holistic psychologist who supports clients with general wellbeing, perinatal and infant mental health, and women's health concerns. Clients may be experiencing various issues such as anxiety, depression, OCD, trauma, adjustment difficulties, ADHD or Autism, an eating disorder, or parenting concerns. They may seek to address emotional struggles, healthy parent-child attachment, and enhance their own self-care practices. Client goals may include finding effective coping strategies, improving emotional resilience, fostering a positive parenting experience, and optimising their mental health.
(07) 3608 1663 View (07) 3608 1663
Brett Carter
Psychologist, MA, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Grange, QLD 4051
Not accepting new clients
Brett works with clients to understand and shift problematic automatic default patterns of behaviour and thinking. Example default patterns include self-criticism, self-sacrificing, taking offence, attacking others, shutting down, avoidance, using substances, perfectionism, needing control, and self-aggrandising. In the short-term, default patterns enable us to distract from/avoid distressing feelings and thoughts. In the long-term, they underpin issues such as post-traumatic stress, anger, depression, anxiety, and disordered eating and impact relationships and performance in pursuits such as employment, study, and sport.
Brett works with clients to understand and shift problematic automatic default patterns of behaviour and thinking. Example default patterns include self-criticism, self-sacrificing, taking offence, attacking others, shutting down, avoidance, using substances, perfectionism, needing control, and self-aggrandising. In the short-term, default patterns enable us to distract from/avoid distressing feelings and thoughts. In the long-term, they underpin issues such as post-traumatic stress, anger, depression, anxiety, and disordered eating and impact relationships and performance in pursuits such as employment, study, and sport.
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Photo of Michelle Costanzo, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Michelle Costanzo
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Mitchelton, QLD 4053
Waitlist for new clients
Michelle Costanzo MAPS, FIML, MAICD. I am a psychologist specialising in (complex) trauma (PTSD) and Dissociative Disorders (DID). I have been in the health industry for over 20 years.
Michelle Costanzo MAPS, FIML, MAICD. I am a psychologist specialising in (complex) trauma (PTSD) and Dissociative Disorders (DID). I have been in the health industry for over 20 years.
(07) 4243 4851 View (07) 4243 4851
Photo of Sheena Schuy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in McDowall, QLD
Sheena Schuy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified
3 Endorsed
Red Hill, QLD 4059  (Online Only)
Hey I’m Sheena Schuy. I am a Holistic Therapist (BPsych, MCoun, MSW). We are a womens mental health and performance coaching practice - we specialise in helping high-achieving women create balance in their life so that can be the best leaders, entrepreneurs, partners, mothers, and friends. We help women go from exhausted, tired, and strung out to calm, clear and content with our psychology and life coaching services. The main issues we work with are anxiety, burnout, relationships, ADHD and depression but can also help with career development, mindset, personal development, leadership, business strategy and entrepreneurship.
Hey I’m Sheena Schuy. I am a Holistic Therapist (BPsych, MCoun, MSW). We are a womens mental health and performance coaching practice - we specialise in helping high-achieving women create balance in their life so that can be the best leaders, entrepreneurs, partners, mothers, and friends. We help women go from exhausted, tired, and strung out to calm, clear and content with our psychology and life coaching services. The main issues we work with are anxiety, burnout, relationships, ADHD and depression but can also help with career development, mindset, personal development, leadership, business strategy and entrepreneurship.
0499 391 161 View 0499 391 161
Photo of Naomi Norman, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Naomi Norman
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified
Enoggera, QLD 4051
I view mental health concerns and recovery as a normal part of life, and my clients as the experts in their own lives. I help people tailor proven strategies for growth and recovery that are individual to them. I work with adults of all ages, older adolescents (16+), women, men, and people from culturally diverse backgrounds. My areas of interest include: depressio, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), perinatal mental health, sleep conditions, life transitions and personal goals, and grief and loss.
I view mental health concerns and recovery as a normal part of life, and my clients as the experts in their own lives. I help people tailor proven strategies for growth and recovery that are individual to them. I work with adults of all ages, older adolescents (16+), women, men, and people from culturally diverse backgrounds. My areas of interest include: depressio, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), perinatal mental health, sleep conditions, life transitions and personal goals, and grief and loss.
(07) 3179 6755 View (07) 3179 6755
Photo of Gladys Koh, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Gladys Koh
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified
Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059
I am a registered psychologist who offers brief and long-term psychological therapy for adults and adolescents (16+), who not only wish to address specific mental health concerns, but also to deepen their self-understanding and make sense of their inner world. My areas of interest and experience include working with individuals experiencing a diverse range of difficulties (who may or may not have a clinical diagnosis), including low mood/depression, anxiety, difficulties with adjustment/life transitions, trauma-related difficulties, self-esteem issues, difficulties in relationships, and chronic dissatisfaction with their lives.
I am a registered psychologist who offers brief and long-term psychological therapy for adults and adolescents (16+), who not only wish to address specific mental health concerns, but also to deepen their self-understanding and make sense of their inner world. My areas of interest and experience include working with individuals experiencing a diverse range of difficulties (who may or may not have a clinical diagnosis), including low mood/depression, anxiety, difficulties with adjustment/life transitions, trauma-related difficulties, self-esteem issues, difficulties in relationships, and chronic dissatisfaction with their lives.
(07) 3132 2942 View (07) 3132 2942
Photo of Alison Keane, Psychotherapist in McDowall, QLD
Alison Keane
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified
Chermside, QLD 4032
I am a highly-experienced relationship counsellor having worked with couples for more than 20 years. Effective results from relationship counselling happen when the therapist is able to quickly get a handle of the difficulties in a way that is impartial, skilled, informative and supportive. Only then are both partners in the best position to find long-lasting and loving ways forward together.
I am a highly-experienced relationship counsellor having worked with couples for more than 20 years. Effective results from relationship counselling happen when the therapist is able to quickly get a handle of the difficulties in a way that is impartial, skilled, informative and supportive. Only then are both partners in the best position to find long-lasting and loving ways forward together.
(07) 3214 3609 View (07) 3214 3609
Photo of Carolyn Vickers, Psychologist in McDowall, QLD
Carolyn Vickers
Psychologist, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified
Wavell Heights, QLD 4012  (Online Only)
Are you needing counselling support because you’re feeling depressed, anxious or stressed? Or perhaps you want to improve your quality of life through improvements in your confidence, self esteem or relationships? Or are you having problems with motivation or sleep?
Are you needing counselling support because you’re feeling depressed, anxious or stressed? Or perhaps you want to improve your quality of life through improvements in your confidence, self esteem or relationships? Or are you having problems with motivation or sleep?
(07) 2100 4465 View (07) 2100 4465
Photo of Anne-Maree Choi, Counsellor in McDowall, QLD
Anne-Maree Choi
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified
1 Endorsed
Stafford Heights, QLD 4053
I am a Counsellor and Lifestyle Coach who offers professional, wholistic counselling for those who need support during times of overwhelming emotions and grief, and also for those who need to address unresolved and painful events. My service has a particular focus on areas such as anxiety and stress management, relationship conflict, betrayal trauma, emotional abuse, sole parent support, strengthening self-esteem and lifestyle coaching. Individual sessions, couples counselling and family therapy are all available, either in-person or online.
I am a Counsellor and Lifestyle Coach who offers professional, wholistic counselling for those who need support during times of overwhelming emotions and grief, and also for those who need to address unresolved and painful events. My service has a particular focus on areas such as anxiety and stress management, relationship conflict, betrayal trauma, emotional abuse, sole parent support, strengthening self-esteem and lifestyle coaching. Individual sessions, couples counselling and family therapy are all available, either in-person or online.
(07) 3132 0267 View (07) 3132 0267

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in McDowall, QLD

< 10

Counsellors in McDowall, QLD who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
100% Trauma and PTSD
100% Coping Skills
83% Depression
83% Bereavement
83% Women's Issues
83% Stress

Average years in practice

16 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Medicare Rebates
67% Bupa
67% Australian Unity

How Counsellors in McDowall, QLD see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

100% Female

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in McDowall?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.