Therapists in Prairieville, LA

Photo of Fatemah R. Robert, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Fatemah R. Robert
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769  (Online Only)
When LIFE gives you lemons, what do you do? Instead of make lemonade, you are on the right track to identifying a therapist who will assist with overcoming the barriers of the sour challenges that life seems to throw our way. Therapy is a collaborative process between the therapist and client with a goal to improving the client's overall well-being.
When LIFE gives you lemons, what do you do? Instead of make lemonade, you are on the right track to identifying a therapist who will assist with overcoming the barriers of the sour challenges that life seems to throw our way. Therapy is a collaborative process between the therapist and client with a goal to improving the client's overall well-being.
(225) 240-1893 View (225) 240-1893
Photo of Rachel Mumphrey, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Rachel Mumphrey
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
We all encounter challenges along our journey; challenges like breakups, illnesses, grief, and natural disasters. While we can’t control what happens around us, we can choose how we respond. I see significant life events as opportunities for personal growth. My passion is working with clients who have a desire to become the best version of themselves through self-exploration and a willingness to adopt thought and behavior patterns that support their mental and physical health.
We all encounter challenges along our journey; challenges like breakups, illnesses, grief, and natural disasters. While we can’t control what happens around us, we can choose how we respond. I see significant life events as opportunities for personal growth. My passion is working with clients who have a desire to become the best version of themselves through self-exploration and a willingness to adopt thought and behavior patterns that support their mental and physical health.
(225) 831-7016 View (225) 831-7016
Photo of Pilar Thompson Borne, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Pilar Thompson Borne
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
As a therapist, who has been trained in the field of social work, I operate from a strengths perspective as well as meeting clients where they are at. Therapy should be a collaborative effort in which the client is an active participant. My role is to help my clients to gain insight about themselves, behavior patterns, and their relationships, and then utilize their strengths to overcome life's obstacles and reach the goals they have set for themselves. The ideal client for me, is someone who is motivated for change. I have experience working with diverse populations in various settings and enjoy helping people from all backgrounds.
As a therapist, who has been trained in the field of social work, I operate from a strengths perspective as well as meeting clients where they are at. Therapy should be a collaborative effort in which the client is an active participant. My role is to help my clients to gain insight about themselves, behavior patterns, and their relationships, and then utilize their strengths to overcome life's obstacles and reach the goals they have set for themselves. The ideal client for me, is someone who is motivated for change. I have experience working with diverse populations in various settings and enjoy helping people from all backgrounds.
(225) 414-5885 View (225) 414-5885
Photo of Christopher L Johnson, MA, LMHP, LPC-S, LCS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Christopher L Johnson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LMHP, LPC-S, LCS
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
I take an eclectic approach and use a blend of Cognitive Behavioral, Reality Therapy, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Solution Focused, Reality Based, and psycho-education to individuals age 5 and up. My theory is that when people have hope and can learn to challenge and replace irrational thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes, people are free to experience change.
I take an eclectic approach and use a blend of Cognitive Behavioral, Reality Therapy, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Solution Focused, Reality Based, and psycho-education to individuals age 5 and up. My theory is that when people have hope and can learn to challenge and replace irrational thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes, people are free to experience change.
(225) 666-1840 View (225) 666-1840
Photo of Devin Winfield, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Devin Winfield
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
I work with clients primarily struggling with Anxiety, Depression, and ADHD. However, I am willing to work with most diagnosis including ODD, Bi-polar disorder, and PTSD. I am willing to take any patient ages 10 years old and up. Though the youngest patient I have worked with is 5 years of age. My focus with patient's is to aid them in becoming more aware of the symptoms they experience and implement healthier habits, routine, and coping tools. The primary therapy type I utilized in session with patient is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy which focuses on the connection between our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
I work with clients primarily struggling with Anxiety, Depression, and ADHD. However, I am willing to work with most diagnosis including ODD, Bi-polar disorder, and PTSD. I am willing to take any patient ages 10 years old and up. Though the youngest patient I have worked with is 5 years of age. My focus with patient's is to aid them in becoming more aware of the symptoms they experience and implement healthier habits, routine, and coping tools. The primary therapy type I utilized in session with patient is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy which focuses on the connection between our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
(225) 777-8325 View (225) 777-8325
Photo of Melissa Shaw, MSW, LCSW, BACS, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Melissa Shaw
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, BACS
Verified Verified
24 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769
Current openings at my Prairieville office. I have the belief that all people are striving for health and happiness despite life's uncontrollable curve balls and having some self-defeating behaviors. I have a true desire to help others and have been a Social Worker for 20 years. Many situations in life can be difficult, cause stress and will challenge us emotionally. My approach is to assist clients in identifying their strengths and grow new skills to achieve overall wellness. I provide support and education for individuals as they encounter the "next thing" to challenge them.
Current openings at my Prairieville office. I have the belief that all people are striving for health and happiness despite life's uncontrollable curve balls and having some self-defeating behaviors. I have a true desire to help others and have been a Social Worker for 20 years. Many situations in life can be difficult, cause stress and will challenge us emotionally. My approach is to assist clients in identifying their strengths and grow new skills to achieve overall wellness. I provide support and education for individuals as they encounter the "next thing" to challenge them.
(225) 800-4490 View (225) 800-4490
Photo of Sarah Elaine Allee, MSW, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sarah Elaine Allee
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LMSW
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
Sarah utilizes a variety of evidence-based treatment modalities, such as Play Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), when working with her clients to ensure they receive the best clinical care, as well as the tools necessary to achieve optimal emotional wellness across the lifespan. Sarah specializes in working with children and adolescents ages 3 to 18. Working alongside the youth has always been a passion of hers.
Sarah utilizes a variety of evidence-based treatment modalities, such as Play Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), when working with her clients to ensure they receive the best clinical care, as well as the tools necessary to achieve optimal emotional wellness across the lifespan. Sarah specializes in working with children and adolescents ages 3 to 18. Working alongside the youth has always been a passion of hers.
(225) 523-2468 View (225) 523-2468
Photo of Jennifer Ladd, PLPC, NCC, RYT
Jennifer Ladd
PLPC, NCC, RYT
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769
I'm Jen and my pronouns are she/they! I utilize an existential approach to therapy that incorporates mindfulness based practices and focuses on your individual needs and goals for therapy. My practice is non-judgmental, trauma-informed, and collaborative in an effort to cultivate trust, safety, and respect. I value all dimensions of human diversity and I am an accomplice to the LGBTQAI+ community.
I'm Jen and my pronouns are she/they! I utilize an existential approach to therapy that incorporates mindfulness based practices and focuses on your individual needs and goals for therapy. My practice is non-judgmental, trauma-informed, and collaborative in an effort to cultivate trust, safety, and respect. I value all dimensions of human diversity and I am an accomplice to the LGBTQAI+ community.
(225) 523-6519 View (225) 523-6519
Photo of Brittany Robinson - Always Hope LLC, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Always Hope LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769  (Online Only)
For the past 6.5 years I’ve had the privilege of working with many people on an individual and family basis, who had a desire to facilitate some change in their lives. I’d love the opportunity to assist you with exploring the feelings and making the changes that you desire as well. I have experience helping others process and cope with ADHD, Anger management, Anxiety, Behavioral Issues, Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Family Dysfunction, Grief/Loss, Life Transitions, Parenting, Schizophrenia, Self-Harm/Suicidal Ideations, Stress, Trauma, and Work-Life Balance.
For the past 6.5 years I’ve had the privilege of working with many people on an individual and family basis, who had a desire to facilitate some change in their lives. I’d love the opportunity to assist you with exploring the feelings and making the changes that you desire as well. I have experience helping others process and cope with ADHD, Anger management, Anxiety, Behavioral Issues, Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Family Dysfunction, Grief/Loss, Life Transitions, Parenting, Schizophrenia, Self-Harm/Suicidal Ideations, Stress, Trauma, and Work-Life Balance.
(225) 267-8118 View (225) 267-8118
Photo of Tracy K Ramble, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Tracy K Ramble
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Psychotherapist. I work with a wide range of cognitive, emotional and behavioral issues in a comfortable and supportive atmosphere. I provide a number of specialized therapeutic services to those dealing with challenging life experiences. Your well-being is my number one priority, and I will work hard to help guide you through life’s most complex and difficult matters. Together we will figure out ways to identify and overcome the obstacles and problems that are interfering with your well-being or achieving your goals in life.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Psychotherapist. I work with a wide range of cognitive, emotional and behavioral issues in a comfortable and supportive atmosphere. I provide a number of specialized therapeutic services to those dealing with challenging life experiences. Your well-being is my number one priority, and I will work hard to help guide you through life’s most complex and difficult matters. Together we will figure out ways to identify and overcome the obstacles and problems that are interfering with your well-being or achieving your goals in life.
(225) 396-5542 View (225) 396-5542
Photo of Opal Celeste Goodwin, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Opal Celeste Goodwin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769  (Online Only)
Life can be difficult at times. I specialize in helping clients who are facing the challenges of anxiety, depression, school issues, relationships, self-esteem, trauma, and life transitions. My practice is neurodivergent affirming. With a deep appreciation for the unique strengths and challenges of each individual, I provide a supportive and empowering environment where clients can explore their emotions, develop coping strategies, and cultivate resilience. Through a combination of therapeutic modalities, I am dedicated to facilitating growth and healing with each individual.
Life can be difficult at times. I specialize in helping clients who are facing the challenges of anxiety, depression, school issues, relationships, self-esteem, trauma, and life transitions. My practice is neurodivergent affirming. With a deep appreciation for the unique strengths and challenges of each individual, I provide a supportive and empowering environment where clients can explore their emotions, develop coping strategies, and cultivate resilience. Through a combination of therapeutic modalities, I am dedicated to facilitating growth and healing with each individual.
(225) 414-5561 View (225) 414-5561
Photo of Candace Sharper, LPC, NCC, NCSC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Candace Sharper
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, NCSC
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769  (Online Only)
Life can bring about many unexpected interruptions causing us to find ourselves lost without direction or purpose. My goal is to be a positive influence on your journey into self-discovery of your most powerful and purposeful life!
Life can bring about many unexpected interruptions causing us to find ourselves lost without direction or purpose. My goal is to be a positive influence on your journey into self-discovery of your most powerful and purposeful life!
(225) 363-8443 View (225) 363-8443
Photo of Lindsay H Cambre, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Lindsay H Cambre
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
As a solution-focused therapist, my goal is to help you uncover your true potential and lead a life that is worth celebrating. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can work together to better understand and resolve challenges. By applying therapy approaches and techniques, we will unearth behavior patterns or negative perceptions that may be holding you back from experiencing a more fulfilling and meaningful life. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or ready to move in a new direction, I look forward to working with you.
As a solution-focused therapist, my goal is to help you uncover your true potential and lead a life that is worth celebrating. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can work together to better understand and resolve challenges. By applying therapy approaches and techniques, we will unearth behavior patterns or negative perceptions that may be holding you back from experiencing a more fulfilling and meaningful life. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or ready to move in a new direction, I look forward to working with you.
(225) 258-2155 View (225) 258-2155
Photo of Lyn Hassenboehler, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lyn Hassenboehler
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Prairieville, LA 70769
Not accepting new clients
I offer a highly personalized approach, tailored to each of my client's individual needs and strengths, within a comfortable and supportive environment. I have over 20 years of experience working with clients experiencing issues related to depression, anxiety, trauma, family & relationship difficulties, & medical conditions. My office is located in Prairieville, just off Airline Hwy near Hwy 42 and easily accessible to all areas of Ascension, East Baton Rouge, & Livingston Parishes.
I offer a highly personalized approach, tailored to each of my client's individual needs and strengths, within a comfortable and supportive environment. I have over 20 years of experience working with clients experiencing issues related to depression, anxiety, trauma, family & relationship difficulties, & medical conditions. My office is located in Prairieville, just off Airline Hwy near Hwy 42 and easily accessible to all areas of Ascension, East Baton Rouge, & Livingston Parishes.
(225) 442-0282 View (225) 442-0282
Photo of Arthur Williams - Always Hope LLC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Always Hope LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769
I am Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Louisiana. He is a native of New Orleans, Louisiana, and has resided in Baton Rouge since 1993. My specialties include mental health, substance abuse addiction, depression, anxiety grief, divorce, stress, and working with couples, to include LGBTQ. My work background includes, EAP Counselor, Alcohol Drug Social Work Supervisor, Program Manager. My experience includes both outpatient and inpatient, and both public and private employment. I am a member of the Louisiana Counseling Association and currently pursuing a Doctorate in Christian Counseling.
I am Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Louisiana. He is a native of New Orleans, Louisiana, and has resided in Baton Rouge since 1993. My specialties include mental health, substance abuse addiction, depression, anxiety grief, divorce, stress, and working with couples, to include LGBTQ. My work background includes, EAP Counselor, Alcohol Drug Social Work Supervisor, Program Manager. My experience includes both outpatient and inpatient, and both public and private employment. I am a member of the Louisiana Counseling Association and currently pursuing a Doctorate in Christian Counseling.
(225) 240-4432 View (225) 240-4432
Photo of Breanne Bourgeois, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Breanne Bourgeois
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769
Hi, I'm Bre! I work with individuals who are struggling with various challenges such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem and the overwhelming stress and demands of life. In addition to individual counseling, I provide relationship counseling and counseling for children, partners and families going through the process of divorce. I believe in the power of relationships and work diligently to assist partners and families in rebuilding communication and strengthening their bonds.
Hi, I'm Bre! I work with individuals who are struggling with various challenges such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem and the overwhelming stress and demands of life. In addition to individual counseling, I provide relationship counseling and counseling for children, partners and families going through the process of divorce. I believe in the power of relationships and work diligently to assist partners and families in rebuilding communication and strengthening their bonds.
(225) 475-9528 View (225) 475-9528
Photo of Tiffany Thibodeaux - Prairieville Counseling, LPC-S, Licensed Professional Counselor
Tiffany Thibodeaux - Prairieville Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-S
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769
Hi, I'm Tiffany! I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and the owner of Prairieville Counseling and Wellness Center located in Ascension Parish Louisiana. With nearly a decade of experience in private practice, I am deeply passionate about my work. My expertise lies in helping individuals overcome anxiety, trauma and navigate the multitude of changes that life presents.
Hi, I'm Tiffany! I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and the owner of Prairieville Counseling and Wellness Center located in Ascension Parish Louisiana. With nearly a decade of experience in private practice, I am deeply passionate about my work. My expertise lies in helping individuals overcome anxiety, trauma and navigate the multitude of changes that life presents.
(225) 435-5035 View (225) 435-5035
Photo of Glenn Tregre, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Glenn Tregre
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769
I have experience working with individuals and couples experiencing anxiety and depression, and I also work with people experiencing life transitions, grief, anger, performance declines, workplace stress, conflict, and men's issues. I have helped couples in all chapters of a relationship, from pre-marital to post-divorce. My experience also includes working with children and adolescents and their families addressing personal, childhood, and parenting issues as well as teaching social skills.
I have experience working with individuals and couples experiencing anxiety and depression, and I also work with people experiencing life transitions, grief, anger, performance declines, workplace stress, conflict, and men's issues. I have helped couples in all chapters of a relationship, from pre-marital to post-divorce. My experience also includes working with children and adolescents and their families addressing personal, childhood, and parenting issues as well as teaching social skills.
(225) 725-7393 View (225) 725-7393
Photo of Linda Hardy, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Linda Hardy
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769  (Online Only)
I enjoy working with clients who are struggling to deal with overpowering emotions, manage problem behaviors, or navigate difficult relationships. These difficulties might show up in lots of different ways, such as depression (including feeling suicidal), anxiety, self-harm, abusing substances, self-criticism or shame, or other ways. I understand how painful these challenges can cause life to feel, and have great admiration and respect for those who want to take action to feel better.
I enjoy working with clients who are struggling to deal with overpowering emotions, manage problem behaviors, or navigate difficult relationships. These difficulties might show up in lots of different ways, such as depression (including feeling suicidal), anxiety, self-harm, abusing substances, self-criticism or shame, or other ways. I understand how painful these challenges can cause life to feel, and have great admiration and respect for those who want to take action to feel better.
(504) 305-8603 View (504) 305-8603
Photo of Bess Albritten - Always Hope LLC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Always Hope LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Prairieville, LA 70769
Hi, my name is Bess Albritten. I know that mental health and asking for help is a huge step and I am so happy that you have made the decision to reach out and find a counselor that can help you guide and navigate through your path to success. I have been a licensed professional counselor for 7 years and have had 5 years’ experience in the school system working with adolescents, teens and adults. I have had a great deal of experience working with high school students and adults who have just transitioned out of high school. I mainly work with person-centered therapy.
Hi, my name is Bess Albritten. I know that mental health and asking for help is a huge step and I am so happy that you have made the decision to reach out and find a counselor that can help you guide and navigate through your path to success. I have been a licensed professional counselor for 7 years and have had 5 years’ experience in the school system working with adolescents, teens and adults. I have had a great deal of experience working with high school students and adults who have just transitioned out of high school. I mainly work with person-centered therapy.
(225) 523-2776 View (225) 523-2776
1

See more therapy options for Prairieville

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Prairieville, LA

80+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Prairieville, LA who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
85% Depression
80% Self Esteem
74% Grief
71% Relationship Issues
71% Coping Skills
67% Stress

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

84% BlueCross and BlueShield
75% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
72% Aetna

How Therapists in Prairieville, LA see their clients

81% In Person and Online
19% Online Only

Gender breakdown

77% Female
23% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Prairieville?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.