Counselling in EH1

Photo of Fiona Simpson, Psychologist in EH1, Scotland
Fiona Simpson
Psychologist, PsychD, HCPC - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
I am a Chartered Psychologist with over 20 years’ experience of working with people across the age range to manage and overcome psychological problems. I work with most types of psychological problems and greatly enjoy the diversity of my practice. I use a number of different psychological therapies, including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interpersonal psychotherapy, Schema-focussed Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) targeting problems with the most effective evidence based
I am a Chartered Psychologist with over 20 years’ experience of working with people across the age range to manage and overcome psychological problems. I work with most types of psychological problems and greatly enjoy the diversity of my practice. I use a number of different psychological therapies, including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interpersonal psychotherapy, Schema-focussed Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) targeting problems with the most effective evidence based
0131 378 1294 View 0131 378 1294
Photo of Mridula Sridhar, Counsellor in EH1, Scotland
Mridula Sridhar
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
I view therapy as a collaborative space where one can be seen, heard, and understood. Our work together will support you to delve into the depths of the experiences you wish to explore, whether from your past, present, or anticipated future. I will pose gentle questions, offer sensitive reflections, and hold a confidential and compassionate space for the emotions and vulnerabilities that arise. Together, we will learn to care for the neglected parts of yourself, explore patterns you may find unhelpful, and listen to your inner needs and feelings, fostering a space for acceptance and growth.
I view therapy as a collaborative space where one can be seen, heard, and understood. Our work together will support you to delve into the depths of the experiences you wish to explore, whether from your past, present, or anticipated future. I will pose gentle questions, offer sensitive reflections, and hold a confidential and compassionate space for the emotions and vulnerabilities that arise. Together, we will learn to care for the neglected parts of yourself, explore patterns you may find unhelpful, and listen to your inner needs and feelings, fostering a space for acceptance and growth.
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Photo of Space for the Soul, Counsellor in EH1, Scotland
Space for the Soul
Counsellor, MCOSCA
Verified Verified
Life can be stressful. Balancing the pressure of our commitments with our desire for health, happiness and authenticity can feel exhausting or even impossible. We all need to slow down and carve out some space in our lives to connect with our inner selves and the deeper meaning beyond our everyday existence. I offer a holistic approach to counselling and therapy, combining evidence based practice with holistic tools such as mindfulness, meditation, somatic experiencing, self-care, personal and spiritual growth. I am committed to a deepening path of open-hearted living and self discovery.
Life can be stressful. Balancing the pressure of our commitments with our desire for health, happiness and authenticity can feel exhausting or even impossible. We all need to slow down and carve out some space in our lives to connect with our inner selves and the deeper meaning beyond our everyday existence. I offer a holistic approach to counselling and therapy, combining evidence based practice with holistic tools such as mindfulness, meditation, somatic experiencing, self-care, personal and spiritual growth. I am committed to a deepening path of open-hearted living and self discovery.
0131 322 1536 View 0131 322 1536
Photo of Narmeen Ahmad, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Narmeen Ahmad
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Starting therapy can seem daunting and scary at first. But it's the first step you have taken to embark on this journey. Feeling isolated and not able to make sense of the world around you? Questioning all that you have grown up with? Racing thoughts constantly clouding your mind? Feeling detached, anxious or upset? Not sure how to process what you are experiencing? All this seems pretty overwhelming but more common than you think. Through acceptance and kindness why not allow yourself to be able to make sense of all this through therapy. Let each session speak for itself and discover different parts of yourself.
Starting therapy can seem daunting and scary at first. But it's the first step you have taken to embark on this journey. Feeling isolated and not able to make sense of the world around you? Questioning all that you have grown up with? Racing thoughts constantly clouding your mind? Feeling detached, anxious or upset? Not sure how to process what you are experiencing? All this seems pretty overwhelming but more common than you think. Through acceptance and kindness why not allow yourself to be able to make sense of all this through therapy. Let each session speak for itself and discover different parts of yourself.
0131 381 5223 View 0131 381 5223
Photo of Jenny Kerr, Psychologist in EH1, Scotland
Jenny Kerr
Psychologist, MSc
Verified Verified
Feeling on-edge, anxious or overwhelmed? Know that something needs to change but not knowing where to start or not feeling like you have the confidence to do so? Working with a professional in a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Coaching approach can help to identify and overcome challenges and difficulties you might be facing you in your life. It combines practical coaching techniques – setting out clear, manageable goals in line with personal values– with the cognitive behavioural approach when needed – to challenge and change unhelpful thinking and behaviour which might be holding you back, in a trauma informed and supportive space.
Feeling on-edge, anxious or overwhelmed? Know that something needs to change but not knowing where to start or not feeling like you have the confidence to do so? Working with a professional in a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Coaching approach can help to identify and overcome challenges and difficulties you might be facing you in your life. It combines practical coaching techniques – setting out clear, manageable goals in line with personal values– with the cognitive behavioural approach when needed – to challenge and change unhelpful thinking and behaviour which might be holding you back, in a trauma informed and supportive space.
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Photo of Isabel Martinez, Counsellor in EH1, Scotland
Isabel Martinez
Counsellor, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
I offer a safe space for clients who might be struggling with life situations or want to work on self awareness. My main interest as a therapist is to accompany my clients in a process of self discovery that inspires growth.
I offer a safe space for clients who might be struggling with life situations or want to work on self awareness. My main interest as a therapist is to accompany my clients in a process of self discovery that inspires growth.
01764 915910 View 01764 915910
Photo of The Anchor Practice, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
The Anchor Practice
Psychotherapist, BPC
Verified Verified
The Anchor Practice is a private mental health service specialising in the treatment of children, adolescents, young adults and families. Our clinicians have trained to the highest standards within the NHS, and have many years of experience providing clinical work in NHS CAMHS teams, as well as teaching on academic and clinical university courses. At The Anchor Practice we offer thorough assessment and treatment for a wide range of mental health difficulties, and a number of our treatments are currently recommended in NICE guidelines. A full description of our services can be found at: www.theanchorpractice.co.uk
The Anchor Practice is a private mental health service specialising in the treatment of children, adolescents, young adults and families. Our clinicians have trained to the highest standards within the NHS, and have many years of experience providing clinical work in NHS CAMHS teams, as well as teaching on academic and clinical university courses. At The Anchor Practice we offer thorough assessment and treatment for a wide range of mental health difficulties, and a number of our treatments are currently recommended in NICE guidelines. A full description of our services can be found at: www.theanchorpractice.co.uk
0131 297 6121 View 0131 297 6121
Photo of Kerry Rae, Counsellor in EH1, Scotland
Kerry Rae
Counsellor, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I work with people that are going through a relationship break-up. and want some support in exploring all the difficult emotions that come with that. Counselling can give you a space to talk through your feelings in order to better understand them and process them. Maybe you want a neutral person that you can talk freely with, to openly share your thoughts and feelings with. Heartbreak is difficult and maybe you just want some help to work out how to best support yourself to heal, to figure out who you are outside the relationship and to slowly move forward.
I work with people that are going through a relationship break-up. and want some support in exploring all the difficult emotions that come with that. Counselling can give you a space to talk through your feelings in order to better understand them and process them. Maybe you want a neutral person that you can talk freely with, to openly share your thoughts and feelings with. Heartbreak is difficult and maybe you just want some help to work out how to best support yourself to heal, to figure out who you are outside the relationship and to slowly move forward.
0131 381 8426 View 0131 381 8426
Photo of Noam Simon, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Noam Simon
Psychotherapist, MA, MNCPS Acc.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
So often our difficulties make us feel stuck, bound in place. Sometimes we can see we are caught in a loop, but don't know how to get free. Or we know what to do, but just can't seem to do it. And sometimes we don't even know what is making us feel stuck and where to start. Problems with our health, mood, traumatic experiences, changes to our life circumstances such as our employment or living arrangement, relationships, achievements, habits- any of these can make us feel stuck. Even good things such as weddings or promotions can be a stressor that gets us feeling this way.
So often our difficulties make us feel stuck, bound in place. Sometimes we can see we are caught in a loop, but don't know how to get free. Or we know what to do, but just can't seem to do it. And sometimes we don't even know what is making us feel stuck and where to start. Problems with our health, mood, traumatic experiences, changes to our life circumstances such as our employment or living arrangement, relationships, achievements, habits- any of these can make us feel stuck. Even good things such as weddings or promotions can be a stressor that gets us feeling this way.
0131 381 3592 View 0131 381 3592
Photo of Tracy Williams Therapy, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Tracy Williams Therapy
Psychotherapist, MSc, MBACP
Verified Verified
I have an open, friendly and supportive manner, backed by my academic qualifications and many years of experience. I am trained in clinical psychology and holds both undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications in this area. I hold an MSc in Marriage, Family and Child Counselling. I also holds professional qualifications, and am highly experienced in working with alcohol and drug abuse. In addition I am a visiting lecturer for PhD students completing their final year at Glasgow's Caledonian University, and delivers mindfulness training to individuals, groups and businesses. ​
I have an open, friendly and supportive manner, backed by my academic qualifications and many years of experience. I am trained in clinical psychology and holds both undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications in this area. I hold an MSc in Marriage, Family and Child Counselling. I also holds professional qualifications, and am highly experienced in working with alcohol and drug abuse. In addition I am a visiting lecturer for PhD students completing their final year at Glasgow's Caledonian University, and delivers mindfulness training to individuals, groups and businesses. ​
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Photo of Dr Pallavi Parihar, Psychologist in EH1, Scotland
Dr Pallavi Parihar
Psychologist, DCounsPsych, HCPC - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH1  (Online Only)
We all need a little help sometimes. When you're feeling down, stuck, or desperate for things to change, but unsure how to make it happen, reaching out for support and advice is a strong and wise first step. I aim to be warm and empathetic, embodying a person-centered approach, so that therapy can feel relaxed instead of daunting. My approach is collaborative, bringing together your choices and experiences with my psychological knowledge, to help guide you forward, providing you with the skills, psychoeducation, and techniques to help you reach your goals.
We all need a little help sometimes. When you're feeling down, stuck, or desperate for things to change, but unsure how to make it happen, reaching out for support and advice is a strong and wise first step. I aim to be warm and empathetic, embodying a person-centered approach, so that therapy can feel relaxed instead of daunting. My approach is collaborative, bringing together your choices and experiences with my psychological knowledge, to help guide you forward, providing you with the skills, psychoeducation, and techniques to help you reach your goals.
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Photo of Ken Lee, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Ken Lee
Psychotherapist, MSc, ACP
Verified Verified
I am a child and adolescent psychotherapist with more than 13 years experience working in the NHS, CAMHS teams and private sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and also support to parents and carers. I have experience treating adolescents with depression, psychotherapy for care experienced children and university students with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy for children who have a diagnosis of autism and ADHD who suffer from emotional difficulties.
I am a child and adolescent psychotherapist with more than 13 years experience working in the NHS, CAMHS teams and private sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and also support to parents and carers. I have experience treating adolescents with depression, psychotherapy for care experienced children and university students with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy for children who have a diagnosis of autism and ADHD who suffer from emotional difficulties.
0131 381 2995 View 0131 381 2995
Photo of Maya Tomse, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Maya Tomse
Psychotherapist, MA, MBACP
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH1  (Online Only)
Hi, I'm Maya Tomse. I'm a Psychologist, a Psychotherapist and a Counsellor. I work with couples and individuals, online. I specialise in relationships, and troubles specific to transitions we go through, especially complex life transitions. My interest in transitions and relationships stems from my own personal experiences. I was born in Yugoslavia, a country that got torn apart by war when I was around 10 years old. Later, throughout my life I've lived and worked in many different countries and at present hold 3 different citizenships.
Hi, I'm Maya Tomse. I'm a Psychologist, a Psychotherapist and a Counsellor. I work with couples and individuals, online. I specialise in relationships, and troubles specific to transitions we go through, especially complex life transitions. My interest in transitions and relationships stems from my own personal experiences. I was born in Yugoslavia, a country that got torn apart by war when I was around 10 years old. Later, throughout my life I've lived and worked in many different countries and at present hold 3 different citizenships.
0131 297 6069 View 0131 297 6069
Photo of Izabela Kathiravel in EH1, Scotland
Izabela Kathiravel
MA
Verified Verified
Edinburgh EH1  (Online Only)
Psychotherapy may be a wonderful way of not only helping you with your struggles but also increasing your sense of freedom.As a therapist and another human being,I believe in your strengths that I highly promote;being holistic, person-centred but also pretty dynamic to address your issues on social, psychological, biological, physical, cultural and spiritual levels is the most important part of this journey and it is my objective. Ethics and truth are the values I've carried in my soul and spirit since I started practicing in 2011. My work is supervised and strictly adheres to the International Heilkunst Association code of ethics.
Psychotherapy may be a wonderful way of not only helping you with your struggles but also increasing your sense of freedom.As a therapist and another human being,I believe in your strengths that I highly promote;being holistic, person-centred but also pretty dynamic to address your issues on social, psychological, biological, physical, cultural and spiritual levels is the most important part of this journey and it is my objective. Ethics and truth are the values I've carried in my soul and spirit since I started practicing in 2011. My work is supervised and strictly adheres to the International Heilkunst Association code of ethics.
0131 381 5085 View 0131 381 5085
Photo of Maria Banaszkiewicz, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Maria Banaszkiewicz
Psychotherapist, MA, UKCP Trainee
Verified Verified
Searching for the right therapist can be an energy and time-consuming process. I am a Relational Integrative Psychotherapist in training, registered with UKCP. I also completed my master's degree in Psychology and I am a graduate member of BPS. I offer you a unique relationship where you can explore the patterns and scripts which have shaped your way of being with yourself and other people in a safe and sensitive way.
Searching for the right therapist can be an energy and time-consuming process. I am a Relational Integrative Psychotherapist in training, registered with UKCP. I also completed my master's degree in Psychology and I am a graduate member of BPS. I offer you a unique relationship where you can explore the patterns and scripts which have shaped your way of being with yourself and other people in a safe and sensitive way.
0131 381 0054 View 0131 381 0054
Photo of Marianna Remmouche, Counsellor in EH1, Scotland
Marianna Remmouche
Counsellor, BACP
Verified Verified
I will help you to understand your fears and worries, walking back along your childhood and early life experience to discover where everything began. I will support you with Anxiety, Delression, PTSD and Trauma, OCD, Panic Attack and Panic Disorder, Infertility and Unexplained Secondary Infertility, Inner Child reconnection, Low Self Esteem, and together we will find a new approach to life to improve your mental and physical well-being. I am a bilingual CBT therapist and counsellor, offering psychotherapy in English and Italian.
I will help you to understand your fears and worries, walking back along your childhood and early life experience to discover where everything began. I will support you with Anxiety, Delression, PTSD and Trauma, OCD, Panic Attack and Panic Disorder, Infertility and Unexplained Secondary Infertility, Inner Child reconnection, Low Self Esteem, and together we will find a new approach to life to improve your mental and physical well-being. I am a bilingual CBT therapist and counsellor, offering psychotherapy in English and Italian.
0131 381 6408 View 0131 381 6408
Photo of Paul Bell, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Paul Bell
Psychotherapist, ACP
Verified Verified
I am a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychotherapist, with 12 years experience working in NHS CAMHS teams and the charity sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and offer developmental support to parents and carers. I have specific training and experience in the treatment of adolescent depression, psychotherapeutic interventions for fostered, adopted and looked after children, and psychotherapy for university students suffering with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy to children and young people suffering from depression, who have a diagnosis of autism.
I am a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychotherapist, with 12 years experience working in NHS CAMHS teams and the charity sector. I offer brief, medium and long term psychotherapy for children and adolescents, and offer developmental support to parents and carers. I have specific training and experience in the treatment of adolescent depression, psychotherapeutic interventions for fostered, adopted and looked after children, and psychotherapy for university students suffering with mood disorders. I also offer psychotherapy to children and young people suffering from depression, who have a diagnosis of autism.
0131 357 6279 View 0131 357 6279
Photo of Kavya Ravi in EH1, Scotland
Kavya Ravi
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Psychotherapy can be beneficial for more than just relief from psychological difficulties, trauma, or crises. It can also facilitate personal development and growth. By providing a confidential and compassionate space, psychotherapy enables individuals to explore their inner selves and reconnect with neglected aspects of themselves. Acknowledging and accepting these parts can be difficult to face alone. However, the therapy process can provide a sense of safety to work through these challenges and explore new ways of being.
Psychotherapy can be beneficial for more than just relief from psychological difficulties, trauma, or crises. It can also facilitate personal development and growth. By providing a confidential and compassionate space, psychotherapy enables individuals to explore their inner selves and reconnect with neglected aspects of themselves. Acknowledging and accepting these parts can be difficult to face alone. However, the therapy process can provide a sense of safety to work through these challenges and explore new ways of being.
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Photo of Priyanka Pookadan, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Priyanka Pookadan
Psychotherapist, MSc, HCPC-Art Therap.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sometimes life throws challenges in front of us which we may struggle to cope with. This could be a sudden and unexpected change like a loss or bereavement. It could be something that we have always struggled with that is making it challenging to move forward with life. Situations such as these can be stressful, and sometimes we can't shake off the anxiety and depression or we may even experience anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure in usually pleasurable activities). It might also be a past trauma or abuse that is causing the challenges in the present life, revealing itself as panic for example.
Sometimes life throws challenges in front of us which we may struggle to cope with. This could be a sudden and unexpected change like a loss or bereavement. It could be something that we have always struggled with that is making it challenging to move forward with life. Situations such as these can be stressful, and sometimes we can't shake off the anxiety and depression or we may even experience anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure in usually pleasurable activities). It might also be a past trauma or abuse that is causing the challenges in the present life, revealing itself as panic for example.
01764 915906 View 01764 915906
Photo of Dr John Addey Malherbe, Psychotherapist in EH1, Scotland
Dr John Addey Malherbe
Psychotherapist, PsychD, BACP
Verified Verified
My Psychotherapy practice experience relates to an insight into the human psyche in how unconscious processes impact and affect client's lived experience. Working through core internal and external relationships, transformative insight guides the therapeutic process to establish a greater sense of Self toward personal growth. My clients respond to a deeper way of working with the unconscious dimensions of their psyche, using dreams, difference and creativity to awaken consciousness and facilitate desired psychological outcomes toward change.
My Psychotherapy practice experience relates to an insight into the human psyche in how unconscious processes impact and affect client's lived experience. Working through core internal and external relationships, transformative insight guides the therapeutic process to establish a greater sense of Self toward personal growth. My clients respond to a deeper way of working with the unconscious dimensions of their psyche, using dreams, difference and creativity to awaken consciousness and facilitate desired psychological outcomes toward change.
0131 381 2500 View 0131 381 2500

See more therapy options for EH1

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in EH1

200+

Average cost per session

£60

Counsellors in EH1 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
86% Self Esteem
84% Depression
79% Relationship Issues
77% Stress
68% Trauma and PTSD
63% Bereavement

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

84% Aviva
76% AXA PPP
53% Vitality

How Counsellors in EH1 see their clients

67% In Person and Online
33% Online Only

Gender breakdown

73% Female
26% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in EH1?

Search for nearby therapists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) and the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Most Psychologists in the directory are accredited members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and/or are registered in the Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for psychotherapists and counsellors in the UK, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in the UK. Psychologists have earned a degree in psychology and many are members of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and have completed a postgraduate qualification in a specialism. Counsellors and Psychotherapists are not required to have a psychology degree, but to belong to a professional organisation such as the BACP or UKCP, they are required to have completed a training course as well as clinical and supervision hours.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the UK could be between £30 - £60 when seeing a counsellor and £60 - £150 and up when seeing a clinical psychologist. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The NHS Talking therapies programme offers free of charge counselling for common mental health problems like anxiety and depression. The service is available to anyone registered with a GP, though you do not necessarily need to be referred by your GP and can refer yourself directly to a Talking therapies service. The service will provide different solutions, including group and individual therapy, for a limited number of sessions which are generally up to six.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the BACP, the UKCP, or BPS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there has been participation in a criminal act or act of terror, or if there is potential or known harm to the client or others, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.