Therapists in 32703

Photo of Lyris Bacchus, Marriage & Family Therapist in 32703, FL
Lyris Bacchus
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703
Do you find yourself wishing you had a better relationship with your spouse or partner? How about with your children? If so, counseling can help. Having experienced personal loss, divorce, and the stress of parenting, I know life can be tough. Having someone to listen to you and offer constructive solutions can help. As a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist, I want to help you thrive in your family and personal life not just "survive". My goal is to bring hope and healing to individuals, couples, families and children.
Do you find yourself wishing you had a better relationship with your spouse or partner? How about with your children? If so, counseling can help. Having experienced personal loss, divorce, and the stress of parenting, I know life can be tough. Having someone to listen to you and offer constructive solutions can help. As a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist, I want to help you thrive in your family and personal life not just "survive". My goal is to bring hope and healing to individuals, couples, families and children.
(407) 490-3194 View (407) 490-3194
Photo of Nicki Segur, Counselor in 32703, FL
Nicki Segur
Counselor, MA, NCC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
Hi! You may be scrolling my page feeling terrified about talking to someone about what is happening in your life. Anxious about the uncertainty of events that your family is experiencing. Ashamed by your thoughts, angry outbursts, or addictive behaviors.​ Or feeling worthless and insignificant because of society's demand to be "perfect." Pause and take a deep breath because you are at the right place.
Hi! You may be scrolling my page feeling terrified about talking to someone about what is happening in your life. Anxious about the uncertainty of events that your family is experiencing. Ashamed by your thoughts, angry outbursts, or addictive behaviors.​ Or feeling worthless and insignificant because of society's demand to be "perfect." Pause and take a deep breath because you are at the right place.
(407) 337-4229 View (407) 337-4229
Photo of Judy Cella, Counselor in 32703, FL
Judy Cella
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703
Are you struggling with Anxiety, Depression, Relationship issues? Do you feel overwhelmed by life circumstances and your ability to cope? I provide a safe and supportive environment to help you achieve coping skills; promote healing, stability and positive transformation. My style is warm, engaging and intuitive. Together, we develop goals and build on your strength's and resources to overcome and meet life's challenges. You may discover negative thought patterns keeping you bound in anxiety and depression and how to overcome in a new and positive direction.
Are you struggling with Anxiety, Depression, Relationship issues? Do you feel overwhelmed by life circumstances and your ability to cope? I provide a safe and supportive environment to help you achieve coping skills; promote healing, stability and positive transformation. My style is warm, engaging and intuitive. Together, we develop goals and build on your strength's and resources to overcome and meet life's challenges. You may discover negative thought patterns keeping you bound in anxiety and depression and how to overcome in a new and positive direction.
(407) 583-6189 View (407) 583-6189
Photo of Colette Shandria McLeod, Licensed Mental Health Counselor in 32703, FL
Colette Shandria McLeod
Licensed Mental Health Counselor, LMHC-QS, CCM
Verified
1 Endorsed
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
People find themselves searching for therapy options for a number of reasons. They may be seeking assistance to manage day-to-day stressors, coping with a major life shift, even just trying to figure out if it's possible to retire 'survival mode' and begin to thrive. Any of that sound familiar? The people who find me often have a wide variety of issues including unresolved pain/trauma, mental illness, work-life harmony, 'adulting' transitions, adjusting to (health) limitations, and professional/systemic difficulties. Many want to know if it's possible to navigate life in a way that doesn't feel like a chore or worse torturous.
People find themselves searching for therapy options for a number of reasons. They may be seeking assistance to manage day-to-day stressors, coping with a major life shift, even just trying to figure out if it's possible to retire 'survival mode' and begin to thrive. Any of that sound familiar? The people who find me often have a wide variety of issues including unresolved pain/trauma, mental illness, work-life harmony, 'adulting' transitions, adjusting to (health) limitations, and professional/systemic difficulties. Many want to know if it's possible to navigate life in a way that doesn't feel like a chore or worse torturous.
(407) 602-6565 View (407) 602-6565
Photo of Sora Vigorito Inc., Licensed Professional Counselor in 32703, FL
Sora Vigorito Inc.
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
I have 23+ years experience supporting a safe place to heal for individuals, couples, families and adolescents from a variety of experiences, faiths, and situations. I have an eclectic approach due to my many years of practice counseling, running groups and teaching. My goal is to treat each person as a unique individual and to encourage their reflection to create the life that you wish. I have many areas of expertise including all types of trauma, depression, anxiety, stress management, anger issues, communication skills, as well as career and self esteem. I am able to also use a spiritual perspective if that speaks to you.
I have 23+ years experience supporting a safe place to heal for individuals, couples, families and adolescents from a variety of experiences, faiths, and situations. I have an eclectic approach due to my many years of practice counseling, running groups and teaching. My goal is to treat each person as a unique individual and to encourage their reflection to create the life that you wish. I have many areas of expertise including all types of trauma, depression, anxiety, stress management, anger issues, communication skills, as well as career and self esteem. I am able to also use a spiritual perspective if that speaks to you.
(216) 777-1398 View (216) 777-1398
Photo of Erlande D Alexandre, Counselor in 32703, FL
Erlande D Alexandre
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
I am a bi-lingual (English and Haitian Creole) counselor. I believe the most valuable skill I posses as a counselor is the ability to create a warm and inviting environment for my clients. As a counselor, I understand that the greatest change agent is the relationship that we develop during our sessions. And that can only be done by allowing you the space to open up. That is why I pride myself as being a good listener, compassionate, and easy to talk to.
I am a bi-lingual (English and Haitian Creole) counselor. I believe the most valuable skill I posses as a counselor is the ability to create a warm and inviting environment for my clients. As a counselor, I understand that the greatest change agent is the relationship that we develop during our sessions. And that can only be done by allowing you the space to open up. That is why I pride myself as being a good listener, compassionate, and easy to talk to.
(321) 341-6977 View (321) 341-6977
Photo of Elena Saldamando, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32703, FL
Elena Saldamando
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
I provide psychotherapy for people who are grieving, coping with cancer (patient and/or loved ones), coping with fertility treatment, planning/adjusting to retirement, college students, living with a chronic illness, and depression and anxiety. I work with people who are grieving the loss of a loved one/pet, struggling with their hopes and dreams, grief due to physical issues - such as cancer, fertility, job losses, life transitions, moving, being a caregiver for a loved one. I also work with people who are struggling to connect with meaning and purpose in the presence of advanced staged cancer.
I provide psychotherapy for people who are grieving, coping with cancer (patient and/or loved ones), coping with fertility treatment, planning/adjusting to retirement, college students, living with a chronic illness, and depression and anxiety. I work with people who are grieving the loss of a loved one/pet, struggling with their hopes and dreams, grief due to physical issues - such as cancer, fertility, job losses, life transitions, moving, being a caregiver for a loved one. I also work with people who are struggling to connect with meaning and purpose in the presence of advanced staged cancer.
(407) 250-8812 View (407) 250-8812
Photo of Maya Angela Nelson, Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern in 32703, FL
Maya Angela Nelson
Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern, RMHCI
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
I've been fortune to work with motivated, aware, brave, and honest clients that have inspired me to grow in my therapeutic approach. These attributes don't hide their depression, anxiety or even post traumatic experiences (ie childhood neglect and abuse; sexual abuse, racial or religious abuse, or domestic violence) instead, they use the pain to transverse fear.
I've been fortune to work with motivated, aware, brave, and honest clients that have inspired me to grow in my therapeutic approach. These attributes don't hide their depression, anxiety or even post traumatic experiences (ie childhood neglect and abuse; sexual abuse, racial or religious abuse, or domestic violence) instead, they use the pain to transverse fear.
(321) 499-8252 View (321) 499-8252
Photo of Amelia Gillis, Licensed Mental Health Counselor in 32703, FL
Amelia Gillis
Licensed Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Apopka, FL 32703
Have you been feeling overwhelmed, anxious, angry or sad and starting to wonder how, or if, things can change? Has your past experiences left deep imprints on your present reality? Counseling can provide a safe and supportive space for you to explore your thoughts and feelings, gain clarity, and develop effective strategies for coping and growth. Together, I envision walking alongside clients to help them unravel the layers of their past, understanding how these experiences have shaped their beliefs, behaviors, and relationships. Take the first step towards a happier and healthier you. Contact me today to schedule a consultation.
Have you been feeling overwhelmed, anxious, angry or sad and starting to wonder how, or if, things can change? Has your past experiences left deep imprints on your present reality? Counseling can provide a safe and supportive space for you to explore your thoughts and feelings, gain clarity, and develop effective strategies for coping and growth. Together, I envision walking alongside clients to help them unravel the layers of their past, understanding how these experiences have shaped their beliefs, behaviors, and relationships. Take the first step towards a happier and healthier you. Contact me today to schedule a consultation.
(407) 326-0062 View (407) 326-0062
Photo of Rena Peterson / Behavioral Health Minute Clinic, Psychologist in 32703, FL
Rena Peterson / Behavioral Health Minute Clinic
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
Teletherapy is provided because we believe the greatest challenge of Mental Health Care is immediate accessibility to services. Mental Health needs should be met with the same sense of urgency as a physical ailment. We strive to set same day appointments. Are aim is to provide access to relevant, short-term, and fulfilling quality care when you need it most. Each service is specifically personalized to the client’s needs.
Teletherapy is provided because we believe the greatest challenge of Mental Health Care is immediate accessibility to services. Mental Health needs should be met with the same sense of urgency as a physical ailment. We strive to set same day appointments. Are aim is to provide access to relevant, short-term, and fulfilling quality care when you need it most. Each service is specifically personalized to the client’s needs.
(321) 312-3073 View (321) 312-3073
Photo of Alexandria Jones, Counselor in 32703, FL
Alexandria Jones
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
Are you in search of a place where you can safely learn skills and obtain tools to help you live a healthy and balanced life? If so, then Safe Haven Therapy Services is right for you! My name is Alexandria Jones. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and Owner of Safe Haven Therapy Services.
Are you in search of a place where you can safely learn skills and obtain tools to help you live a healthy and balanced life? If so, then Safe Haven Therapy Services is right for you! My name is Alexandria Jones. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and Owner of Safe Haven Therapy Services.
(407) 258-1153 View (407) 258-1153
Photo of Blossoms of Peace Therapy , Counselor in 32703, FL
Blossoms of Peace Therapy
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
Caring and empathetic License Mental health counselor with over 20 years' experience in the mental health field working as a psychotherapist. I have experience conducting individual and group therapy, in-office and both residential and outpatient settings with clients presenting with depression, anxiety, mood disorders, relationship and parenting issues, addiction, bipolar disorder, as well as personal growth, trauma and adjustment issues. My approach combines solution focused, cognitive behavioral, mindfulness, and positive psychology. I provide a therapeutic environment with active listening, validation and empathy.
Caring and empathetic License Mental health counselor with over 20 years' experience in the mental health field working as a psychotherapist. I have experience conducting individual and group therapy, in-office and both residential and outpatient settings with clients presenting with depression, anxiety, mood disorders, relationship and parenting issues, addiction, bipolar disorder, as well as personal growth, trauma and adjustment issues. My approach combines solution focused, cognitive behavioral, mindfulness, and positive psychology. I provide a therapeutic environment with active listening, validation and empathy.
(407) 479-4382 View (407) 479-4382
Photo of Valerie R Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32703, FL
Valerie R Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSN, RN, CCM, MSW, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
Hello! "Building Resilience Through Empowerment" is the belief that guides me as a professional therapist. I believe everyone has the power to overcome any obstacle(s) they are facing. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Registered Nurse and I have over 25 years of experience providing counseling services to children, adolescents, adults, couples and families I have over 10 years of nursing experience. I've earned degrees from The University of Central Florida and Valencia College. I work with individuals who have mental health needs on an individualized basis to assist in improving thoughts, moods and daily functioning.
Hello! "Building Resilience Through Empowerment" is the belief that guides me as a professional therapist. I believe everyone has the power to overcome any obstacle(s) they are facing. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Registered Nurse and I have over 25 years of experience providing counseling services to children, adolescents, adults, couples and families I have over 10 years of nursing experience. I've earned degrees from The University of Central Florida and Valencia College. I work with individuals who have mental health needs on an individualized basis to assist in improving thoughts, moods and daily functioning.
(407) 759-3207 View (407) 759-3207
Photo of Anthony Robert Thomas, Counselor in 32703, FL
Anthony Robert Thomas
Counselor, EdD , LMHC, MA
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703
I specialize in mental health healing from the inside out. I also help to repair Client's relationships through marriage therapy and relationship counseling. I specialize in anxiety relief and specific anxiety therapy that eliminates panic attacks and chronic worry. Through the therapeutic process, you will receive a unique therapy experience. I customize a treatment plan that specifically targets your needs and gives you the tools to thrive, rather than just survive. I will not leave you alone.
I specialize in mental health healing from the inside out. I also help to repair Client's relationships through marriage therapy and relationship counseling. I specialize in anxiety relief and specific anxiety therapy that eliminates panic attacks and chronic worry. Through the therapeutic process, you will receive a unique therapy experience. I customize a treatment plan that specifically targets your needs and gives you the tools to thrive, rather than just survive. I will not leave you alone.
(813) 546-8794 View (813) 546-8794
Photo of Margaret Fowee, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 32703, FL
Margaret Fowee
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703
My name is Margaret Fowee, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 18 years of experience working with people to help them make changes in their lives. I have worked with people challenged by depression, anxiety, trauma, abuse, addiction, and life-changing situations. My therapeutic approach consists of Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Compassion Focused, Motivational Interviewing, and Person-Centered. I believe that I could help you create life-changing situations.
My name is Margaret Fowee, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 18 years of experience working with people to help them make changes in their lives. I have worked with people challenged by depression, anxiety, trauma, abuse, addiction, and life-changing situations. My therapeutic approach consists of Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Compassion Focused, Motivational Interviewing, and Person-Centered. I believe that I could help you create life-changing situations.
(407) 499-8344 View (407) 499-8344
Photo of Kelly Hunsaker in 32703, FL
Kelly Hunsaker
RMHCI, MA
Verified
2 Endorsed
Apopka, FL 32703  (Online Only)
Are you tired of feeling stuck and are ready to embrace a healthier and more fulfilling life? Are you desiring emotional support, effective coping strategies, healing, recovery, personal growth, and self-empowerment? You are at the right place. In counseling, I will help you regain control of your mental and emotional well-being. To achieve this I will guide you in healing from your past wounds and break free from destructive patterns. You will learn how to effectively manage your addiction, anxiety, depression, or trauma-related symptoms. You will finally feel empowered to break from the old habits and unhealthy relationships.
Are you tired of feeling stuck and are ready to embrace a healthier and more fulfilling life? Are you desiring emotional support, effective coping strategies, healing, recovery, personal growth, and self-empowerment? You are at the right place. In counseling, I will help you regain control of your mental and emotional well-being. To achieve this I will guide you in healing from your past wounds and break free from destructive patterns. You will learn how to effectively manage your addiction, anxiety, depression, or trauma-related symptoms. You will finally feel empowered to break from the old habits and unhealthy relationships.
(321) 341-2381 View (321) 341-2381
Photo of Healing Psychiatry Of Florida INC in 32703, FL
Healing Psychiatry Of Florida INC
ARNP
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703
Call us today! We accept new patients, Adults and Adolescents! NO wait time! Healing Psychiatry of Florida is a growing psychiatric services in Central Florida. Sad? Anxious? Relationship issues? We have available counselors and Nurse Practitioners to help you with medication management and counseling. If you or your loved one is struggling with a mental health issue, we can help. Our approach and techniques reflect evidence-based improvements over the last 25 years in mental health treatment technology.
Call us today! We accept new patients, Adults and Adolescents! NO wait time! Healing Psychiatry of Florida is a growing psychiatric services in Central Florida. Sad? Anxious? Relationship issues? We have available counselors and Nurse Practitioners to help you with medication management and counseling. If you or your loved one is struggling with a mental health issue, we can help. Our approach and techniques reflect evidence-based improvements over the last 25 years in mental health treatment technology.
(386) 218-6335 View (386) 218-6335
Photo of Everyone's Counseling Center, Inc., Licensed Professional Counselor in 32703, FL
Everyone's Counseling Center, Inc.
Licensed Professional Counselor, LMHC, LMFT, LCSW, MD, ARNP
Apopka, FL 32703
Everyone's Counseling Center (ECC); A not-for-profit private practice: Our mission: To provide the highest quality of mental health guidance to individuals, couples & families, older adults & families, for grief and bereavement, crisis intervention, cultural adjustment, addictions, career & vocational testing, . Our therapists are all employees of ECC & committed spiritually by Faith & professionally licensed or in the process of licensure in the State of Florida. Therapy is provided to you regardless of creed, sexuality, ethnicity, or religious background. Our goal is to guide you and/or your family through the process of healing.
Everyone's Counseling Center (ECC); A not-for-profit private practice: Our mission: To provide the highest quality of mental health guidance to individuals, couples & families, older adults & families, for grief and bereavement, crisis intervention, cultural adjustment, addictions, career & vocational testing, . Our therapists are all employees of ECC & committed spiritually by Faith & professionally licensed or in the process of licensure in the State of Florida. Therapy is provided to you regardless of creed, sexuality, ethnicity, or religious background. Our goal is to guide you and/or your family through the process of healing.
(407) 910-1223 View (407) 910-1223
Photo of Transformative Counseling and Wellness, Counselor in 32703, FL
Transformative Counseling and Wellness
Counselor, MS, BA, LMHC
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703
At Transformative Counseling and Wellness, our ideal clients are those who are ready to invest in themselves. If you are ready to do so, we would be privileged to travel with you on that journey. Our clients' goals are to invest more in transforming themselves rather than in remaining locked in their own dysfunction by choice.
At Transformative Counseling and Wellness, our ideal clients are those who are ready to invest in themselves. If you are ready to do so, we would be privileged to travel with you on that journey. Our clients' goals are to invest more in transforming themselves rather than in remaining locked in their own dysfunction by choice.
(407) 410-4177 View (407) 410-4177
Photo of Dinah Braud, Psychologist in 32703, FL
Dinah Braud
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Apopka, FL 32703
Taking the steps to begin the journey in self-understanding, behavioral change, relationship management, family reconciliation, or dealing with every day stressors, can at times be quite challenging and unnerving. If you are reading this, I commend you for taking the first steps in healing. Whether you are in need of exploration or skill-building through psychotherapy, or diagnostic clarification or treatment recommendations through psychological testing, I look forward to taking this journey with you.
Taking the steps to begin the journey in self-understanding, behavioral change, relationship management, family reconciliation, or dealing with every day stressors, can at times be quite challenging and unnerving. If you are reading this, I commend you for taking the first steps in healing. Whether you are in need of exploration or skill-building through psychotherapy, or diagnostic clarification or treatment recommendations through psychological testing, I look forward to taking this journey with you.
(352) 414-1825 View (352) 414-1825

See more therapy options for 32703

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 32703

40+

Average cost per session

$100

Therapists in 32703 who prioritize treating:

98% Anxiety
95% Depression
86% Self Esteem
74% Grief
74% Coping Skills
72% Relationship Issues
72% Stress

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

89% Aetna
86% Cigna and Evernorth
83% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 32703 see their clients

56% In Person and Online
44% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
21% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 32703?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.