Counselling in Queensland

View suburbs, cities and regions in Queensland
Photo of undefined - The Feeling Factor , Counsellor
The Feeling Factor
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Boondall, QLD 4034
Family life can present many challenges over time, as each member experiences life hurdles. I can help with Parent stress, overwhelm, feeling stuck or feeling lost. Confidence, decision making, empowerment and a calm happy family environment can soon return- surprisingly quickly! Check out the Feeling Factor website (Australia) for booking times to suit you.
Family life can present many challenges over time, as each member experiences life hurdles. I can help with Parent stress, overwhelm, feeling stuck or feeling lost. Confidence, decision making, empowerment and a calm happy family environment can soon return- surprisingly quickly! Check out the Feeling Factor website (Australia) for booking times to suit you.
(07) 3608 1029 View (07) 3608 1029
Photo of Amy Foley, MPsych, MAPS, Psychologist
Amy Foley
Psychologist, MPsych, MAPS
Verified Verified
North Lakes, QLD 4509
I am passionate about inspiring you to achieve optimal levels of mental health and wellbeing and to support your personal growth and adaptability to life’s challenges. I practice from a holistic and whole-person approach that looks at physical, nutritional, emotional, psychological, and spiritual/authentic parts. I comprehensively look at presenting symptoms and assist getting to the root cause of your struggles. I use a compassionate, strengths-based, non-judgemental approach. I offer a calming environment for you to feel comfortable. I offer therapy and assessments for children/ adults via telehealth/home visits. BeeWell Therapies
I am passionate about inspiring you to achieve optimal levels of mental health and wellbeing and to support your personal growth and adaptability to life’s challenges. I practice from a holistic and whole-person approach that looks at physical, nutritional, emotional, psychological, and spiritual/authentic parts. I comprehensively look at presenting symptoms and assist getting to the root cause of your struggles. I use a compassionate, strengths-based, non-judgemental approach. I offer a calming environment for you to feel comfortable. I offer therapy and assessments for children/ adults via telehealth/home visits. BeeWell Therapies
(07) 3214 3636 View (07) 3214 3636
Photo of Alpha Ponce, MA, Psychotherapist
Alpha Ponce
Psychotherapist, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
West End, QLD 4101
You will notice progress after about five sessions, with long-lasting changes. Are you feeling overwhelmed or is your ability to function limited? Have you suffered trauma, and do you think this is holding you back from living your best life? I specialise in helping individuals heal from the impacts of childhood trauma, including emotional, sexual, physical, and narcissistic abuse, as well as abandonment. I can guide you toward greater self-confidence, self-assurance, happiness, and healthier relationships, ultimately enhancing your quality of life and empowering you to make your dreams come true. Please,Visit website and contact me
You will notice progress after about five sessions, with long-lasting changes. Are you feeling overwhelmed or is your ability to function limited? Have you suffered trauma, and do you think this is holding you back from living your best life? I specialise in helping individuals heal from the impacts of childhood trauma, including emotional, sexual, physical, and narcissistic abuse, as well as abandonment. I can guide you toward greater self-confidence, self-assurance, happiness, and healthier relationships, ultimately enhancing your quality of life and empowering you to make your dreams come true. Please,Visit website and contact me
(07) 2100 4837 View (07) 2100 4837
Photo of Kirsteen Bostock, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych, Psychologist
Kirsteen Bostock
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Hawthorne, QLD 4171  (Online Only)
I use a holistic strengths-based approach in supporting my clients, couples and families to support personal goal achievement and improve overall wellbeing. Life throws us all kinds of challenges including particular traumatic events and experiences that we may need support with. I know that my clients are the experts in what they need and I use my skills and clinical training to help them achieve their wellbeing goals.
I use a holistic strengths-based approach in supporting my clients, couples and families to support personal goal achievement and improve overall wellbeing. Life throws us all kinds of challenges including particular traumatic events and experiences that we may need support with. I know that my clients are the experts in what they need and I use my skills and clinical training to help them achieve their wellbeing goals.
(07) 2100 4922 View (07) 2100 4922
Photo of Sharyn Ferris, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Sharyn Ferris
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Therapy is a very intimate experience. In my work with people I strive for a personal connection with my clients from the get-go. Through that relationship, I am better able to understand the motivations, hidden struggles and impulses that drive my clients, and in turn, help them to utilize their own strengths and learned techniques to successfully address the difficulties being experienced by them. I have assisted clients who are going through or preparing for life transitions, experiencing depression, anxiety or mood disorders, or recovering from trauma or loss.
Therapy is a very intimate experience. In my work with people I strive for a personal connection with my clients from the get-go. Through that relationship, I am better able to understand the motivations, hidden struggles and impulses that drive my clients, and in turn, help them to utilize their own strengths and learned techniques to successfully address the difficulties being experienced by them. I have assisted clients who are going through or preparing for life transitions, experiencing depression, anxiety or mood disorders, or recovering from trauma or loss.
(07) 3184 4591 View (07) 3184 4591
Photo of Brian John Hunt, MA, ACA-L3, Psychotherapist
Brian John Hunt
Psychotherapist, MA, ACA-L3
Verified Verified
North MacKay, QLD 4740
Hello and welcome to my site. Little did I realise how much my life would change during my journey to becoming a qualified Gestalt psychotherapist, recovering from a life-changing illness 22 years ago. It meant that I could not live as I was living anymore. From a background in the military, and being involved in business and community events to becoming a Gestalt therapist was a monumental shift in leaving the old way of life behind and being able to explore an alternative way of living my truth. I use this lived experience in my work as a therapist with people of all ages and ethnicity.
Hello and welcome to my site. Little did I realise how much my life would change during my journey to becoming a qualified Gestalt psychotherapist, recovering from a life-changing illness 22 years ago. It meant that I could not live as I was living anymore. From a background in the military, and being involved in business and community events to becoming a Gestalt therapist was a monumental shift in leaving the old way of life behind and being able to explore an alternative way of living my truth. I use this lived experience in my work as a therapist with people of all ages and ethnicity.
(07) 4803 3370 View (07) 4803 3370
Photo of Sharon Atkinson, AMHSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sharon Atkinson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Clontarf, QLD 4019
Currently not accepting new clients.
Currently not accepting new clients.
(07) 3477 9405 View (07) 3477 9405
Photo of Carla Hopper, PsychD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych, Psychologist
Carla Hopper
Psychologist, PsychD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Golden Beach, QLD 4551  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I am a Clinical Psychologist and have experience working in community, public and inpatient mental health and drug and alcohol services. Largely my clinical experience has been working with anxiety, mood issues, self esteem, relationship concerns, and drug and alcohol concerns. I have also worked within perinatal mental health settings including inpatient support for parents of babies in NICU. My therapeutic style is warm, genuine and humanistic. I aim to create a respectful, collaborative relationship with my clients that fosters a sense of safety but also an experience in which you feel heard and deeply understood.
I am a Clinical Psychologist and have experience working in community, public and inpatient mental health and drug and alcohol services. Largely my clinical experience has been working with anxiety, mood issues, self esteem, relationship concerns, and drug and alcohol concerns. I have also worked within perinatal mental health settings including inpatient support for parents of babies in NICU. My therapeutic style is warm, genuine and humanistic. I aim to create a respectful, collaborative relationship with my clients that fosters a sense of safety but also an experience in which you feel heard and deeply understood.
(07) 4243 4225 View (07) 4243 4225
Photo of Kathryn Nina Burke
Kathryn Nina Burke
Verified Verified
North Ward, QLD 4810
I work with individuals battling with grief, loss and trauma. Losses occur for us all of the time and sometimes, they hit us so hard we need a little extra support. We may experience loss of relationships, transitionary times for our children starting school or leaving home, a passing of a family member or breakdowns in relationships. Some of these losses feel as though we aren't allowed to grieve and our practice is a safe space to do so. Life is busy and you shouldn't have to fit your healing around someone else's timeline; that's why I exclusively offer out-of-hours sessions after 5pm and on weekends.
I work with individuals battling with grief, loss and trauma. Losses occur for us all of the time and sometimes, they hit us so hard we need a little extra support. We may experience loss of relationships, transitionary times for our children starting school or leaving home, a passing of a family member or breakdowns in relationships. Some of these losses feel as though we aren't allowed to grieve and our practice is a safe space to do so. Life is busy and you shouldn't have to fit your healing around someone else's timeline; that's why I exclusively offer out-of-hours sessions after 5pm and on weekends.
(07) 4429 8512 View (07) 4429 8512
Photo of Eloise Conrad, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Eloise Conrad
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Spring Hill, QLD 4000
Hello, I'm Eloise. I am a psychologist working with older adolescents (16+) and adults in Brisbane, Queensland. I intend to provide a collaborative and compassionate approach to therapy through rich curiosity, exploration and a sense of "slowing down" so that you may feel more aware of and connected to yourself.
Hello, I'm Eloise. I am a psychologist working with older adolescents (16+) and adults in Brisbane, Queensland. I intend to provide a collaborative and compassionate approach to therapy through rich curiosity, exploration and a sense of "slowing down" so that you may feel more aware of and connected to yourself.
(07) 3186 9773 View (07) 3186 9773
Photo of undefined - YourSpace Psychology, PsyBA General, Psychologist
YourSpace Psychology
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Teneriffe, QLD 4005  (Online Only)
We are Queensland based registered telehealth psychologists. Between Shannon and Leah there is a wealth of experience and training in psychological/psychometric assessments, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD) intervention, Counselling, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Trauma-Informed Care, and Attachment-Based Therapy. We work with all ages and specialize in the areas of anxiety, depression, substance use, work-related problems, concerns relating to relationships and criminal justice.
We are Queensland based registered telehealth psychologists. Between Shannon and Leah there is a wealth of experience and training in psychological/psychometric assessments, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD) intervention, Counselling, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Trauma-Informed Care, and Attachment-Based Therapy. We work with all ages and specialize in the areas of anxiety, depression, substance use, work-related problems, concerns relating to relationships and criminal justice.
(07) 3113 9923 View (07) 3113 9923
Photo of undefined - Mindful Psychology, MA, AASW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mindful Psychology
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, AASW
Verified Verified
Woolloongabba, QLD 4102  (Online Only)
Hannah is a compassionate and calm therapist with 10+ years experience as a mental health clinician and counsellor. Hannah prioritises helping people feel at ease so they can safely explore thoughts, feelings and experiences that may be creating distress. You will emerge from sessions feeling heard, understood and supported, gaining a greater sense of perspective and clarity.
Hannah is a compassionate and calm therapist with 10+ years experience as a mental health clinician and counsellor. Hannah prioritises helping people feel at ease so they can safely explore thoughts, feelings and experiences that may be creating distress. You will emerge from sessions feeling heard, understood and supported, gaining a greater sense of perspective and clarity.
(03) 5910 7523 View (03) 5910 7523
Keith Bunce
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Ipswich, QLD 4305
As an integrative counsellor I work relationally with the client. My experience volunteering for Mind, a UK charity, has given me an invaluable experience of working with clients that present with a wide range of presenting problems. I have also worked with Armed Forces veterans community dealing with service related and non-service related issues. Since setting up practice in Australia I have worked with a wide range of clients, including children that are waiting to be, or that have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder this has also included their families to help adjust in parenting styles.
As an integrative counsellor I work relationally with the client. My experience volunteering for Mind, a UK charity, has given me an invaluable experience of working with clients that present with a wide range of presenting problems. I have also worked with Armed Forces veterans community dealing with service related and non-service related issues. Since setting up practice in Australia I have worked with a wide range of clients, including children that are waiting to be, or that have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder this has also included their families to help adjust in parenting styles.
(07) 2801 5605 View (07) 2801 5605
Photo of Lisa Albion, MC, ACA-L2, Counsellor
Lisa Albion
Counsellor, MC, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Pomona, QLD 4568
Prior to becoming a counsellor, I worked in the field of education for over thirty years in Australia, Canada, South East Asia and the Balkans. My experience of a diverse range of cultures, perspectives and ways of knowing and being greatly informs my counselling practice. My commitment to my own healing and learning along with my passion for supporting others with theirs is what led me into the field of counselling and psychotherapy. I am committed to providing a safe, supportive, holistic space for those who are on a path of personal growth and healing.
Prior to becoming a counsellor, I worked in the field of education for over thirty years in Australia, Canada, South East Asia and the Balkans. My experience of a diverse range of cultures, perspectives and ways of knowing and being greatly informs my counselling practice. My commitment to my own healing and learning along with my passion for supporting others with theirs is what led me into the field of counselling and psychotherapy. I am committed to providing a safe, supportive, holistic space for those who are on a path of personal growth and healing.
(07) 5240 9831 View (07) 5240 9831
Photo of Dr Grant Blake, PsyBA - Clin. Psych, Psychologist
Dr Grant Blake
Psychologist, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Sippy Downs, QLD 4556
I am a clinical psychologist accepting new referrals for adult, adolescent and child ADHD assessments. I do the legwork of cognitive assessment to assist the medical professional's diagnosis and treatment. I also provide learning disorder and adult autism assessments. Therapeutically, I mostly help people with PTSD but I am not taking any new treatment patients at the moment. I regularly undertake assessments for criminal law (e.g., fitness to stand trial, insanity), compensation, family law, and the NDIS (e.g., SIL, progress reports, diagnosis).
I am a clinical psychologist accepting new referrals for adult, adolescent and child ADHD assessments. I do the legwork of cognitive assessment to assist the medical professional's diagnosis and treatment. I also provide learning disorder and adult autism assessments. Therapeutically, I mostly help people with PTSD but I am not taking any new treatment patients at the moment. I regularly undertake assessments for criminal law (e.g., fitness to stand trial, insanity), compensation, family law, and the NDIS (e.g., SIL, progress reports, diagnosis).
(07) 4243 4125 View (07) 4243 4125
Photo of Carolyn Uhlmann, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Carolyn Uhlmann
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Spring Hill, QLD 4000
Carolyn Uhlmann is a registered Psychologist based in Brisbane. Carolyn has worked in a range of community, hospital and private practice settings and currently works part-time with a multidisciplinary public diabetes and endocrine health service. Carolyn is passionate about her work and supporting people to adjust to changes in their health and life circumstances. In her part-time private practice Carolyn provides appointments in person, and via telehealth & phone at Brisbane Endocrine, 225 Wickham Tce, Spring Hill Qld. P 3051 0376 https://www.brisbaneendo.com.au/
Carolyn Uhlmann is a registered Psychologist based in Brisbane. Carolyn has worked in a range of community, hospital and private practice settings and currently works part-time with a multidisciplinary public diabetes and endocrine health service. Carolyn is passionate about her work and supporting people to adjust to changes in their health and life circumstances. In her part-time private practice Carolyn provides appointments in person, and via telehealth & phone at Brisbane Endocrine, 225 Wickham Tce, Spring Hill Qld. P 3051 0376 https://www.brisbaneendo.com.au/
(07) 4847 6792 View (07) 4847 6792
Photo of Johanna Knyn, MPsych, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Johanna Knyn
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Chermside, QLD 4032
Waitlist for new clients
All I ask of my clients is that they show up to session. Beyond that, we figure out together. I aim to create a safe, collaborative environment where clients are able to share their authentic selves and be accepted as they are. I predominantely work with those with Dissociative Identity Disorder and those who have experienced complex trauma from childhood. My goal with all clients is to work together to develop treatment goals and style. I pride myself on being a chameleon, being able to adapt to clients style, whilst still maintaining my core authentic self in session. Support starts here.
All I ask of my clients is that they show up to session. Beyond that, we figure out together. I aim to create a safe, collaborative environment where clients are able to share their authentic selves and be accepted as they are. I predominantely work with those with Dissociative Identity Disorder and those who have experienced complex trauma from childhood. My goal with all clients is to work together to develop treatment goals and style. I pride myself on being a chameleon, being able to adapt to clients style, whilst still maintaining my core authentic self in session. Support starts here.
(07) 4887 3392 View (07) 4887 3392
Photo of Edwin Peter Zigterman, MA, AASW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Edwin Peter Zigterman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, AASW
Verified Verified
Maryborough, QLD 4650  (Online Only)
As a seasoned therapist and military veteran, I empathize with the complexities of life's challenges. Whether it's navigating the transition to civilian life or enhancing mental well-being, I am here to guide you through the intricacies of a demanding world.
As a seasoned therapist and military veteran, I empathize with the complexities of life's challenges. Whether it's navigating the transition to civilian life or enhancing mental well-being, I am here to guide you through the intricacies of a demanding world.
View
Photo of Shanling Su, MPsych, PsyBA - Ed. Psych., Psychologist
Shanling Su
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Ed. Psych.
Verified Verified
Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059
Shanling is a registered Educational and Developmental psychologist with extensive experience supporting children and families across diverse settings, including indigenous health communities, education, NGOs, and Child and Youth Mental Health Services. Her special interests are supporting children and adolescents with developmental differences and/or complex trauma backgrounds. Shanling holds an interest in neurodiversity. She can provide psychometric assessments tailored specifically to identify learning difficulties, autism, and ADHD and provide relevant recommendations for neuroaffirming adjustments in the school environment.
Shanling is a registered Educational and Developmental psychologist with extensive experience supporting children and families across diverse settings, including indigenous health communities, education, NGOs, and Child and Youth Mental Health Services. Her special interests are supporting children and adolescents with developmental differences and/or complex trauma backgrounds. Shanling holds an interest in neurodiversity. She can provide psychometric assessments tailored specifically to identify learning difficulties, autism, and ADHD and provide relevant recommendations for neuroaffirming adjustments in the school environment.
(07) 3179 6878 View (07) 3179 6878
Photo of undefined - Mel Clemmans Counselling, ACA-L1, Counsellor
Mel Clemmans Counselling
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified Verified
Worongary, QLD 4213
Welcome to a safe and supportive space. I'm Mel Clemmans, an experienced counsellor dedicated to helping you navigate life's challenges and crises. Whether you're facing major life changes or struggling with mental health issues like depression and anxiety, I'm here to walk alongside you. Together, we'll explore, process, and heal, empowering you to manage your challenges and better understand yourself and your relationships.
Welcome to a safe and supportive space. I'm Mel Clemmans, an experienced counsellor dedicated to helping you navigate life's challenges and crises. Whether you're facing major life changes or struggling with mental health issues like depression and anxiety, I'm here to walk alongside you. Together, we'll explore, process, and heal, empowering you to manage your challenges and better understand yourself and your relationships.
(07) 4243 4224 View (07) 4243 4224

See more therapy options for Queensland

How does your Counsellor compare?

Average cost per session

$170

Counsellors in Queensland who prioritize treating:

85% Anxiety
76% Depression
71% Self Esteem
71% Stress
66% Relationship Issues
64% Trauma and PTSD
60% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

65% Medicare Rebates
57% Bupa
53% NDIS

How Counsellors in Queensland see their clients

77% In Person and Online
23% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Queensland?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.