Therapists in Hampton, NY

Photo of Khadijah Cyril, PhD, Psychologist
Khadijah Cyril
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Hampton, NY 12837  (Online Only)
Accepting a Couple New Clients. I am so proud of the courage that it took you to look for a therapist. I may not know your full story yet, but I am here to get to know you and help you. If you are someone who feels sad more days than not, has lost pleasure in things you once enjoyed, worry or fearful about your present or future, struggle with relationships, or experienced sensitive events that you do not talk about with others, I am here to help. Also, if you are a parent and this information reflects your child, I specialize in working with them too!
Accepting a Couple New Clients. I am so proud of the courage that it took you to look for a therapist. I may not know your full story yet, but I am here to get to know you and help you. If you are someone who feels sad more days than not, has lost pleasure in things you once enjoyed, worry or fearful about your present or future, struggle with relationships, or experienced sensitive events that you do not talk about with others, I am here to help. Also, if you are a parent and this information reflects your child, I specialize in working with them too!
(929) 499-2747 View (929) 499-2747
Photo of Tammy Hammon-Card, LMHC, Counselor
Tammy Hammon-Card
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Hampton, NY 12837  (Online Only)
Hello, I am Tammy Hammon-Card. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor with over 20 years of experience helping people who struggle with anxiety, depression, stress management, grief, life transitions, and self-esteem issues. I draw upon a range of modalities such as Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Mindfulness-Based (MBCT), Dialectical (DBT), Client-Centered Therapy, and Strength-Based therapies during treatments with my clients. I believe therapy is a joint venture where we work together to identify what goals you would like to work on in counseling.
Hello, I am Tammy Hammon-Card. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor with over 20 years of experience helping people who struggle with anxiety, depression, stress management, grief, life transitions, and self-esteem issues. I draw upon a range of modalities such as Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Mindfulness-Based (MBCT), Dialectical (DBT), Client-Centered Therapy, and Strength-Based therapies during treatments with my clients. I believe therapy is a joint venture where we work together to identify what goals you would like to work on in counseling.
(646) 718-2267 View (646) 718-2267
Photo of Larissa Golloub, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Larissa Golloub
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Hampton, NY 12837  (Online Only)
You are not alone - if you're feeling more anxious, sleepless, or depressed than usual. These are very difficult times that we're living in. If you've been putting off starting therapy for a while, or if your concerns are new, now is as good a time as any to get support from a mental health professional. Together we can change the negative self chatter in your head and find a new and healthier narration and view of yourself.
You are not alone - if you're feeling more anxious, sleepless, or depressed than usual. These are very difficult times that we're living in. If you've been putting off starting therapy for a while, or if your concerns are new, now is as good a time as any to get support from a mental health professional. Together we can change the negative self chatter in your head and find a new and healthier narration and view of yourself.
(914) 768-4990 View (914) 768-4990

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Dottie-Jean Bailey - Healing Grounds Therapy, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Healing Grounds Therapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Granville, NY 12832  (Online Only)
Accepting New Clients: Nights and weekend availability. We all have times in our lives where we feel overwhelmed, anxious, stressed or even feel like we have lost ourselves. Are you navigating through distressful emotions? Do you have a career that leaves you feeling rewarded, but numb by unprocessed situations? I am here to help you become empowered in order to manage life to your full potential. To help you find your happiness. I have provided therapy to a wide range of individuals with different diagnoses, but specialize in trauma (chronic trauma and workplace trauma).
Accepting New Clients: Nights and weekend availability. We all have times in our lives where we feel overwhelmed, anxious, stressed or even feel like we have lost ourselves. Are you navigating through distressful emotions? Do you have a career that leaves you feeling rewarded, but numb by unprocessed situations? I am here to help you become empowered in order to manage life to your full potential. To help you find your happiness. I have provided therapy to a wide range of individuals with different diagnoses, but specialize in trauma (chronic trauma and workplace trauma).
(864) 660-7715 View (864) 660-7715
Photo of Dani Cleary, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Dani Cleary
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Comstock, NY 12821
Hello! My name is Dani Cleary and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW), based in Long Island, New York, and working with clients via telehealth. I work with adolescents, adults, and persons 65 years and older. I specialize in anxiety, depression, stress, and grief, using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, a Psychodynamic Approach, and Strength-Based Perspective. I have found that my approach and style are a good fit for a broad range of ages, as I typically treat adolescents to 65 years and older populations. As broad as those ages are, comes the broad range of conditions and transitions in life.
Hello! My name is Dani Cleary and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW), based in Long Island, New York, and working with clients via telehealth. I work with adolescents, adults, and persons 65 years and older. I specialize in anxiety, depression, stress, and grief, using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, a Psychodynamic Approach, and Strength-Based Perspective. I have found that my approach and style are a good fit for a broad range of ages, as I typically treat adolescents to 65 years and older populations. As broad as those ages are, comes the broad range of conditions and transitions in life.
(646) 722-6809 View (646) 722-6809
Photo of Marissa Raskin, LMHC, Counselor
Marissa Raskin
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Granville, NY 12832  (Online Only)
Hi there! My name is Marissa Raskin, a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in New York with over 12-plus years of experience working as a counselor/therapist. I received my undergrad in Criminal Justice and Psychology from the University at Albany and hold a dual Master Degree from John Jay College of Criminal Justice in Forensic Psychology and Forensic Mental Health Counseling. My therapy style is warm, empathetic, supportive and inclusive. I believe in treating anyone and everyone with respect, sensitivity, and compassion, and I don't believe in stigmatizing labels.
Hi there! My name is Marissa Raskin, a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in New York with over 12-plus years of experience working as a counselor/therapist. I received my undergrad in Criminal Justice and Psychology from the University at Albany and hold a dual Master Degree from John Jay College of Criminal Justice in Forensic Psychology and Forensic Mental Health Counseling. My therapy style is warm, empathetic, supportive and inclusive. I believe in treating anyone and everyone with respect, sensitivity, and compassion, and I don't believe in stigmatizing labels.
(646) 466-7609 View (646) 466-7609
Photo of Michael Levinson, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Michael Levinson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Whitehall, NY 12887
I am a mental health clinician and a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I work with individuals and groups in the interest of achieving optimal mental health and progress towards desired goals. Using a systemic therapy approach I assist my clients in reevaluating past and present difficulties so they may move successfully through transitional periods of life into a happy, balanced future. I encourage a holistic approach towards wellness. I am a mental health clinician and a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist.
I am a mental health clinician and a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I work with individuals and groups in the interest of achieving optimal mental health and progress towards desired goals. Using a systemic therapy approach I assist my clients in reevaluating past and present difficulties so they may move successfully through transitional periods of life into a happy, balanced future. I encourage a holistic approach towards wellness. I am a mental health clinician and a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist.
(646) 956-3634 View (646) 956-3634
Photo of Alyssa Angelillo, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Alyssa Angelillo
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Granville, NY 12832
My name is Alyssa Angelillo and I am a licensed clinical social worker. I have been in the field of addiction working with a variety of client needs for 13 years, including but not limited to depression, anxiety, codependency, setting boundaries, and self-esteem. I have also worked with families and couples. I use a person-centered approach to work with you to meet your identified goals. I have worked in the addiction field for 13 years with a variety of client needs including but not limited to depression, anxiety, codependency, setting boundaries, and self-esteem
My name is Alyssa Angelillo and I am a licensed clinical social worker. I have been in the field of addiction working with a variety of client needs for 13 years, including but not limited to depression, anxiety, codependency, setting boundaries, and self-esteem. I have also worked with families and couples. I use a person-centered approach to work with you to meet your identified goals. I have worked in the addiction field for 13 years with a variety of client needs including but not limited to depression, anxiety, codependency, setting boundaries, and self-esteem
(718) 550-6277 View (718) 550-6277
Photo of Janet Solomon, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Janet Solomon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Comstock, NY 12821
Hello! My name is Janet Solomon, and I am a licensed certified social worker ( LCSW). I have been in the mental health field for the past 25 years and I love what I do, helping others to live the best life to the fullest capacity. I work with folks 18 years and up. I see everyone as a human being first and the unique differences that make us who we are.
Hello! My name is Janet Solomon, and I am a licensed certified social worker ( LCSW). I have been in the mental health field for the past 25 years and I love what I do, helping others to live the best life to the fullest capacity. I work with folks 18 years and up. I see everyone as a human being first and the unique differences that make us who we are.
(646) 551-0436 View (646) 551-0436
Photo of Pamela Rich, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Pamela Rich
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
New York, NY 10001  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Are you feeling anxious? Down? Stressed? Can’t put into words to describe how you feel, but are struggling? Given navigating everyday life has been especially hard amidst a global pandemic over the past 2+ years, many individuals are taking the necessary steps to seek therapy in order to cope with this “new normal.”
Are you feeling anxious? Down? Stressed? Can’t put into words to describe how you feel, but are struggling? Given navigating everyday life has been especially hard amidst a global pandemic over the past 2+ years, many individuals are taking the necessary steps to seek therapy in order to cope with this “new normal.”
(973) 798-9015 View (973) 798-9015

Online Therapists

Photo of Brittany Cebula, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Brittany Cebula
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Latham, NY 12110
Waitlist for new clients
I am a NYS Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with over 9 years of experience working with children, adolescents, and families. My experiences include working with adolescents and young adults in both an outpatient setting as well as in higher levels of intensive care. I specialize in working with individuals with a wide range of struggles including those seeking to explore ways to better manage stress, build healthy relationships, navigate processing traumatic events, and identify healthy coping skills to increase ability to manage symptoms of anxiety and depression.
I am a NYS Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with over 9 years of experience working with children, adolescents, and families. My experiences include working with adolescents and young adults in both an outpatient setting as well as in higher levels of intensive care. I specialize in working with individuals with a wide range of struggles including those seeking to explore ways to better manage stress, build healthy relationships, navigate processing traumatic events, and identify healthy coping skills to increase ability to manage symptoms of anxiety and depression.
(518) 625-8706 View (518) 625-8706
Photo of Alice Huang, LCSW, LMSW, MA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Alice Huang
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LMSW, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Albany, NY 12207  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I believe we all want to feel safe, to feel genuinely seen, to have meaningful connection, to be able to weather challenges, and to feel, deep down, that we are good enough and not alone. When we better understand our inner patterns and all our parts feel welcome and seen, then we can tap into the natural ability of our brains and bodies to learn and transform. Beneath our protective defenses and habits, I believe every one of us is curious, courageous, loving, and worthy of love. As flowers turn toward the sun, humans are evolved for resilience. I work closely with clients to rediscover their natural inner resources for healing.
I believe we all want to feel safe, to feel genuinely seen, to have meaningful connection, to be able to weather challenges, and to feel, deep down, that we are good enough and not alone. When we better understand our inner patterns and all our parts feel welcome and seen, then we can tap into the natural ability of our brains and bodies to learn and transform. Beneath our protective defenses and habits, I believe every one of us is curious, courageous, loving, and worthy of love. As flowers turn toward the sun, humans are evolved for resilience. I work closely with clients to rediscover their natural inner resources for healing.
(347) 970-2792 View (347) 970-2792
Photo of Courtney Slade: Self-Esteem And Relationship Concerns, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Courtney Slade: Self-Esteem And Relationship Concerns
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Delmar, NY 12054  (Online Only)
It takes courage and strength to ask for help. If you are seeking support and assistance in navigating difficult times, relationships, work, school, etc. you’re in the right place. Therapy is a collaborative experience focused on individualized healing. I provide therapy exclusively through video telehealth, allowing clients flexibility and access to therapy in a safe and comfortable space.
It takes courage and strength to ask for help. If you are seeking support and assistance in navigating difficult times, relationships, work, school, etc. you’re in the right place. Therapy is a collaborative experience focused on individualized healing. I provide therapy exclusively through video telehealth, allowing clients flexibility and access to therapy in a safe and comfortable space.
(518) 809-7651 View (518) 809-7651
Photo of Johnna Hawes, LCSW-R, CCATP, ADHDCP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Johnna Hawes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R, CCATP, ADHDCP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Clifton Park, NY 12065  (Online Only)
Feeling worried? Frustrated? Stuck? How much energy are you spending on things or relationships that no longer serve you? How much energy are you spending, day in and day out? Perhaps it's time to change that. When our emotional energy is being drained on a daily basis it can create significant vulnerabilities: physical exhaustion, irritability, anger, anxiety, overthinking, poor sleep, and sadness. It doesn't have to be this way.
Feeling worried? Frustrated? Stuck? How much energy are you spending on things or relationships that no longer serve you? How much energy are you spending, day in and day out? Perhaps it's time to change that. When our emotional energy is being drained on a daily basis it can create significant vulnerabilities: physical exhaustion, irritability, anger, anxiety, overthinking, poor sleep, and sadness. It doesn't have to be this way.
(518) 405-6951 View (518) 405-6951
Photo of Amanda Marotta, LMHC, Counselor
Amanda Marotta
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Clifton Park, NY 12065  (Online Only)
In your work together, Amanda hopes to help you improve your overall quality of life from a holistic standpoint, with a client-centered, solution-focused, and cognitive-behavioral approach. She believes in the power of thought and perspective and the impact they have on our lives and relationships. Together you will explore your life experiences and struggles as they relate to who you are today. Amanda believes that having a strong therapeutic relationship where you feel heard, supported, and understood, is fundamental in your process, growth, and healing.
In your work together, Amanda hopes to help you improve your overall quality of life from a holistic standpoint, with a client-centered, solution-focused, and cognitive-behavioral approach. She believes in the power of thought and perspective and the impact they have on our lives and relationships. Together you will explore your life experiences and struggles as they relate to who you are today. Amanda believes that having a strong therapeutic relationship where you feel heard, supported, and understood, is fundamental in your process, growth, and healing.
(518) 656-0235 View (518) 656-0235
Photo of Suveyda Dumanli, LMHC, Counselor
Suveyda Dumanli
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Albany, NY 12203  (Online Only)
Do you feel like you're stuck and finding it hard to motivate yourself? Do you notice yourself feeling worried, disconnected, or on edge often? Are you looking for support as you navigate a major life change? I specialize in working with individuals who are looking for ways to bring positive changes into their lives, even if they may be unsure of the steps they need to take to achieve them. You may be experiencing stressors that are making it challenging for you to feel in control of your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Together, we can work towards empowering you to overcome these challenges and live a more fulfilling life.
Do you feel like you're stuck and finding it hard to motivate yourself? Do you notice yourself feeling worried, disconnected, or on edge often? Are you looking for support as you navigate a major life change? I specialize in working with individuals who are looking for ways to bring positive changes into their lives, even if they may be unsure of the steps they need to take to achieve them. You may be experiencing stressors that are making it challenging for you to feel in control of your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Together, we can work towards empowering you to overcome these challenges and live a more fulfilling life.
(518) 750-6403 View (518) 750-6403
Photo of Emily Sherman, LMSW
Emily Sherman
Licensed Master Social Worker, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Fort Edward, NY 12828
I specialize in helping people cope with anxiety, depression, life transitions, mood disorders, interpersonal relationship conflict, stress management, and trauma. I utilize various evidence-based, person-centered treatment modalities based on your individual needs. My goal is always to help clients feel safe and supported, with lots of tools and strategies to bring into their everyday life. Therapy is a journey, and I hope that you will trust me to join you on yours.
I specialize in helping people cope with anxiety, depression, life transitions, mood disorders, interpersonal relationship conflict, stress management, and trauma. I utilize various evidence-based, person-centered treatment modalities based on your individual needs. My goal is always to help clients feel safe and supported, with lots of tools and strategies to bring into their everyday life. Therapy is a journey, and I hope that you will trust me to join you on yours.
(518) 759-7339 View (518) 759-7339
Photo of Lynn Leibowitz-Whitehead - Empowered and Resilient Minds, LLC , LCSW
Empowered and Resilient Minds, LLC
Licensed Master Social Worker, LCSW
Verified Verified
Clifton Park, NY 12065  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Hi! I'm Lynn and I am the founder of Empowered and Resilient Minds. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who works with clients from various stages of life who experience depression, anxiety, ADHD, learning disabilities, and relationship as well as emotional difficulties.
Hi! I'm Lynn and I am the founder of Empowered and Resilient Minds. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who works with clients from various stages of life who experience depression, anxiety, ADHD, learning disabilities, and relationship as well as emotional difficulties.
(845) 420-3084 View (845) 420-3084
Photo of Lynne A Davidson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lynne A Davidson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Saratoga Springs, NY 12866
I work with individuals to assist them in discovering or rediscovering their self respect, uniqueness and joy. My role as therapist includes offering support, safety, confidentiality and guidance. My goal for each person is for them to thrive in whatever life is uniquely theirs.
I work with individuals to assist them in discovering or rediscovering their self respect, uniqueness and joy. My role as therapist includes offering support, safety, confidentiality and guidance. My goal for each person is for them to thrive in whatever life is uniquely theirs.
(518) 400-3414 View (518) 400-3414
Photo of Diane DeGiovine, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Diane DeGiovine
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Albany, NY 12205
My goal is as a therapist is to assist clients in becoming their own best advocate as they negotiate personal life challenges. I have a special interest in mind body awareness and have incorporated meditative and relaxation strategies and biofeedback in my therapeutic work with clients from childhood through late adulthood. Additionally, I have trained ten years in Neurofeedback, a very specialized type of biofeedback, that engages the brain in changing itself. this is particularly helpful with chronic mental health issues including, but not limited to, ADD, Anxiety, Depression, Chronic Pain Syndromes, and PTSD. Neurofeedback is also beneficial for Peak Performance Training.
My goal is as a therapist is to assist clients in becoming their own best advocate as they negotiate personal life challenges. I have a special interest in mind body awareness and have incorporated meditative and relaxation strategies and biofeedback in my therapeutic work with clients from childhood through late adulthood. Additionally, I have trained ten years in Neurofeedback, a very specialized type of biofeedback, that engages the brain in changing itself. this is particularly helpful with chronic mental health issues including, but not limited to, ADD, Anxiety, Depression, Chronic Pain Syndromes, and PTSD. Neurofeedback is also beneficial for Peak Performance Training.
(518) 868-7943 View (518) 868-7943

See more therapy options for Hampton

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Hampton, NY

< 10

Therapists in Hampton, NY who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Coping Skills
100% Self Esteem
33% Relationship Issues
33% Child
33% ADHD

Average years in practice

28 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Aetna
100% Cigna and Evernorth
100% Coventry

How Therapists in Hampton, NY see their clients

100% Online Only

Gender breakdown

100% Female
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Hampton?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.