Counselling in EH3

Liz Notarangelo
Counsellor, DCounsPsych, MBACP
Verified
I am an experienced counsellor working with individuals, couples and families who are ready to explore the possibilities for a happier and healthier life offering effective and individualised counselling.  Making an approach to a counsellor, especially for the first time, is a big step. I know as I’ve been there too. As a result, I realised that it is possible to take control and make changes. I offer help over a wide range of personal issues and offer both short and long-term support. Many people are put off coming for counselling as they are worried it will be seen as a sign of weakness. Nothing could be further from the truth. R
I am an experienced counsellor working with individuals, couples and families who are ready to explore the possibilities for a happier and healthier life offering effective and individualised counselling.  Making an approach to a counsellor, especially for the first time, is a big step. I know as I’ve been there too. As a result, I realised that it is possible to take control and make changes. I offer help over a wide range of personal issues and offer both short and long-term support. Many people are put off coming for counselling as they are worried it will be seen as a sign of weakness. Nothing could be further from the truth. R
0131 381 8548 View 0131 381 8548
Photo of Liselle Van Zyl, Psychotherapist in EH3, Scotland
Liselle Van Zyl
Psychotherapist, MUKCP
Verified
I am a UKCP registered psychotherapist with over 22 years experience in the mental health field. I trained in gestalt psychotherapy at Metanoia Institute in London. My practice is also informed by transpersonal, eco-psychology, and am trained in Brainspotting for trauma and addictions. I work with individuals on a range of issues, including anxiety, depression, trauma, bereavement, adoption, and self-development. I particularly enjoy facilitating clients through deep personal transformations. Your therapy with me will be tailored specifically to your needs, and where you are at this moment in time.
I am a UKCP registered psychotherapist with over 22 years experience in the mental health field. I trained in gestalt psychotherapy at Metanoia Institute in London. My practice is also informed by transpersonal, eco-psychology, and am trained in Brainspotting for trauma and addictions. I work with individuals on a range of issues, including anxiety, depression, trauma, bereavement, adoption, and self-development. I particularly enjoy facilitating clients through deep personal transformations. Your therapy with me will be tailored specifically to your needs, and where you are at this moment in time.
07475 660023 View 07475 660023
Photo of Taylor Broughton, Psychotherapist in EH3, Scotland
Taylor Broughton
Psychotherapist, MA, MCOSCA
Verified
Edinburgh EH3  (Online Only)
Just Human Therapy is a humanist, feminist, LGBTQ+ affirming online counselling service based in Scotland. Going to therapy can feel tough, so I aim to make it as approachable as possible. If you are going through a transition that feels difficult, would like support working through something specific, or simply know something doesn't feel right, therapy is a space you deserve to work through things. Often this isn't a quick fix, but an explorative, collaborative process to come back to who you are and what you need. If you're struggling with low mood, lingering trauma affects, or obsessive worry, I can support your steps forward.
Just Human Therapy is a humanist, feminist, LGBTQ+ affirming online counselling service based in Scotland. Going to therapy can feel tough, so I aim to make it as approachable as possible. If you are going through a transition that feels difficult, would like support working through something specific, or simply know something doesn't feel right, therapy is a space you deserve to work through things. Often this isn't a quick fix, but an explorative, collaborative process to come back to who you are and what you need. If you're struggling with low mood, lingering trauma affects, or obsessive worry, I can support your steps forward.
0131 381 8529 View 0131 381 8529
Photo of Annie Hay, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Annie Hay
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
I believe mental health is just as important as physical health, the two are intricately bound together. In a non-judgemental, warm and supportive environment, I will help you to understand where the problems you are experiencing have arisen. We will work out why they have become so problematic and hard to deal with. I will help you to find strategies to cope better and tools to help you unpick patterns and to move on in your life, feel stronger and more content. As with any problem, the sooner it is acknowledged, the sooner you can begin your recovery. This is true of emotional and physical issues, as well as practical.
I believe mental health is just as important as physical health, the two are intricately bound together. In a non-judgemental, warm and supportive environment, I will help you to understand where the problems you are experiencing have arisen. We will work out why they have become so problematic and hard to deal with. I will help you to find strategies to cope better and tools to help you unpick patterns and to move on in your life, feel stronger and more content. As with any problem, the sooner it is acknowledged, the sooner you can begin your recovery. This is true of emotional and physical issues, as well as practical.
0131 357 6452 View 0131 357 6452
Photo of Vista Wellbeing - CBT Online, phone & Edinburgh, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Vista Wellbeing - CBT Online, phone & Edinburgh
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Hi, I'm Siobhan, a CBT Therapist. I work clients in person in Edinburgh's West End, online or by phone. In our sessions you can expect me to be warm, empathetic, encouraging, non-judgemental and supportive. Clients have described me as friendly, with a calm and easy style. It's a privilege to provide a confidential safe space for people to open up and be heard. Change is always possible. I want to help you discover the tools inside yourself to see things from a new perspective and live a more empowered life. I will be with you every step of the journey to help you reach your goals of growth and change.
Hi, I'm Siobhan, a CBT Therapist. I work clients in person in Edinburgh's West End, online or by phone. In our sessions you can expect me to be warm, empathetic, encouraging, non-judgemental and supportive. Clients have described me as friendly, with a calm and easy style. It's a privilege to provide a confidential safe space for people to open up and be heard. Change is always possible. I want to help you discover the tools inside yourself to see things from a new perspective and live a more empowered life. I will be with you every step of the journey to help you reach your goals of growth and change.
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Photo of Stephanie Saunders, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Stephanie Saunders
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
Edinburgh EH3  (Online Only)
I am an Edinburgh based Sex and relationship counsellor working full time in private practice with individuals & couples. My practice is based in central Edinburgh however I am currently working online. I specialise in explorative & action based proactive talk therapy aimed at helping you achieve the changes you would like to make in your life & to help you gain clarity & understanding to the life experiences you would like to work with.
I am an Edinburgh based Sex and relationship counsellor working full time in private practice with individuals & couples. My practice is based in central Edinburgh however I am currently working online. I specialise in explorative & action based proactive talk therapy aimed at helping you achieve the changes you would like to make in your life & to help you gain clarity & understanding to the life experiences you would like to work with.
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Photo of Summerside Counselling, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Summerside Counselling
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified
At Summerside Counselling we can help with issues including stress, anxiety, depression, loss, and low self esteem amongst many others. Our experienced counsellors are fully qualified and offer effective and affordable counselling. We can help you explore your thoughts and feelings, allowing you to have a better understanding of yourself which in turn brings acceptance and healing.
At Summerside Counselling we can help with issues including stress, anxiety, depression, loss, and low self esteem amongst many others. Our experienced counsellors are fully qualified and offer effective and affordable counselling. We can help you explore your thoughts and feelings, allowing you to have a better understanding of yourself which in turn brings acceptance and healing.
0131 381 8280 View 0131 381 8280
Photo of Ela Lourenco, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Ela Lourenco
Counsellor, MA, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Are you struggling with moments of anxiety or going through a hard time you cannot seem to shake off? Are you feeling overwhelmed, anxious or numb? Life can be challenging at times, as though nothing will feel right again. Sometimes, it can feel as though life 'should feel good' and you cannot understand why you feel so low. It can feel isolating and lonely to not be able to express to your family and friends how you feel - perhaps this has made you feel 'invisible'. Or others' needs have come first for so long that you no longer are in touch with what you need for yourself and find it hard to truly feel connected with others.
Are you struggling with moments of anxiety or going through a hard time you cannot seem to shake off? Are you feeling overwhelmed, anxious or numb? Life can be challenging at times, as though nothing will feel right again. Sometimes, it can feel as though life 'should feel good' and you cannot understand why you feel so low. It can feel isolating and lonely to not be able to express to your family and friends how you feel - perhaps this has made you feel 'invisible'. Or others' needs have come first for so long that you no longer are in touch with what you need for yourself and find it hard to truly feel connected with others.
0131 381 4853 View 0131 381 4853
Photo of Katie Hendrick, Psychologist in EH3, Scotland
Katie Hendrick
Psychologist, MSc, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
Hello and Welcome. My name is Katie and I am a Counselling Psychologist, with a background in nursing, specialising in trauma. Trauma can often be related to shock or changes in feelings of anxiety, anger or depression. Trauma is not the same for everyone. If you are feeling overwhelmed or in distress, struggling with daily life, experiencing pain then the type of therapy I offer may be of help to you. Sometimes people present clinically with anxiety or depression, sleep problems, burnout. Please see my website: hendrickps.com for more information about trauma psychotherapy and to read client testimonials.
Hello and Welcome. My name is Katie and I am a Counselling Psychologist, with a background in nursing, specialising in trauma. Trauma can often be related to shock or changes in feelings of anxiety, anger or depression. Trauma is not the same for everyone. If you are feeling overwhelmed or in distress, struggling with daily life, experiencing pain then the type of therapy I offer may be of help to you. Sometimes people present clinically with anxiety or depression, sleep problems, burnout. Please see my website: hendrickps.com for more information about trauma psychotherapy and to read client testimonials.
0141 471 9187 View 0141 471 9187
Photo of Anne Brassier, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Anne Brassier
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Almost everyone would benefit from therapeutic support at some point in their lives - you do not have to be in crisis to get help. If you are curious to see if it feels right for you, contact me for a free introductory conversation.
Almost everyone would benefit from therapeutic support at some point in their lives - you do not have to be in crisis to get help. If you are curious to see if it feels right for you, contact me for a free introductory conversation.
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Photo of Eva Chmelikova, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Eva Chmelikova
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Sometimes all we are looking for is to be really heard. I provide therapeutic counselling for adults, young people and children in non-judgmental way where one can feel truly heard. I offer compassion and insight in collaborative way by integrating a variety of approaches based on needs of the individual client. Maybe you experience low moods and don’t know why. Maybe anxiety and stress takes up too much of your space. Maybe something significant has changed, you moved, lost someone, are on a crossroad and suddenly it feels harder even much harder than ever before. I believe in working in a collaborative partnership.
Sometimes all we are looking for is to be really heard. I provide therapeutic counselling for adults, young people and children in non-judgmental way where one can feel truly heard. I offer compassion and insight in collaborative way by integrating a variety of approaches based on needs of the individual client. Maybe you experience low moods and don’t know why. Maybe anxiety and stress takes up too much of your space. Maybe something significant has changed, you moved, lost someone, are on a crossroad and suddenly it feels harder even much harder than ever before. I believe in working in a collaborative partnership.
0131 381 8441 View 0131 381 8441
Photo of Cassie Pryde, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Cassie Pryde
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Hi, I’m Cassie. My practice style is genuine, warm and most importantly - human! I believe that people find healing through the connections they build in relationships. However, for many people, current relationships don’t provide the conditions required to unpack and process their challenges. As a therapist, I've supported individuals addressing issues like depression, anxiety, life transitions, family dynamics, and trauma survival, including sexual and domestic abuse.
Hi, I’m Cassie. My practice style is genuine, warm and most importantly - human! I believe that people find healing through the connections they build in relationships. However, for many people, current relationships don’t provide the conditions required to unpack and process their challenges. As a therapist, I've supported individuals addressing issues like depression, anxiety, life transitions, family dynamics, and trauma survival, including sexual and domestic abuse.
0131 381 4510 View 0131 381 4510
Photo of Rosie McLeod, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Rosie McLeod
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
Accepting that we're finding things difficult is often the hardest part. Throughout every stage of life we can experience times when things don’t feel right and we struggle with our relationships, or to make sense of our thoughts, feelings and world around us. This can lead to us feeling anxious, overwhelmed and struggling to communicate.
Accepting that we're finding things difficult is often the hardest part. Throughout every stage of life we can experience times when things don’t feel right and we struggle with our relationships, or to make sense of our thoughts, feelings and world around us. This can lead to us feeling anxious, overwhelmed and struggling to communicate.
0131 378 8379 View 0131 378 8379
Photo of Dr Darren O Reilly - Adhd Coach Therapist, Psychologist in EH3, Scotland
Dr Darren O Reilly - Adhd Coach Therapist
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Are you feeling stuck or overwhelmed in life's journey? Struggling with depression, anxiety, addiction, overwhelm, or procrastination? I'm a Psychologist specialising in helping young men and women (20s -30s) discover practical strategies for achieving their goals and living a happier life. We all face moments when expectations, time management, goals, connections, and self-care seem too much. Together, we'll chart a customized roadmap that harnesses your unique strengths combined with my clinical knowledge and experience, to create a course for a journey of profound and long-lasting change.
Are you feeling stuck or overwhelmed in life's journey? Struggling with depression, anxiety, addiction, overwhelm, or procrastination? I'm a Psychologist specialising in helping young men and women (20s -30s) discover practical strategies for achieving their goals and living a happier life. We all face moments when expectations, time management, goals, connections, and self-care seem too much. Together, we'll chart a customized roadmap that harnesses your unique strengths combined with my clinical knowledge and experience, to create a course for a journey of profound and long-lasting change.
0131 378 6555 View 0131 378 6555
Photo of Mama’S Worth - Pregnancy Perinatal Counselling Katalin Thomann, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Mama’S Worth - Pregnancy Perinatal Counselling Katalin Thomann
Counsellor, MSc, PNCPS Acc.
Verified
My passion for wanting to support mums was borne out of my own difficult journey into motherhood. A challenging pregnancy and a traumatic birth followed by severe postnatal depression and PTSD fuelled my drive to working with mums to make their journeys more manageable and enjoyable. Having worked hard on recovering from this difficult start to motherhood, I went on to train as a counsellor at the University of Edinburgh (MSc) and Chrysalis (Postgraduate Diploma). I have completed numerous trainings on trauma - specifically birth trauma and continue to participate in CPDs to inform my practice as a perinatal mental health therapist
My passion for wanting to support mums was borne out of my own difficult journey into motherhood. A challenging pregnancy and a traumatic birth followed by severe postnatal depression and PTSD fuelled my drive to working with mums to make their journeys more manageable and enjoyable. Having worked hard on recovering from this difficult start to motherhood, I went on to train as a counsellor at the University of Edinburgh (MSc) and Chrysalis (Postgraduate Diploma). I have completed numerous trainings on trauma - specifically birth trauma and continue to participate in CPDs to inform my practice as a perinatal mental health therapist
0131 381 0435 View 0131 381 0435
Photo of Sally Campbell, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Sally Campbell
Counsellor, MSc, MUKCP
Verified
I am an experienced Gestalt Psychotherapeutic Counsellor with a background in Psychology. I bring an engaging and collaborative approach to my work. I have an inclusive practice, valuing clients from all walks of life. I offer face to face sessions, outdoors (walk and talk) and online via ZOOM.
I am an experienced Gestalt Psychotherapeutic Counsellor with a background in Psychology. I bring an engaging and collaborative approach to my work. I have an inclusive practice, valuing clients from all walks of life. I offer face to face sessions, outdoors (walk and talk) and online via ZOOM.
0131 381 6385 View 0131 381 6385
Photo of Tim McConville, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Tim McConville
Counsellor, MBACP Accred
Verified
Hello there, thanks for checking me out. Individuals: Life’s toll can leave us with hurts and regrets. Sometimes we end up so wounded everything loses its shine. Life becomes colourless. We struggle with trauma, anxiety or low mood. By creating a constructive conversation with me, we can work towards healing. Couples: I use emotionally focused therapy to help create a connection between spouses and partners. I explore hurtful cycles of interaction to change them. Together we develop positive cycles to heal the relationship. Families: I specialise in young adults/students and their parents; blended families; alienation; child contact
Hello there, thanks for checking me out. Individuals: Life’s toll can leave us with hurts and regrets. Sometimes we end up so wounded everything loses its shine. Life becomes colourless. We struggle with trauma, anxiety or low mood. By creating a constructive conversation with me, we can work towards healing. Couples: I use emotionally focused therapy to help create a connection between spouses and partners. I explore hurtful cycles of interaction to change them. Together we develop positive cycles to heal the relationship. Families: I specialise in young adults/students and their parents; blended families; alienation; child contact
0131 357 6469 View 0131 357 6469
Photo of Zofia Zyborska, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Zofia Zyborska
Counsellor, MSc, COSRT Accred
Verified
I specialise in Sex and Relationship Therapy and offer talking therapy for couples and individuals with sexual problems. These include vaginismus, painful sex, difficulty achieving orgasm, loss of desire for sex, erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. I have particular experience in working with those impacted by past sexual trauma, abuse or assault. I am specifically trained and qualified to work with sex and porn addiction(s). I also work with partners of sex/porn addicts who are perhaps struggling with their partner’s addiction, working with the distress, betrayal, shock and trauma they may be experiencing.
I specialise in Sex and Relationship Therapy and offer talking therapy for couples and individuals with sexual problems. These include vaginismus, painful sex, difficulty achieving orgasm, loss of desire for sex, erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. I have particular experience in working with those impacted by past sexual trauma, abuse or assault. I am specifically trained and qualified to work with sex and porn addiction(s). I also work with partners of sex/porn addicts who are perhaps struggling with their partner’s addiction, working with the distress, betrayal, shock and trauma they may be experiencing.
0131 357 6236 View 0131 357 6236
Photo of Kate Lockhart, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Kate Lockhart
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified
I am an experienced Counsellor with a warm, open approach. I am gentle in general and direct and challenging when appropriate. I am here to help you explore and make changes in your life, to nudge you into awareness and help you see things from a new perspective. You may share issues, events, worries, challenges and you will have space and time to reflect, to find the jigsaw pieces. You may be struggling with a trauma, a change or loss, finding or revealing your true self or sexuality, difficulty just being...we can work together with whatever you bring. I offer a safe, confidential and non-judgemental place to explore.
I am an experienced Counsellor with a warm, open approach. I am gentle in general and direct and challenging when appropriate. I am here to help you explore and make changes in your life, to nudge you into awareness and help you see things from a new perspective. You may share issues, events, worries, challenges and you will have space and time to reflect, to find the jigsaw pieces. You may be struggling with a trauma, a change or loss, finding or revealing your true self or sexuality, difficulty just being...we can work together with whatever you bring. I offer a safe, confidential and non-judgemental place to explore.
0131 381 0249 View 0131 381 0249
Photo of Ruth Micallef, Counsellor in EH3, Scotland
Ruth Micallef
Counsellor, MBACP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Waitlist for new clients
Do you often feel a sense of guilt or shame around food? Do thoughts of food become intrusive or overwhelming? Are you often binging or eating until you feel uncomfortable or sick? Perhaps you are fixated on 'healthy' or 'clean' eating? Maybe you 'purge' by excessively exercising, restricting, making yourself sick, using laxatives, or have a history of yo-yo dieting? Perhaps you avoid whole food groups and are often called a 'fussy' or 'picky' eater? Or a combination of any of the above? It sounds like you are struggling with an Eating Disorder!
Do you often feel a sense of guilt or shame around food? Do thoughts of food become intrusive or overwhelming? Are you often binging or eating until you feel uncomfortable or sick? Perhaps you are fixated on 'healthy' or 'clean' eating? Maybe you 'purge' by excessively exercising, restricting, making yourself sick, using laxatives, or have a history of yo-yo dieting? Perhaps you avoid whole food groups and are often called a 'fussy' or 'picky' eater? Or a combination of any of the above? It sounds like you are struggling with an Eating Disorder!
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See more therapy options for EH3

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in EH3

90+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in EH3 who prioritize treating:

88% Anxiety
83% Self Esteem
81% Depression
79% Relationship Issues
76% Stress
65% Life Transitions
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

73% Aviva
64% AXA PPP
55% Vitality

How Counsellors in EH3 see their clients

83% In Person and Online
17% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in EH3?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.