Therapists in 29501

Photo of Vanessa Miranda Lobo, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Vanessa Miranda Lobo
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LPC-S
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
Greetings to all, I am primarily focused on offering supervision for LPC-A clinicians in South Carolina who are seeking to add clinical hours while expanding training and professional development. However, you can also seek my services as a therapist at Wellspring Psychology Group where I offer counseling in English, Spanish and Portuguese. I hope I can become an agent of change who will facilitate and guide your seeking for deeper understanding, self-awareness and healing to ultimately uncover a healthier, more authentic version of yourself, as an individual or as a helping professional in the field of Mental Health.
Greetings to all, I am primarily focused on offering supervision for LPC-A clinicians in South Carolina who are seeking to add clinical hours while expanding training and professional development. However, you can also seek my services as a therapist at Wellspring Psychology Group where I offer counseling in English, Spanish and Portuguese. I hope I can become an agent of change who will facilitate and guide your seeking for deeper understanding, self-awareness and healing to ultimately uncover a healthier, more authentic version of yourself, as an individual or as a helping professional in the field of Mental Health.
(843) 508-9783 x10106 View (843) 508-9783 x10106
Photo of Melissa Smith-Venters, Licensed Professional Counselor Associate in 29501, SC
Melissa Smith-Venters
Licensed Professional Counselor Associate, MA, LPCA, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
Changes and challenges are an unavoidable part of life. Maybe you are managing a difficult life transition, coping with stress or anxiety, overcoming depression, or restoring a relationship with a loved one—whatever the difficulty, therapy can offer clarity and direction. Sometimes getting help makes the journey less lonely and confusing. Therapy is a collaboration between counselor and client and together we will figure out how best to help you.
Changes and challenges are an unavoidable part of life. Maybe you are managing a difficult life transition, coping with stress or anxiety, overcoming depression, or restoring a relationship with a loved one—whatever the difficulty, therapy can offer clarity and direction. Sometimes getting help makes the journey less lonely and confusing. Therapy is a collaboration between counselor and client and together we will figure out how best to help you.
(843) 755-6232 View (843) 755-6232
Photo of Carrie Ann Graham, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Carrie Ann Graham
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC-S, NCC, BC-TMH, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501  (Online Only)
I am deeply motivated and inspired by witnessing others become the best versions of themselves. I believe that the life experiences that I have had lend to my ability to empathize and help heal my clients. I primarily use EMDR therapy and Ego State Therapy in my therapeutic approach. I also have extensive experience using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) which emphasizes the connection between our thoughts, feelings and behaviors. We will work together to learn skills to center the body and calm the mind.
I am deeply motivated and inspired by witnessing others become the best versions of themselves. I believe that the life experiences that I have had lend to my ability to empathize and help heal my clients. I primarily use EMDR therapy and Ego State Therapy in my therapeutic approach. I also have extensive experience using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) which emphasizes the connection between our thoughts, feelings and behaviors. We will work together to learn skills to center the body and calm the mind.
(843) 865-6067 View (843) 865-6067
Photo of Jane Hart Lewis, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Jane Hart Lewis
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, LPCS, DBTC
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
As an interactive, solution-focused therapist, my treatment approach is to provide support and practical feedback to help clients address current life challenges and long-standing issues. With compassion and understanding, I help individuals find resolution to a wide range of personal concerns and psychological issues.
As an interactive, solution-focused therapist, my treatment approach is to provide support and practical feedback to help clients address current life challenges and long-standing issues. With compassion and understanding, I help individuals find resolution to a wide range of personal concerns and psychological issues.
(843) 593-9748 View (843) 593-9748
Photo of Lecole Johnson Sanders, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 29501, SC
Lecole Johnson Sanders
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW-CP, RPT-S
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
I work with children, adolescents, and adults. I primarily use play therapy techniques and cognitive-behavioral techniques in my practice. I have experience working with children with Asperger's, ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Traumatic Grief reactions, anxiety, depression and a history of Trauma. I work with adults experiencing anxiety, depression, disabilities, ADHD, and difficulties adjusting to medical problems.
I work with children, adolescents, and adults. I primarily use play therapy techniques and cognitive-behavioral techniques in my practice. I have experience working with children with Asperger's, ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Traumatic Grief reactions, anxiety, depression and a history of Trauma. I work with adults experiencing anxiety, depression, disabilities, ADHD, and difficulties adjusting to medical problems.
(843) 627-4083 View (843) 627-4083
Photo of David A Kahn, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
David A Kahn
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC, LPCS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
At the Counseling Center of Florence, LLC, we believe in our client's ability to overcome their personal issues and see all issues as problems our clients have tried to solve on their own and have not yet been successful. Our goal is to improve success toward solving the problems and issues our client's face with evidence-based practices oriented to each client's specific need. We match our clients with the counselor best suited to their needs. If we do not have the right counselor for a person seeking services, we work to provide them with other options within our community.
At the Counseling Center of Florence, LLC, we believe in our client's ability to overcome their personal issues and see all issues as problems our clients have tried to solve on their own and have not yet been successful. Our goal is to improve success toward solving the problems and issues our client's face with evidence-based practices oriented to each client's specific need. We match our clients with the counselor best suited to their needs. If we do not have the right counselor for a person seeking services, we work to provide them with other options within our community.
(843) 420-1339 View (843) 420-1339
Photo of Jordan C Conner | Art Therapist, Licensed Professional Counselor Associate in 29501, SC
Jordan C Conner | Art Therapist
Licensed Professional Counselor Associate, LPC-A, MAAT, ATR-P, CLC, RYT-200
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
The recorded conversations on replay in your mind are so loud and pervasive that the only thing that stops the noise is distraction. So, you find yourself scrolling SM, binging a TV show, or sleeping... ALOT. But, at times even distraction isn’t enough. You’re finally realizing this painstaking cycle of avoidance in your life, not just avoiding the big things, but even the IDEA of facing any emotion at all. You are ready for a change! But, change is hard. You've tried before and failed. You've done therapy in the past. You've read self-help books. You feel as though nothing will ever change. You've all but given up hope.
The recorded conversations on replay in your mind are so loud and pervasive that the only thing that stops the noise is distraction. So, you find yourself scrolling SM, binging a TV show, or sleeping... ALOT. But, at times even distraction isn’t enough. You’re finally realizing this painstaking cycle of avoidance in your life, not just avoiding the big things, but even the IDEA of facing any emotion at all. You are ready for a change! But, change is hard. You've tried before and failed. You've done therapy in the past. You've read self-help books. You feel as though nothing will ever change. You've all but given up hope.
(843) 279-4855 View (843) 279-4855
Photo of The Sonshine Exchange Lelia Denise McKay , Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
The Sonshine Exchange Lelia Denise McKay
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
Are you lost? Lonely? Grieving? Acting or thinking in ways you don't understand? Looking for something more in your life? Not knowing what the next step is? Wanting to make big, positive changes (or even small ones) and don't know how? I love helping people explore their lives and themselves! Let's find out what's next, what's inside, what you want and who you are! We can talk, draw, play, sit... many ways to explore the issues you want to understand. Depression, anxiety, life transitions, grief & loss, childhood trauma. My goal is to help you find your best version of yourself. I LOVE helping others walk through any obstacle.
Are you lost? Lonely? Grieving? Acting or thinking in ways you don't understand? Looking for something more in your life? Not knowing what the next step is? Wanting to make big, positive changes (or even small ones) and don't know how? I love helping people explore their lives and themselves! Let's find out what's next, what's inside, what you want and who you are! We can talk, draw, play, sit... many ways to explore the issues you want to understand. Depression, anxiety, life transitions, grief & loss, childhood trauma. My goal is to help you find your best version of yourself. I LOVE helping others walk through any obstacle.
(843) 883-6620 View (843) 883-6620
Photo of Dr. Jamie Mazgaj, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Dr. Jamie Mazgaj
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdD, LPC
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
Hi I'm Jamie Mazgaj, and I look forward to working with you. Thank you so much for taking a look at my profile. I have 28 years of experience counseling adults, children, and adolescents both in clinic and school settings. My goal is to help put the missing pieces of your life back together again. I look forward to working with you!
Hi I'm Jamie Mazgaj, and I look forward to working with you. Thank you so much for taking a look at my profile. I have 28 years of experience counseling adults, children, and adolescents both in clinic and school settings. My goal is to help put the missing pieces of your life back together again. I look forward to working with you!
(843) 400-4351 View (843) 400-4351
Photo of Megan Munson, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Megan Munson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC-S
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
Many of the clients I provide services to have experienced challenges that no one should have to go through in a lifetime. The children, adolescents and families that I serve may have participated in counseling previously or are trying it for the first time. People may have felt that their or their children's issues were beyond help or intervention. People I work with are offered strategies and solutions to life's challenges, in a comfortable environment, with a compassionate and dedicated counselor. I work closely with each person, family and child so they may achieve the difference in their life that they wish to see.
Many of the clients I provide services to have experienced challenges that no one should have to go through in a lifetime. The children, adolescents and families that I serve may have participated in counseling previously or are trying it for the first time. People may have felt that their or their children's issues were beyond help or intervention. People I work with are offered strategies and solutions to life's challenges, in a comfortable environment, with a compassionate and dedicated counselor. I work closely with each person, family and child so they may achieve the difference in their life that they wish to see.
(843) 773-2115 View (843) 773-2115
Photo of Sarah Arnette Mathis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 29501, SC
Sarah Arnette Mathis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW-CP
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
As a social worker, I believe in treating the "whole person". That is, taking a look at how connections between all aspects of one's life play into wellness. I believe in the potential of all individuals to grow and learn and enjoy walking with my clients through the journey of personal improvement. In my career, I have experience in the field of medical social work, intensive in-home treatment for individuals with severe persistent mental illness, and in private practice with adolescents and adults.
As a social worker, I believe in treating the "whole person". That is, taking a look at how connections between all aspects of one's life play into wellness. I believe in the potential of all individuals to grow and learn and enjoy walking with my clients through the journey of personal improvement. In my career, I have experience in the field of medical social work, intensive in-home treatment for individuals with severe persistent mental illness, and in private practice with adolescents and adults.
(843) 418-4139 View (843) 418-4139
Photo of Javonnia Muldrow Kelly, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Javonnia Muldrow Kelly
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
Hello and thank you for reviewing my profile. I am Javonnia Kelly, and I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with more than a decade of experience working with Adolescents and Adult. I am deeply committed to empowering individuals to overcome life's challenges and achieve meaningful growth. With a focus on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Person-Centered Treatment, I provide a supportive and collaborative environment where clients can explore their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors with clarity and confidence.
Hello and thank you for reviewing my profile. I am Javonnia Kelly, and I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with more than a decade of experience working with Adolescents and Adult. I am deeply committed to empowering individuals to overcome life's challenges and achieve meaningful growth. With a focus on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Person-Centered Treatment, I provide a supportive and collaborative environment where clients can explore their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors with clarity and confidence.
(843) 891-6484 View (843) 891-6484
Photo of Fink Psychological Services, LLC, Psychologist in 29501, SC
Fink Psychological Services, LLC
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
Connections with others who foster growth and nurturance are so important for us as humans to live to our fullest potential. I recognize this truth in my psychotherapy with others and in my own personal relationships. My goal in my work is to empower people through a better understanding of themselves and to help others discover meaning and joy in their own lives. Working with trauma, depression, emotional dysregulation, interpersonal problems, relationship issues, grief, challenges with transitions, and/or challenging behavioral problems are all areas of experience and areas in which I feel honored to explore with individuals.
Connections with others who foster growth and nurturance are so important for us as humans to live to our fullest potential. I recognize this truth in my psychotherapy with others and in my own personal relationships. My goal in my work is to empower people through a better understanding of themselves and to help others discover meaning and joy in their own lives. Working with trauma, depression, emotional dysregulation, interpersonal problems, relationship issues, grief, challenges with transitions, and/or challenging behavioral problems are all areas of experience and areas in which I feel honored to explore with individuals.
(843) 461-4789 View (843) 461-4789
Photo of Scott R Wilcox, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Scott R Wilcox
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPCS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
I enjoy working with children, teens, and adults in identifying strengths and coping strategies to overcome obstacles at school, home, or work. I provide counseling for children and teenagers experiencing oppositional, depressive, anxious, and hyper behaviors , as well as counseling for families and couples experiencing communication difficulties. I am experienced in working with those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder as well as children and teens displaying cognitive disabilities. Additionally, I provide group and individual counseling to juvenile and adult clients who have experienced or committed sexual trauma.
I enjoy working with children, teens, and adults in identifying strengths and coping strategies to overcome obstacles at school, home, or work. I provide counseling for children and teenagers experiencing oppositional, depressive, anxious, and hyper behaviors , as well as counseling for families and couples experiencing communication difficulties. I am experienced in working with those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder as well as children and teens displaying cognitive disabilities. Additionally, I provide group and individual counseling to juvenile and adult clients who have experienced or committed sexual trauma.
(843) 806-0274 View (843) 806-0274
Photo of Merdell Glover Nesbit in 29501, SC
Merdell Glover Nesbit
EdS, MA, MEd
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
I believe emotional, spiritual, and physical healings begin with a strong therapeutic relationship. My person-centered approach allows my clients to establish short-term and long-term goals with the appropriate methods and interventions for success. In counseling, I hope to change the world, one family at a time.
I believe emotional, spiritual, and physical healings begin with a strong therapeutic relationship. My person-centered approach allows my clients to establish short-term and long-term goals with the appropriate methods and interventions for success. In counseling, I hope to change the world, one family at a time.
(843) 279-5389 View (843) 279-5389
Photo of Caitlin Smith, LPC Associate in 29501, SC
Caitlin Smith
LPC Associate, MS, LPC-A
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
Caitlin, completed her Bachelor of Arts in Psychology at Coker College and received a M.S. in Clinical Counseling from Francis Marion University. Caitlin is a Licensed Professional Counselor Associate (LPC-A). Caitlin brings a warm inviting presence to the counseling environment. Seeking out counseling can be one of the hardest things you do, but Caitlin makes a point to help you see just how strong you really are. She works with children, teens, and adults of all backgrounds and walks of life. Caitlin uses several approaches such as Cognitive Behavioral therapy and person-centered techniques to encourage growth and promote healing.
Caitlin, completed her Bachelor of Arts in Psychology at Coker College and received a M.S. in Clinical Counseling from Francis Marion University. Caitlin is a Licensed Professional Counselor Associate (LPC-A). Caitlin brings a warm inviting presence to the counseling environment. Seeking out counseling can be one of the hardest things you do, but Caitlin makes a point to help you see just how strong you really are. She works with children, teens, and adults of all backgrounds and walks of life. Caitlin uses several approaches such as Cognitive Behavioral therapy and person-centered techniques to encourage growth and promote healing.
(843) 594-1902 View (843) 594-1902
Photo of C. Melinda Fuller, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
C. Melinda Fuller
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, LPC/S
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
I have primarily worked with children, adolescents, and their families for the past 20 years in mental health, residential and school settings. Prior to that, I worked for a domestic violence, rape crisis, and child abuse center where I worked with survivors and their families in various capacities, including group and individual counseling, crisis intervention, and victim advocacy. This has provided a great deal of experience working with trauma and related issues, such as depression and anxiety in adults and children. It also has given me the opportunity to see families grow and make positive changes in their lives after adversity
I have primarily worked with children, adolescents, and their families for the past 20 years in mental health, residential and school settings. Prior to that, I worked for a domestic violence, rape crisis, and child abuse center where I worked with survivors and their families in various capacities, including group and individual counseling, crisis intervention, and victim advocacy. This has provided a great deal of experience working with trauma and related issues, such as depression and anxiety in adults and children. It also has given me the opportunity to see families grow and make positive changes in their lives after adversity
(843) 256-2216 View (843) 256-2216
Photo of Mary Lee Evans, Marriage & Family Therapist in 29501, SC
Mary Lee Evans
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
Finding hope and restoration in places of pain can feel impossible. Yet seeking counseling can be the first step toward healing. I believe that struggling individuals and couples can turn their relationships and lives around - you absolutely can move from suffering to thriving. I welcome the opportunity to walk with you towards renewed living through the counseling process. With over 20 years of counseling experience, I have worked in a variety of settings with diverse populations.
Finding hope and restoration in places of pain can feel impossible. Yet seeking counseling can be the first step toward healing. I believe that struggling individuals and couples can turn their relationships and lives around - you absolutely can move from suffering to thriving. I welcome the opportunity to walk with you towards renewed living through the counseling process. With over 20 years of counseling experience, I have worked in a variety of settings with diverse populations.
(843) 279-5054 View (843) 279-5054
Photo of Julia Carlson, Pre-Licensed Professional in 29501, SC
Julia Carlson
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Florence, SC 29501
At times, navigating through life can be quite challenging and we may find ourselves feeling trapped in a certain situation. As someone who is dedicated to making a difference in the lives of others, I truly believe in the power of helping people discover their inner strength and find fresh perspectives that can help them overcome any obstacle that may come their way.
At times, navigating through life can be quite challenging and we may find ourselves feeling trapped in a certain situation. As someone who is dedicated to making a difference in the lives of others, I truly believe in the power of helping people discover their inner strength and find fresh perspectives that can help them overcome any obstacle that may come their way.
(843) 428-8398 View (843) 428-8398
Photo of Todd Norris, Licensed Professional Counselor in 29501, SC
Todd Norris
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Florence, SC 29501
Looking for a life transformation? Need help now? Thank you for taking this first step to improving your life. My hope is that you will be diligent in researching other providers to find the perfect fit for you. I have a passion to help people find hope in the midst of their storm, to see their lives from a different perspective and to overcome whatever obstacles stand in their way of achieving peace. Whether it be individual, couples or family therapy, my hope and my goal is to help you improve your situation.
Looking for a life transformation? Need help now? Thank you for taking this first step to improving your life. My hope is that you will be diligent in researching other providers to find the perfect fit for you. I have a passion to help people find hope in the midst of their storm, to see their lives from a different perspective and to overcome whatever obstacles stand in their way of achieving peace. Whether it be individual, couples or family therapy, my hope and my goal is to help you improve your situation.
(843) 874-7875 View (843) 874-7875

See more therapy options for 29501

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 29501

40+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in 29501 who prioritize treating:

83% Depression
83% Anxiety
73% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
71% Stress
68% Relationship Issues
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% BlueCross and BlueShield
65% Medicaid
55% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 29501 see their clients

83% In Person and Online
17% Online Only

Gender breakdown

86% Female
14% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 29501?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.